Read by QxMD icon Read

Viral a hepatitis

Khoa T D Thai, Hannelore Götz, Bibi C G C Slingerland, Janienne Klaasse, Martin Schutten, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel
BACKGROUND: Correct identification of blood borne viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is crucial in detection and follow up of infection in patients. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the DiaSorin LIAISON XL (LIAISON XL) for screening of HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In addition, we investigated the variability of the signal-to-cuttoff ratio (S/CO) of the LIAISON XL HIV Ag/Ab assay and it's predictive value in subsequent confirmation of HIV-1 infection...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Vinicius da Motta de Mello, Mariana Leal, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Ribavirin has been shown to be effective as a monotherapy to induce HEV clearance in chronic patients who have undergone solid organ transplant (SOT) under immunosuppressive therapy. Efforts and improvements in prevention and control have been made to reduce the instances of acute and chronic hepatitis E in endemic and nonendemic countries...
2018: BioMed Research International
Marco Fiore, Sebastiano Leone, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Emilio Berti, Giovanni Damiani
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Systemic treatments, including methotrexate and cyclosporin, are associated with potential hepatotoxicity, due to either direct liver damage or immunosuppression or both immunomediated and a direct liver injury; therefore, treatment of patients with psoriasis poses a therapeutic challenge. The aim of this minireview is to help clinicians in the management of psoriatic patients who develop signs of liver dysfunction...
2018: BioMed Research International
Xiaowen Wang, Qingyang Dong, Qian Li, Yuanyuan Li, Dianyuan Zhao, Jinjie Sun, Junliang Fu, Fanping Meng, Hu Lin, Junjie Luan, Biao Liu, Min Wang, Fusheng Wang, Fuchu He, Li Tang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Production of neutralizing antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is dysregulated in patients with persistent hepatitis V virus (HBV) infection. We investigated mechanisms by which this immune response to the virus is disrupted and whether it can be restored to promote clearance of HBV. METHODS: Immune-competent C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J, as well as mice deficient in follicular helper T cells (Tfh cell-deficient), B cells, or Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells (Treg cell-deficient), were given hydrodynamic injections of pAAV/HBV1...
March 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
Soon Young Ko, Won Hyeok Choe
The advent of novel, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens for hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has revolutionized its treatment by producing a sustained virologic response of more than 95% with few side effects and no comorbidities in the general population. Until recently, ideal DAA regimens have not been available to patients with severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease because there are limited data on the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of treatment in this unique population. In a hemodialysis context, identifying patients in need of treatment and preventing HCV transmission may also be a matter of concern...
March 16, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Amey Dilip Sonavane, Sanjiv Saigal, Abhishek Kathuria, Narendra S Choudhary, Neeraj Saraf
Extrahepatic syndromes are uncommon manifestations of acute and chronic hepatitis B. The pathogenesis likely involves an aberrant immunologic response to extrahepatic viral proteins. Antiviral therapy reduces the availability of these viral protein antigens and thus halts immune activation. Approximately 1% of all cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are associated with hepatitis B. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a remarkably clinically diverse disorder with distinctive variants characterised by an immune-mediated attack to components of the peripheral nervous system...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Lin Cao, Jizheng Chen, Yaxin Wang, Yuting Yang, Jie Qing, Zihe Rao, Xinwen Chen, Zhiyong Lou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although several HCV protease/polymerase inhibitors were recently approved by U.S. FDA, the combination of antivirals targeting multiple processes of HCV lifecycle would optimize anti-HCV therapy and against potential drug-resistance. Viral entry is an essential target step for antiviral development, but FDA-approved HCV entry inhibitor remains exclusive. Here we identify serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A R) is a HCV entry factor amendable to therapeutic intervention by a chemical biology strategy...
March 14, 2018: Protein & Cell
Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Claudia Pinacchio, Maura Statzu, Arnolfo Petruzziello, Vincenzo Vullo
Introduction: Globally, between 64 and 103 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), with more than 4.6 million people in the United States and is associated with more than 15.000 deaths annually. Chronic infection can result in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Explanation: Epidemiological studies have indicated that persistent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mainly through chronic inflammation, cell deaths, and proliferation...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sascha Suffner, Nadine Gerstenberg, Maria Patra, Paula Ruibal, Ahmed Orabi, Michael Schindler, Volker Bruss
During hepatitis B virus infections subviral particles (SVP) consisting only of viral envelope proteins and lipids are secreted. Heterologous expression of the small envelope protein S in mammalian cells is sufficient for SVP generation. S is synthesized as a transmembrane protein with N-terminal (TM1), central (TM2), and C-terminal (HCR) transmembrane domains. The loops between TM1 and TM2 (CL) and between TM2 and HCR (LL) are located in the cytosol and in the ER lumen, respectively. To define domains of S mediating oligomerization during SVP morphogenesis S mutants were characterized by expression in transiently transfected cells...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Dingchun Li, Wu Li, Yihui Chen, Lihui Liu, Dehong Ma, Hongtu Wang, Lu Zhang, Shenjun Zhao, Qin Peng
Hepatic fibrosis is resulted from sustained wound-healing responses to various harmful stimuli, including viral infection, drug toxicity, alcohol, and autoimmune hepatopathy, and it has recently attracted the attention of an increasing number of researchers and clinical workers. The aims of this study were to examine the anti-fibrotic effects of extracts of Periplaneta americana (EPA) on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, to preliminary determine the anti-fibrotic efficacy of EPA, and to identify a potential and effective therapeutic agent to attenuate hepatic fibrosis...
