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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735528/lipids-evergreen-autofluorescent-biomarkers-for-the-liver-functional-profiling
#1
Anna Cleta Croce, Giovanni Bottiroli
Depending on their chemical nature, lipids can be classified in two main categories: hydrophilic, greatly contributing to membrane composition and subcellular organelle compartmentalization, and hydrophobic, mostly triglycerides, greatly enrolled in the storage and production of energy. In both cases, some lipid molecules can be involved as signaling agents in the regulation of metabolism and protective or damaging pathways in responses to harmful stimuli. These events could affect in particular the liver, because of its central role in the maintenance of lipid homeostasis...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730472/quantification-of-cell-signaling-networks-using-kinase-activity-chemosensors
#2
Jon R Beck, Edward N Harris, Cliff I Stains
The ability to directly determine endogenous kinase activity in tissue homogenates provides valuable insights into signaling aberrations that underlie disease phenotypes. When activity data is collected across a panel of kinases, a unique "signaling fingerprint" is generated that allows for discrimination between diseased and normal tissue. Here we describe the use of peptide-based kinase activity sensors to fingerprint the signaling changes associated with disease states. This approach leverages the phosphorylation-sensitive sulfonamido-oxine (Sox) fluorophore to provide a direct readout of kinase enzymatic activity in unfractionated tissue homogenates from animal models or clinical samples...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730112/evaluation-of-antioxidants-and-argpyrimidine-in-normal-and-cataractous-lenses-in-north-indian-population
#3
Bharani K Mynampati, Sujata Ghosh, Thungapathra Muthukumarappa, Jagat Ram
AIM: To assess the level of glutathione, thioltransferase, and argpyrimidine in nuclear and cortical cataractous lenses as well as in the clear lenses in the north Indian population. METHODS: Human cataractous lenses were collected from the patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction surgery; clear lenses were collected from the freshly donated eye bank eyes. Antioxidant molecules such as glutathione and thioltransferase enzyme activity were measured; simultaneously in these lenses a blue fluorophore argpyrimidine, an advanced glycation end (AGE) product level was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728963/structural-principles-of-fluorescent-rna-aptamers
#4
REVIEW
Robert J Trachman, Lynda Truong, Adrian R Ferré-D'Amaré
Several aptamer RNAs have been selected in vitro that bind to otherwise weakly fluorescent small molecules and enhance their fluorescence several thousand-fold. By genetically tagging cellular RNAs of interest with these aptamers and soaking cells in their cell-permeable cognate small-molecule fluorophores, it is possible to use them to study RNA localization and trafficking. These aptamers have also been fused to metabolite-binding RNAs to generate fluorescent biosensors. The 3D structures of three unrelated fluorogenic RNAs have been determined, and reveal a shared reliance on base quadruples (tetrads) to constrain the photo-excited chromophore...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726221/redox-properties-of-humic-substances-under-different-environmental-conditions
#5
Wenyu Tian, Zhen Yang, Xue Zhang, Weifang Ma, Jie Jiang
Humic substances (HS) are one of the most important parts of dissolved organic matter which are ubiquitous in environments playing an important role in many (bio)geochemical processes. In order to define the effects of environmental conditions on the biological transformation of compounds in the presence of HS, microbial reduction rates of ferrihydrite under different HS concentrations, environmental temperature, and pH values were determined. The results showed that increasing the concentration of standard humic substances (Pahokee peat standard humic acids (PPHA) or Pahokee peat standard fulvic acids (PPFA)) purchased from the International Humic Substances Society could compensate for the certain gap of reduction rates between low temperature (10 °C) and high temperature (35 °C)...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726093/the-fluorescence-lifetime-of-lipofuscin-granule-fluorophores-contained-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-from-human-cadaver-eyes-in-normal-state-and-in-the-case-of-visualized-pathology
#6
M A Yakovleva, T B Feldman, P M Arbukhanova, S A Borzenok, V A Kuzmin, M A Ostrovsky
A comparative analysis of fluorescence lifetime of lipofuscin granule fluorophores contained in the retinal pigment epithelium cells from human cadaver eyes in normal state and in the case of visualized pathology was carried out. Measurements of fluorescence lifetimes of bis-retinoids and their photooxidation and photodegradation products were carried out using the method of counting time-correlated photons. Comparative analysis showed that, in the case of visualized pathology, the contribution of photooxidation and photodegradation products of bis-retinoids to the total fluorescence of the retinal pigment epithelium cell suspension increases in comparison with the norm...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725334/bloch-surface-wave-coupled-emission-at-ultra-violet-wavelengths
