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Hypertension in black

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073852/heat-maps-of-hypertension-diabetes-mellitus-and-smoking-in-the-continental-united-states
#1
Matthew Shane Loop, George Howard, Gustavo de Los Campos, Mohammad Z Al-Hamdan, Monika M Safford, Emily B Levitan, Leslie A McClure
BACKGROUND: Geographic variations in cardiovascular mortality are substantial, but descriptions of geographic variations in major cardiovascular risk factors have relied on data aggregated to counties. Herein, we provide the first description of geographic variation in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking within and across US counties. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline risk factor measurements and latitude/longitude of participant residence collected from 2003 to 2007 in the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke)...
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068927/subgroup-identification-of-early-preterm-birth-eptb-informing-a-future-prospective-enrichment-clinical-trial-design
#2
Chuanwu Zhang, Lili Garrard, John Keighley, Susan Carlson, Byron Gajewski
BACKGROUND: Despite the widely recognized association between the severity of early preterm birth (ePTB) and its related severe diseases, little is known about the potential risk factors of ePTB and the sub-population with high risk of ePTB. Moreover, motivated by a future confirmatory clinical trial to identify whether supplementing pregnant women with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has a different effect on the risk subgroup population or not in terms of ePTB prevalence, this study aims to identify potential risk subgroups and risk factors for ePTB, defined as babies born less than 34 weeks of gestation...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056873/chronic-kidney-disease-and-risk-factor-prevalence-in-saint-kitts-and-nevis-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Deidra C Crews, Kirk N Campbell, Yang Liu, Odell Bussue, Ingrid Dawkins, Bessie A Young
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in St. Kitts and Nevis, islands of the West Indies, is unknown. We sought to determine estimates of CKD and its risk factors (e.g. diabetes, hypertension and obesity) in St. Kitts and Nevis. METHODS: This was a chronic disease screening program. Three community-based locations in St. Kitts and Nevis were included in the program. Participants were adult community residents aged ≥18 years. The main outcome measures were estimated CKD prevalence (by serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and dipstick urine albumin); and estimated prevalence of CKD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension and obesity)...
January 5, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056406/the-impact-of-maternal-factors-on-the-association-between-temperature-and-preterm-delivery
#4
Rupa Basu, Hong Chen, De-Kun Li, Lyndsay A Avalos
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined maternal modifiers of temperature and adverse birth outcomes because of lack of data. We assessed the relationship between apparent temperature, preterm delivery (PTD) and maternal demographics, medical and mental health conditions, and behaviors. METHODS: A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was conducted using 14,466 women who had a PTD (20 to less than 37 gestational weeks) from 1995 to 2009 using medical records from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California...
January 2, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052878/high-frequency-of-variants-of-candidate-genes-in-black-africans-with-low-renin-resistant-hypertension
#5
Erika S Jones, J David Spence, Adam D Mcintyre, Justus Nondi, Kennedy Gogo, Adeseye Akintunde, Daniel G Hackam, Brian L Rayner
OBJECTIVES: Black subjects tend to retain salt and water, be more sensitive to aldosterone, and have suppression of plasma renin activity. Variants of the renal sodium channel (ENaC, SCNN1B) account for approximately 6% of resistant hypertension (RHT) in Blacks; other candidate genes may be important. METHODS: Six candidate genes associated with low renin-resistant hypertension were sequenced in Black Africans from clinics in Kenya and South Africa. CYP11B2 was sequenced if the aldosterone level was high (primary aldosteronism phenotype); SCNN1B, NEDD4L, GRK4, UMOD, and NPPA genes were sequenced if the aldosterone level was low (Liddle phenotype)...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042638/black-lung-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-saudi-experience-with-sildenafil-and-nitric-oxide
#6
AbdulRahman M Alnemri
To determine the clinical presentation, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment outcome of Saudi infants with black lung persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Methods: This is a retrospective review of all neonates with PPHN presented to the Armed Force Hospital Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2012 to December 2014. Results: Ten term and near term infants presented with PPHN were included. Maternal diabetes and Down syndrome were the most common identified risk factors for PPHN in the study group...
January 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035523/gastric-wall-thickness-and-the-choice-of-linear-staples-in-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-challenging-conventional-concepts
#7
Yasmin Abu-Ghanem, Chanan Meydan, Lior Segev, Moshe Rubin, Orit Blumenfeld, Hadar Spivak
BACKGROUND: Little evidence is available on the choice of linear staple reloads in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Previous literature recommends matching closed staple height (CSH) to tissue-thickness (TT) to avoid ischemia. Our objective was to examine feasibility and safety of "tight" hemostatic (CSH/TT <1) stapling and map the entire gastric wall TT in LSG patients. METHODS: Prospectively collected outcomes on 202 consecutive patients who underwent LSG with tight order of staples (Ethicon Endosurgery) in this order: pre-pylorus-black (CSH = 2...
