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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550792/social-stress-contagion-in-rats-behavioural-autonomic-and-neuroendocrine-correlates
#1
Luca Carnevali, Nicola Montano, Rosario Statello, Gino Coudé, Federica Vacondio, Silvia Rivara, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Andrea Sgoifo
The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days...
May 20, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549470/rationale-and-protocol-paper-for-the-healthy-active-peaceful-playgrounds-for-youth-happy-study
#2
Wayne Cotton, Dean Dudley, Kirsten Jackson, Matthew Winslade, Janice Atkin
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggest an association between physical activity levels and students psychological well-being. A number of research studies have evaluated playground interventions that aim to increase physical activity levels, decrease conflict and bullying, and improve students behaviour. The HAPPY Study will evaluate the success of an intervention combining environmental modifications, teacher development, and peer support that can culminate in an easy to implement, low cost and effective model for increasing physical activity, and improving psychological well-being for children...
May 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547913/it-s-better-to-give-than-to-receive-psychological-need-satisfaction-mediating-links-between-wasta-favouritism-and-individuals-psychological-distress
#3
Tarik Abdulkreem Alwerthan, Dena Phillips Swanson, Ronald David Rogge
Wasta (i.e. the distribution of favours among family, friends and tribe; favouritism; nepotism) permeates numerous Middle Eastern cultures, representing a method of strengthening social ties and showing loyalty/generosity, but also representing one of the largest sources of corruption in Middle East. The current study investigated links between wasta and psychological distress in a survey of 1088 educators from Saudi Arabia. Drawing from the self-determination theory (SDT) conceptual framework, Structural Equation Modeling analyses suggested that benefitting from wasta was linked to higher levels of psychological distress and those links were explained in part (i...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547852/the-comparative-study-of-empathy-sympathetic-concern-and-empathic-perspective-taking-in-non-human-animals
#4
Ana Pérez-Manrique, Antoni Gomila
While empathy is a century-old psychological concept, its study in non-human animals has become the focus of much recent scientific interest, as it promises to provide the clues to understand the evolutionary origins of our social and moral nature. A review of the comparative study of empathy is thus timely to complement and constrain anthropocentric views, and to integrate current findings. However, this is not an easy task. The study of animal empathy has developed using different paradigms, different concepts of the phenomena involved, and the absence of a systematic program...
May 25, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547806/examining-the-psychological-and-social-impact-of-relative-age-in-primary-school-children-a-cross-sectional-survey
#5
A Price, K Allen, O C Ukoumunne, R Hayes, T Ford
BACKGROUND: A number of studies demonstrate that children who are younger within their school year have poorer academic attainment and are more likely to have special educational needs. Few, however, have considered the impact relative age may have on child mental health, behaviour and happiness in school. METHODS: This paper utilized data from the Supporting Teachers and Children in Schools study (2075 pupils aged 5 to 9 years from 80 primary schools) to explore the relationship among relative age, behaviour and happiness in school...
May 25, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545574/initiating-change-locally-in-bullying-and-aggression-through-the-school-environment-inclusive-trial-update-to-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#6
Chris Bonell, Anne Mathiot, Elizabeth Allen, Leonardo Bevilacqua, Deborah Christie, Diana Elbourne, Adam Fletcher, Richard Grieve, Rosa Legood, Stephen Scott, Emily Warren, Meg Wiggins, Russell M Viner
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest that multi-component interventions are effective in reducing bullying victimisation and perpetration. We are undertaking a phase III randomised trial of the INCLUSIVE multi-component intervention. This trial aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the INCLUSIVE intervention in reducing aggression and bullying victimisation in English secondary schools. This paper updates the original trial protocol published in 2014 (Trials 15:381, 2014) and presents the changes in the process evaluation protocol and the secondary outcome data collection...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545425/mental-health-training-programmes-for-non-mental-health-trained-professionals-coming-into-contact-with-people-with-mental-ill-health-a-systematic-review-of-effectiveness
#7
Alison Booth, Arabella Scantlebury, Adwoa Hughes-Morley, Natasha Mitchell, Kath Wright, William Scott, Catriona McDaid
BACKGROUND: The police and others in occupations where they come into close contact with people experiencing/with mental ill health, often have to manage difficult and complex situations. Training is needed to equip them to recognise and assist when someone has a mental health issue or learning/intellectual disability. We undertook a systematic review of the effectiveness of training programmes aimed at increasing knowledge, changing behaviour and/or attitudes of the trainees with regard to mental ill health, mental vulnerability, and learning disabilities...