#7
Ramachandram Badugu, Jieying Mao, Steve Blair, Douguo Zhang, Emiliano Descrovi, Angelo Angelini, Yiping Huo, Joseph R Lakowicz
The interaction of fluorophores with nearby metallic structures is now an active area of research. Dielectric photonic structures offer some advantages over plasmonic structures, namely small energy losses and less quenching. We describe a dielectric one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC), which supports Bloch surface waves (BSWs) from 280 to 440 nm. This BSW structure is a quartz slide coated with alternating layers of SiO2 and Si3N4. We show that this structure displays BSWs and that the near-UV fluorophore, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), on the top surface of the structure couples with the BSWs...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724984/ph-and-urea-estimation-in-urine-samples-using-single-fluorophore-and-ratiometric-fluorescent-biosensors
#8
Rashmi Chaudhari, Abhijeet Joshi, Rohit Srivastava
Kidney diseases remain often undiagnosed due to inefficient screening methods available at patient's disposal. Early diagnosis and effective management of kidney problems can best be addressed by the development of biosensors for commonly occurring clinical biomarkers. Here we report the development of single fluorophore and dual fluorophore ratiometric biosensors based on alginate microspheres for pH and urea analysis in urine samples. A facile method of air driven atomization was used for developing these polymeric fluorophore and enzyme based biosensors...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723958/can-single-molecule-localization-microscopy-be-used-to-map-closely-spaced-rgd-nanodomains
#9
Mahdie Mollazade, Thibault Tabarin, Philip R Nicovich, Alexander Soeriyadi, Daniel J Nieves, J Justin Gooding, Katharina Gaus
Cells sense and respond to nanoscale variations in the distribution of ligands to adhesion receptors. This makes single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) an attractive tool to map the distribution of ligands on nanopatterned surfaces. We explore the use of SMLM spatial cluster analysis to detect nanodomains of the cell adhesion-stimulating tripeptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD). These domains were formed by the phase separation of block copolymers with controllable spacing on the scale of tens of nanometers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723193/highly-sensitive-squaraine-based-water-soluble-far-red-near-infrared-chromofluorogenic-thiophenol-probe
#10
Li Xiong, Jun Ma, Yan Huang, Zihe Wang, Zhiyun Lu
A squaraine-based far-red/near-infrared fluorescent probe (SQ-DNBS) was exploited for thiophenol detection. SQ-DNBS is a colorimetric and "off-on" fluorometric dual-channel "naked-eye" chemosensor showing high selectivity, high sensitivity (detection limit: 9.9 nM), and rapid response to thiophenol in aqueous solution. SQ-DNBS also can be used in practical applications for the detection of thiophenol in water samples. Photophysical and spectral characterization results revealed that the probing mechanism of SQ-DNBS toward thiophenol lies in the thiolate-mediated cleavage reaction...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723165/kinetic-discrimination-of-metal-ions-using-dna-for-highly-sensitive-and-selective-cr-3-detection
#11
Wang Li, Zijie Zhang, Wenhu Zhou, Juewen Liu
Most metal sensors are designed for a strong binding affinity toward target metal ions, and the underlying principle relies on binding thermodynamics. The kinetic aspect of binding, however, was rarely explored for sensing. In this work, the binding kinetics of 19 common or toxic metal ions are compared based on a fluorescence quenching assay using DNA oligonucleotides as ligands. Among these metals, Cr(3+) shows uniquely slow fluorescence quenching kinetics, and the quenched fluorescence cannot be recovered by EDTA or sulfide...
May 26, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723134/isoelectric-bovine-serum-albumin-robust-blocking-agent-for-enhanced-performance-in-optical-fiber-based-dna-sensing
#12
Ruoyu Wang, Xiaohong Zhou, Xiyu Zhu, Chao Yang, Lanhua Liu, Hanchang Shi
Surface blocking is a well-known process for reducing unwanted nonspecific adsorption in sensor fabrication, especially important in the emerging field where DNA/RNA applied. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is one of the most popular blocking agents with an isoelectric point at pH 4.6. Although it is widely recognized that the adsorption of a blocking agent is strongly affected by its net charge and the maximum adsorption is often observed under its isoelectric form, BSA has long been perfunctorily used for blocking merely in neutral solution, showing poor blocking performances in the optical-fiber evanescent wave (OFEW) based sensing toward DNA target...