December 29, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017356/race-related-differences-in-left%C3%A2-ventricular-structural-and-functional%C3%A2-remodeling-in-response%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-increased-afterload-the-aric-study
#8
Miguel M Fernandes-Silva, Amil M Shah, Sheila Hegde, Alexandra Goncalves, Brian Claggett, Susan Cheng, Wilson Nadruz, Dalane W Kitzman, Suma H Konety, Kunihiro Matsushita, Thomas Mosley, Carolyn S P Lam, Barry A Borlaug, Scott D Solomon
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate racial differences in arterial elastance (Ea), which reflects the arterial afterload faced by the left ventricle, and its associations with cardiac structure and function. The hypothesis under study was that the left ventricle in blacks displays heightened afterload sensitivity compared with whites. BACKGROUND: Chronic increasing in arterial afterload may be an important trigger for left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction that lead to heart failure...
November 30, 2016: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004063/d-dimer-and-the-risk-of-stroke-and-coronary-heart-disease-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-study
#9
Neil A Zakai, Leslie A McClure, Suzanne E Judd, Brett Kissela, George Howard, Monika Safford, Mary Cushman
D-dimer, a biomarker of coagulation, is higher in blacks than in whites and has been associated with stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). It was our objective to assess the association of higher D-dimer with stroke and CHD in blacks and whites. REGARDS recruited 30,239 black and white participants across the contiguous US and measured baseline D-dimer in stroke (n=646) and CHD (n=654) cases and a cohort random sample (n=1,104). Cox models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors determined the hazard ratio (HR) for increasing D-dimer for cardiovascular disease with bootstrapping to assess the difference in HR for CHD versus stroke by race...
December 22, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000131/transcranial-doppler-monitoring-of-intracranial-pressure-plateau-waves
#10
Danilo Cardim, Bernhard Schmidt, Chiara Robba, Joseph Donnelly, Corina Puppo, Marek Czosnyka, Peter Smielewski
BACKGROUND: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) has been used to estimate ICP noninvasively (nICP); however, its accuracy varies depending on different types of intracranial hypertension. Given the high specificity of TCD to detect cerebrovascular events, this study aimed to compare four TCD-based nICP methods during plateau waves of ICP. METHODS: A total of 36 plateau waves were identified in 27 patients (traumatic brain injury) with TCD, ICP, and ABP simultaneous recordings...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989298/contribution-of-four-comorbid-conditions-to-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-mortality-risk
#11
Jonathan Daw
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of key forms of morbidity such as obesity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease have increased dramatically in the U.S. and elsewhere for decades. Hypertension is etiologically related but its prevalence has been reduced through improved treatment. These diseases are known to have higher than expected rates of comorbidity, but it is not known whether and how these cluster together differentially by race, nor the degree to which they contribute to racial disparities in mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988356/race-ethnicity-on-blood-pressure-control-after-ischemic-stroke-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Mai N Nguyen-Huynh, Nancy K Hills, Stephen Sidney, Jeffrey G Klingman, S Claiborne Johnston
Disparities in health care access and socioeconomic status (SES) have been associated with racial-ethnic differences in blood pressure (BP) control. We examined post-ischemic stroke BP in a multiethnic cohort with good health care access. We included all hypertensive patients (n = 2972) from a randomized quality improvement trial on secondary stroke prevention, conducted in 14 Kaiser Permanente hospitals in Northern California from 2004-2006 (QUISP). Average age 73.2 ± 12.2 years; 52% female, 66% non-Hispanic white, 14% African-American, 11% Asian, 8% Hispanic, and 1% other...