May 25, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545318/the-light-at-the-end-of-the-tunnel-is-a-train-risky-behaviours-in-the-era-of-social-networks
#8
Rita Santacroce, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo di Giannantonio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544504/the-impact-of-telephone-delivered-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-and-befriending-on-mood-disorders-in-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Colleen Doyle, Sunil Bhar, Marcia Fearn, David Ames, Debra Osborne, Emily You, Alex Gorelik, David Dunt
OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this pragmatic randomized controlled trial were to investigate the impact of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and an active social control (befriending) on depression and anxiety symptoms in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Eligible participants were randomly allocated to receive eight weekly telephone interventions of CBT (n = 54) or befriending (n = 56). Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess changes in scores and Cohen's d was used to assess effect sizes...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544356/older-people-s-experiences-of-falling-and-perceived-risk-of-falls-in-the-community-a-narrative-synthesis-of-qualitative-research
#10
REVIEW
Siobhan Gardiner, Margaret Glogowska, Catherine Stoddart, Sarah Pendlebury, Daniel Lasserson, Debra Jackson
AIM: To examine qualitative research exploring older people's experiences of falling and the perceived risk of falling in the community. This will contribute new insights into how falling is perceived by the older community. BACKGROUND: Falls are a major problem for older people and healthcare services across the world. Accidental falls in the community are a persistent problem that is generally recognised as an intrinsic risk of ageing. This review provides a new synthesis of evidence that considers older people's perception of falls in the community as new insights are needed if the increasing problems of falls are to be addressed...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544135/understanding-food-vulnerability-and-health-literacy-in-older-bereaved-men-a-qualitative-study
#11
Jill Thompson, Angela Tod, Paul Bissell, Michael Bond
BACKGROUND: Older people are sometimes challenged in maintaining a healthy diet but, because of age and disadvantage, are also more vulnerable to the adverse health consequences of poor nutrition. It has been claimed that older adults have low levels of health literacy regarding food and struggle to discern which foods are healthy from the vast range available in developed counties (Br Herne 1995;97:12). However, nutrition and eating behaviour are modifiable risk factors for health in old age (Appl Physiol Nutr Keller 2007;32:991) and health benefits can accrue from promoting healthy eating later in life...
May 24, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544105/ensemble-coding-of-faces-occurs-in-children-and-develops-dissociably-from-coding-of-individual-faces
#12
Gillian Rhodes, Markus Neumann, Louise Ewing, Samantha Bank, Ainsley Read, Laura M Engfors, Rachel Emiechel, Romina Palermo
Ensemble coding allows adults to access useful information about average properties of groups, sometimes even in the absence of detailed representations of individual group members. This form of coding may emerge early in development with initial reports of ensemble coding for simple properties (size, numerosity) in young children and even infants. Here we demonstrate that ensemble coding of faces, which provides information about average properties of social groups, is already present in 6-8-year-old children...