February 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723114/simultaneous-imaging-of-three-tumor-related-mrnas-in-living-cells-with-a-dna-tetrahedron-based-multicolor-nanoprobe
#13
Song Wang, Mengchan Xia, Jie Liu, Sichun Zhang, Xinrong Zhang
We constructed a DNA tetrahedron based multicolor nanoprobe, which could simultaneously imaging of three tumor-related mRNAs in living cells through fluorescence restoration caused by competitive chain replacement reaction. The oligonucleotides used to construct the tetrahedron were extended by adding three 21-base recognition sequences modified with different fluorophores (FAM, Cy3, and Cy5) in the 5' end. Three 11-base complementary sequences modified with quencher (BHQ1 for FAM and BHQ2 for Cy3 and Cy5) were hybridized with the recognition sequences to quench the fluorescence...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722447/fluorescence-sensing-of-circulating-diagnostic-biomarkers-using-molecular-probes-and-nanoparticles
#14
Oya Tagit, Niko Hildebrandt
The interplay of photonics, nanotechnology, and biochemistry has significantly improved the identification and characterization of multiple types of biomarkers by optical biosensors. Great achievements in fluorescence-based technologies have been realized, for example, by the advancement of multiplexing techniques or the introduction of nanoparticles to biochemical and clinical research. This review presents a concise overview of recent advances in fluorescence sensing techniques for the detection of circulating disease biomarkers...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722445/highlighting-cancer-cells-with-halochromic-switches
#15
Sicheng Tang, Yang Zhang, Ek Raj Thapaliya, Adrienne S Brown, James N Wilson, Françisco M Raymo
Halochromic coumarin-oxazine prefluorophores and targeting folate ligands can be connected covalently to the side chains of amphiphilic polymers. The resulting macromolecular constructs assemble into nanoparticles in aqueous environments. The prefluorophores do not produce any detectable fluorescence at neutral pH, but are converted into fluorophores with intense visible emission at acidic pH. Protonation opens the oxazine heterocycle to shift bathochromically the coumarin absorption and activate fluorescence with a brightness per nanoparticle approaching 5 × 10(5) M(-1) cm(-1)...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722432/benzocoumarin-hydrazine-a-large-stokes-shift-fluorogenic-sensor-for-detecting-carbonyls-in-isolated-biomolecules-and-in-live-cells
#16
Kamalika Mukherjee, Tak Ian Chio, Han Gu, Abhijit Banerjee, Anthony M Sorrentino, Dan L Sackett, Susan L Bane
Detection and quantification of biomolecule carbonylation, a critical manifestation of oxidative stress, allows better understanding of associated disease states. Existing approaches for such analyses require further processing of cells and tissues, which leads to loss of both spatial and temporal information about carbonylated biomolecules in cells. Live cell detection of these species requires sensors that are nontoxic, sufficiently reactive with the biocarbonyl in the intracellular milieu, and detectable with commonly available instrumentation...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720590/mechanisms-of-noncovalent-%C3%AE-subunit-regulation-of-nav-channel-gating
#17
Wandi Zhu, Taylor L Voelker, Zoltan Varga, Angela R Schubert, Jeanne M Nerbonne, Jonathan R Silva
Voltage-gated Na(+) (NaV) channels comprise a macromolecular complex whose components tailor channel function. Key components are the non-covalently bound β1 and β3 subunits that regulate channel gating, expression, and pharmacology. Here, we probe the molecular basis of this regulation by applying voltage clamp fluorometry to measure how the β subunits affect the conformational dynamics of the cardiac NaV channel (NaV1.5) voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). The pore-forming NaV1.5 α subunit contains four domains (DI-DIV), each with a VSD...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719195/fluorinated-boronic-acid-appended-pyridinium-salts-and-19f-nmr-spectroscopy-for-diol-sensing
#18
Jörg Axthelm, Sven H C Askes, Martin Elstner, Upendar Reddy Gandra, Helmar Görls, Peter Bellstedt, Alexander Schiller
The identification and discrimination of diols is of fundamental importance in medical diagnostics, such as measuring the contents of glucose in the urine of diabetes patients. Diol sensors are often based on fluorophore-appended boronic acids, but these severely lack discrimination power and their response is one-dimensional. As an alternative strategy, we present the use of fluorinated boronic acid-appended pyridinium salts in combination with 19F NMR spectroscopy. A pool of 59 (bio)analytes was screened, containing monosaccharides, phosphorylated and N-acetylated sugars, polyols, carboxylic acids, nucleotides and amines...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718959/characterization-of-a-highly-al-3-selective-fluorescence-probe-based-on-naphthalimide-schiff-base-and-its-application-to-practical-water-samples
#19
Kesheng Shen, Shanshan Mao, Xinkui Shi, Fei Wang, Yuling Xu, Stephen Opeyemi Aderinto, Huilu Wu
A new fluorescent Al(3+) -probe, N-allyl-4-[3,3'-((2-aminoethyl)azanediyl)-bis(N´-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)propanehy-drazide)]-1,8-naphthalimide (L), was designed and synthesized based on 1,8-naphthalimide. The probe L contains 1,8-naphthalimide moiety as the fluorophore and a Schiff base as the recognition group. The structure of L was determined by single crystal X-ray. L emission at 526 nm increased on addition of Al(3+) under excitation wavelength at 350 nm. L exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity fluorescence emission towards to Al(3+) in ethanol/Tris-HCl buffer solution (1:1, v/v, pH = 7...
July 18, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718649/ensemble-and-single-particle-fluorescence-characterization-of-dye-labeled-cellulose-nanocrystals
#20
Tianyang Leng, Zygmunt J Jakubek, Mahyar Mazloumi, Alfred C W Leung, Linda J Johnston
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have been covalently labeled with both fluorescein and rhodamine and studied by a combination of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. For all samples the fluorescence anisotropy and lifetimes were consistent with effects expected for covalently bound dye molecules. Low dye loading levels (~ 0.1 dye/particle) were estimated for the fluorescein-labeled CNC which coupled with the strong pH dependence make this a less suitable fluorophore for most applications...
July 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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