March 12, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Francelena de Sousa Silva, Yonna Costa Barbosa, Mônica Araújo Batalha, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Waleska Regina Machado Araújo, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Vandana Sekhar, Teresa Pollicino, Giacomo Diaz, Ronald E Engle, Farah Alayli, Marta Melis, Juraj Kabat, Ashley Tice, Anna Pomerenke, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Fausto Zamboni, Paolo Lusso, Suzanne U Emerson, Patrizia Farci
Entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into hepatocytes is a complex process that involves numerous cellular factors, including the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1), the tetraspanin CD81, and the tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-1 (CLDN1) and occludin (OCLN). Despite expression of all known HCV-entry factors, in vitro models based on hepatoma cell lines do not fully reproduce the in vivo susceptibility of liver cells to primary HCV isolates, implying the existence of additional host factors which are critical for HCV entry and/or replication...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
G Oriolo, E Egmond, Z Mariño, M Cavero, R Navines, L Zamarrenho, R Solà, J Pujol, N Bargallo, X Forns, R Martin-Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is considered a systemic disease because of extra-hepatic manifestations. Neuroimaging has been employed in hepatitis C virus-infected patients to find in vivo evidence of central nervous system alterations. AIMS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging research in chronic hepatitis C treatment naive patients, or patients previously treated without sustained viral response, to study structural and functional brain impact of hepatitis C...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jennifer S Husson, Bharath Ravichandran, Srijana Jonchhe, Shyamasundaran Kottilil, Eleanor Wilson
Short treatment duration of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) has been successfully used to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in treatment-naive noncirrhotic patients with viral loads (VLs) under 6 million IU/mL. However, this short duration has not been studied in renal transplant recipients (RTRs), a patient population on lifelong immunosuppression. Here, we describe 3 RTRs who received 8 weeks of LDV/SOF, meeting the standard criteria for shortened treatment duration. All 3 patients tolerated treatment well and achieved sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR 12)...
December 2017: Transplantation Direct
Fei Xiao, Stanley Wang, Rina Barouch-Bentov, Gregory Neveu, Szuyuan Pu, Melanie Beer, Stanford Schor, Sathish Kumar, Vlad Nicolaescu, Brett D Lindenbach, Glenn Randall, Shirit Einav
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads via secreted cell-free particles or direct cell-to-cell transmission. Yet, virus-host determinants governing differential intracellular trafficking of cell-free- and cell-to-cell-transmitted virus remain unknown. The host adaptor proteins (APs) AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 traffic in post-Golgi compartments, and the latter two are implicated in basolateral sorting. We reported that AP-1A mediates HCV trafficking during release, whereas the endocytic adaptor AP-2 mediates entry and assembly...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Oliver Grünvogel, Ombretta Colasanti, Ji-Young Lee, Volker Klöss, Sandrine Belouzard, Anna Reustle, Katharina Esser-Nobis, Jasper Hesebeck-Brinckmann, Pascal Mutz, Katrin Hoffmann, Arianeb Mehrabi, Ronald Koschny, Florian W R Vondran, Daniel Gotthardt, Paul Schnitzler, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Robert Thimme, Marco Binder, Ralf Bartenschlager, Jean Dubuisson, Alexander H Dalpke, Volker Lohmann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections most often result in chronic outcomes, although the virus constantly produces replication intermediates, in particular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), representing potent inducers of innate immunity. We aimed to characterize the fate of HCV dsRNA in hepatocyte cultures to identify mechanisms contributing to viral persistence in presence of an active innate immune response. METHODS: We analyzed hepatocyte-based culture models for HCV for induction of innate immunity, secretion of virus positive- or negative-strand RNA, and viral replication using different quantification methods and microscopy techniques...
March 10, 2018: Gastroenterology
O El-Sherif, Z G Jiang, E B Tapper, K C Huang, A Zhong, A Osinusi, M Charlton, M Manns, N H Afdhal, K Mukamal, J McHutchison, D M Brainard, N Terrault, M P Curry
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents can reduce model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Pugh-Turcotte (CPT) scores in patients with decompensated cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, many of these patients still die or require liver transplantation. We collected data on baseline features of patients and aimed to develop a scoring system to predict response to DAA therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 4 trials of the effects of sofosbuvir-based therapy in patients with HCV-associated decompensated cirrhosis (502 of CPT class B and 120 of CPT class C)...
March 10, 2018: Gastroenterology
James Fung, Ka-Shing Cheung, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, Lung-Yi Mak, Wai-Pan To, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen
The significance of hepatitis B e-antigen seroclearance (ESC) in the long term is not well defined. The current study aimed to determine the clinical outcomes, the factors and predictive scores for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance of a large cohort of patients undergoing ESC. Patients with documented ESC were followed up 3-6 monthly. Baseline characteristics and longitudinal laboratory results were recorded. Predictive scores for HCC (HCC-ESC) and HBsAg seroclearance (HBsAg-ESC) were derived from multivariate Cox regression models...
March 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Francois M J Lamoury, Sahar Bajis, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Alison D Marshall, Marianne Martinello, Elena Ivanova, Beth Catlett, Yasmin Mowat, Philippa Marks, Janaki Amin, Julie Smith, Nadine Ezard, Victoria Cock, Jeremy Hayllar, David Persing, Marika Kleman, Philip Cunningham, Gregory J Dore, Tanya L Applegate, Jason Grebely
Point-of-care hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing is advantageous enabling diagnosis of active infection in a single visit. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert® HCV Viral Load Fingerstick assay (Xpert HCV VL FS) for HCV RNA detection (finger-stick) and the Xpert® HCV Viral Load assay (plasma) compared with the Abbott RealTime HCV Viral Load assay by venepuncture. Plasma and finger-stick capillary whole-blood samples were collected from participants in an observational cohort in Australia...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"