May 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543954/health-professionals-personal-behaviours-hindering-health-promotion-a-study-of-nurses-who-smoke
#13
Agurtzane Mujika, María Arantzamendi, Olga Lopez-Dicastillo, Angus Forbes
AIM: To explore the views of current and ex-smoker nurses on their role in supporting patients to stop smoking. BACKGROUND: Long-term conditions are closely linked to harmful lifestyle behaviours, including smoking and overeating. Health professionals have an important role to play in promoting healthier lifestyles. It has been described that nurses' health behaviours may be a barrier to their health promotion practice. There is a need to gain further understanding on why nurses' health promotion activity is influenced by their own health behaviour...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542841/blood-donors-perceptions-motivators-and-deterrents-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review-of-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Oliver W Hassall, Imelda Bates, Henrik Ullum
Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542648/robot-education-peers-in-a-situated-primary-school-study-personalisation-promotes-child-learning
#15
Paul Baxter, Emily Ashurst, Robin Read, James Kennedy, Tony Belpaeme
The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542356/the-use-of-preferred-social-stimuli-as-rewards-for-rhesus-macaques-in-behavioural-neuroscience
#16
Helen Gray, Bradley Pearce, Alexander Thiele, Candy Rowe
Macaques are often motivated to perform in neuroscientific experiments by implementing fluid restriction protocols. Daily access to water is controlled and the monkeys are rewarded with droplets of fluid for performing correct trials in the laboratory. Although these protocols are widely used and highly effective, it is important from a 3Rs perspective to investigate refinements that may help to lessen the severity of the fluid restriction applied. We assessed the use of social stimuli (images of conspecifics) as rewards for four rhesus macaques performing simple cognitive tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542171/adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions-experience-increased-levels-of-anomalous-perception
#17
Elizabeth Milne, Abigail Dickinson, Richard Smith
Autism spectrum condition (ASC) is characterised by differences in social interaction and behavioural inflexibility. In addition to these core symptoms, atypical sensory responses are prevalent in the ASC phenotype. Here we investigated anomalous perception, i.e. hallucinatory and/or out of body experiences in adults with ASC. Thirty participants with an ASC diagnosis and thirty neurotypical controls completed the Cardiff Anomalous Perception Scale (CAPS) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2). The CAPS is a 32-item questionnaire that asks participants to indicate whether or not they experience a range of anomalous and out of body experiences, and to rate how intrusive and distressing these experiences are...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542164/social-norms-don-t-always-work-an-experiment-to-encourage-more-efficient-fees-collection-for-students
#18
Antonio Silva, Peter John
The use of social norms has become the tool of choice for behaviourally informed interventions. However, it is still not clear for what type of contexts and populations is this intervention effective. This randomised controlled trial with 4298 students tests the applicability of social norms to improve the late payment of university tuition fees. We find that providing information to late payers does not increase their likelihood of paying. This finding highlights how the use of social norms may not always be an effective tool in influencing behaviour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541549/cognitive-development-in-children-up-to-age-11-years-born-after-art-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#19
Anna Barbuscia, Melinda C Mills
STUDY QUESTION: How does the cognitive development of children conceived after ART (IVF and ICSI) - measured as cognitive skills at age 3, 5, 7 and 11 years - differ over time from those born after natural conception (NC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Improved measures of cognitive development up to age 5 years were recorded in children conceived with ART compared to NC, which attenuates by 11 years, with ART children still scoring slightly better than NC children. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Results on the cognitive outcomes of children conceived after ART have been highly contradictory...
May 24, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540662/methamidophos-an-organophosphorus-insecticide-induces-pro-aggressive-behaviour-in-mice
#20
Cristina Paula do Nascimento, Gabriella Xavier Maretto, Graziany Leite Moreira Marques, Luciana Mesquita Passamani, Ana Paula Abdala, Luiz Carlos Schenberg, Vanessa Beijamini, Karla Nívea Sampaio
Although evidence indicates that exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides induces neurobehavioral disorders, little is known about the effects of OP on aggressive behaviour. Our study investigated the effects of repeated exposure to an OP pesticide, methamidophos, on the isolation-induced aggressive behaviour in mice. Forty seven male mice were individually housed for a month. Socially isolated animals were then confronted with a standard non-isolated opponent for 15 min (pre-treatment trial), and the latency and frequency of aggressive and general exploratory behaviours were recorded...
May 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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