November 17, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984005/treatment-resistant-hypertension-and-outcomes-based-on-randomized-treatment-group-in-allhat
#13
Sripal Bangalore, Barry R Davis, William C Cushman, Sara L Pressel, Paul M Muntner, David A Calhoun, John B Kostis, Paul K Whelton, Jeffrey L Probstfield, Mahboob Rahman, Henry R Black
BACKGROUND: Although hypertension guidelines define treatment resistant hypertension as blood pressure uncontrolled by ≥3 antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, it is unknown whether patient prognosis differs when a diuretic is included. METHODS: Participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering to Prevent Heart Attack Trial were randomly assigned to first-step therapy with chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril. At a Year 2 follow-up visit, those with average BP≥140 mmHg systolic or ≥90 mmHg diastolic on ≥3 antihypertensive medications, or BP<140/90 mmHg on ≥4 antihypertensive medications, were identified as having apparent treatment resistant hypertension...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979859/capsaicin-induced-ca2-signaling-is-enhanced-via-upregulated-trpv1-channels-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-from-patients-with-idiopathic-pah
#14
Shanshan Song, Ramon J Ayon, Aya Yamamura, Hisao Yamamura, Swetaleena Dash, Aleksandra Babicheva, Haiyang Tang, Xutong Sun, Arlette G Cordery, Zain I Khalpey, Stephen M Black, Ankit A Desai, Franz Rischard, Kimberly M McDermott, Joe G N Garcia, Ayako Makino, Jason X-J Yuan
Capsaicin is an active component of chili pepper and a pain relief drug. Capsaicin can activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels to increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt). A rise in [Ca2+]cyt in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is an important stimulus for pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. In this study, we observed that capsaicin-induced increase in [Ca2+]cyt was significantly enhanced in PASMCs from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) compared with normal PASMCs...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974911/the-etiopathogenesis-of-uterine-fibromatosis
#15
EDITORIAL
L Manta, N Suciu, O Toader, R M Purcărea, A Constantin, F Popa
Uterine fibroids or uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the uterus among women of fertile age, while the etiology is still incompletely elucidated. The occurrence and development of the fibromatosis may be related to certain risk factors and genic mechanisms, although the exact causes are not yet fully known. The development of uterine fibroids is correlated not only with the metabolism and with the level of female sexual hormones, estrogen, and progesterone, but also with the number of these hormone receptors expressed on the surface of the myometrium...
January 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960158/risk-factors
#16
T Uehara, O Y Bang, J S Kim, K Minematsu, R Sacco
Studies investigating risk factors for intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) have been infrequent. However, due to recent availability of non-invasive vascular imaging techniques that can assess intracranial cerebral arteries, there are a growing number of studies on risk factors for ICAS. Conventional vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and cigarette smoking are risk factors for ICAS. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a difference in risk factors between ICAS and extracranial atherosclerosis (ECAS)...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941615/mechanisms-of-body-weight-reduction-by-black-tea-polyphenols
#17
REVIEW
Haibo Pan, Ying Gao, Youying Tu
Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols...
December 7, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940943/first-occurrence-of-diabetes-chronic-kidney-disease-and-hypertension-among-north-american-hiv-infected-adults-2000-2013
#18
Cherise Wong, Stephen J Gange, Kate Buchacz, Richard D Moore, Amy C Justice, Michael A Horberg, M John Gill, John R Koethe, Peter F Rebeiro, Michael J Silverberg, Frank J Palella, Pragna Patel, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi M Crane, Alison G Abraham, Hasina Samji, Sonia Napravnik, Tareq Ahmed, Jennifer E Thorne, Ronald J Bosch, Angel M Mayor, Keri N Althoff
BACKGROUND: There remains concern regarding the occurrence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among individuals aging with HIV but few studies have described whether disparities between demographic subgroups are present among individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with access to care. METHODS: We assessed the first documented occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and treated hypertension (HTN) by age, sex, and race within the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design...
December 10, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940508/persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-in-late-preterm-and-term-infants-in-california
#19
Martina A Steurer, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Rebecca J Baer, J Colin Partridge, Elizabeth E Rogers, Roberta L Keller
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are limited epidemiologic data on persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). We sought to describe the incidence and 1-year mortality of PPHN by its underlying cause, and to identify risk factors for PPHN in a contemporary population-based dataset. METHODS: The California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development maintains a database linking maternal and infant hospital discharges, readmissions, and birth and death certificates from 1 year before to 1 year after birth...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939480/long-term-effects-of-gestational-hypertension-and-pre-eclampsia-on-kidney-function-record-linkage-study
#20
D Ayansina, C Black, S J Hall, A Marks, C Millar, G J Prescott, K Wilde, S Bhattacharya
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long term effects of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy on renal function. DESIGN: Cohort study where exposure was gestational hypertension or preeclampsia in the first pregnancy. Normotensive women formed the comparison group. SETTING: Aberdeen, Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: All women with date of birth on or before 30th June 1969 and at least their first singleton delivery recorded in the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
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