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Hypertension in black

Felicia C Chow, Michael R Wilson, Kunling Wu, Ronald J Ellis, Ronald J Bosch, Benjamin P Linas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of first-ever stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and associated risk factors in a cohort of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH). DESIGN: Observational cohort study METHODS:: We determined incidence rates of first-ever stroke/TIA in PLWH after ART initiation from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group ALLRT cohort and its parent trials. Poisson regression models evaluated baseline and time-varying covariates as risk factors for stroke/TIA...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Robert Munashe Maweni, Nicholas Sunderland, Zahra Rahim, Emmanuella Odih, Jins Kallampallil, Thomas Saunders, Srikanth Akunuri
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive urgency is defined as a severely elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥ 180 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of ≥ 120 mmHg, in the absence of end organ damage. It is known that there are racial differences in prevalence and severity of hypertension but there is a dearth of studies looking at hypertensive urgency in Black populations living in Europe. AIMS: We sought to define the clinical characteristics of Black patients presenting with hypertensive urgency, in order to better define the risks and complications this growing population of patients faces...
March 14, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Daniel Shpilsky, Sebhat Erqou, Sanjay R Patel, Kevin E Kip, Oluremi Ajala, Aryan Aiyer, Patrick J Strollo, Steven E Reis, Oladipupo Olafiranye
Studies have reported an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Proposed mechanisms include endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the associations of OSA with endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), and assess the impact of race on these associations. We used data from the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) study, a community-based prospective cohort with approximately equal representation of black and white participants...
March 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Jenny M Cundiff, Karen A Matthews
In adults, greater social integration is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Social integration earlier in life may be similarly associated with cardiovascular risk. Using a longitudinal sample of 267 Black and White men, we examined whether greater social integration with peers during childhood and adolescence, assessed by parent report, prospectively predicts lower blood pressure and body mass index two decades later in adulthood and whether these effects differ by race, given well-documented racial disparities in hypertension...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Baqar A Husaini, Deborah Taira, Keith Norris, S Vivek Adhish, Majaz Moonis, Robert Levine
Background: Depression often interferes with self-management and treatment of medical conditions. This may result in serious medical complications and escalated health-care cost. Objectives: Study distribution of heart failure (HF) cases estimates the prevalence of depression and its effects on HF-related hospital costs by ethnicity and gender. Methods: Secondary data files of California Hospital Discharge System for he year 2010 were examined...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Caitlynd Myburgh, Hugo W Huisman, Catharina M C Mels
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the development of hypertension, arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis. Optimal functioning of the enzymatic antioxidant system is central to prevent increased oxidative stress and its consequences. We aimed to investigate the relationships of ambulatory blood pressure and carotid intima-media thickness with enzyme activities of the glutathione cycle in 396 young, black and white South Africans of the African-PREDICT study. Ambulatory blood pressure and carotid intima-media thickness were measured and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities were analyzed...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
Ronald G Victor, Kathleen Lynch, Ning Li, Ciantel Blyler, Eric Muhammad, Joel Handler, Jeffrey Brettler, Mohamad Rashid, Brent Hsu, Davontae Foxx-Drew, Norma Moy, Anthony E Reid, Robert M Elashoff
Background Uncontrolled hypertension is a major problem among non-Hispanic black men, who are underrepresented in pharmacist intervention trials in traditional health care settings. Methods We enrolled a cohort of 319 black male patrons with systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or more from 52 black-owned barbershops (nontraditional health care setting) in a cluster-randomized trial in which barbershops were assigned to a pharmacist-led intervention (in which barbers encouraged meetings in barbershops with specialty-trained pharmacists who prescribed drug therapy under a collaborative practice agreement with the participants' doctors) or to an active control approach (in which barbers encouraged lifestyle modification and doctor appointments)...
March 12, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Eric Shulman, Jay J Chudow, Tina Shah, Krina Shah, Ariel Peleg, Dmitriy Nevelev, Faraj Kargoli, Lynn Zaremski, Cecilia Berardi, Andrea Natale, Jorge Romero, Luigi Di Biase, John Fisher, Andrew Krumerman, Kevin J Ferrick
No previous studies have examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and race/ethnicity with the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). We retrospectively followed 48,323 persons free of AF (43% Hispanic, 37% black, and 20% white; median age 60 years) for subsequent incident AF (ascertained from electrocardiograms). BMI categories included very severely underweight (BMI <15 kg/m2 ), severely underweight (BMI 15.1 to 15.9 kg/m2 ), underweight (BMI 16 to 18.4 kg/m2 ), normal (BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (BMI 25...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Sonal Singh, Caitrin W McDonough, Yan Gong, Wael A Alghamdi, Meghan J Arwood, Salma A Bargal, Leanne Dumeny, Wen-Yi Li, Mai Mehanna, Bradley Stockard, Guang Yang, Felipe A de Oliveira, Natalie C Fredette, Mohamed H Shahin, Kent R Bailey, Amber L Beitelshees, Eric Boerwinkle, Arlene B Chapman, John G Gums, Stephen T Turner, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Julie A Johnson
BACKGROUND: Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are first-line medications for treating uncomplicated hypertension. However, their use has been associated with adverse metabolic events, including hyperglycemia and incident diabetes mellitus, with incompletely understood mechanisms. Our goal was to identify genomic variants associated with thiazide-like diuretic/chlorthalidone-induced glucose change. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genome-wide analysis of glucose change after treatment with chlorthalidone was performed by race among the white (n=175) and black (n=135) participants from the PEAR-2 (Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses-2)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Snehal N Shah, Eleni Digenis-Bury, Elizabeth T Russo, Shannon O'Malley, Nineequa Blanding, Anne McHugh, Roy Wada
Well documented, persistent racial/ethnic health disparities in obesity and hypertension in the US demonstrate the continued need for interventions that focus on people of color who may be at higher risk. We evaluated a demonstration project funded by the CDC's Racial/Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) program at four federally qualified health centers (FQHC) and YMCA fitness and wellness centers in Boston. No-cost YMCA memberships were offered from June 2014 to June 2015 to non-Latino black and Latino adults with a diagnosis of hypertension...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Mary E Cogswell, Catherine M Loria, Ana L Terry, Lixia Zhao, Chia-Yih Wang, Te-Ching Chen, Jacqueline D Wright, Christine M Pfeiffer, Robert Merritt, Claudia S Moy, Lawrence J Appel
Importance: In 2010, the Institute of Medicine (now the National Academy of Medicine) recommended collecting 24-hour urine to estimate US sodium intake because previous studies indicated 90% of sodium consumed was excreted in urine. Objective: To estimate mean population sodium intake and describe urinary potassium excretion among US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the US noninstitutionalized population, 827 of 1103 (75%) randomly selected, nonpregnant participants aged 20 to 69 years in the examination component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected at least one 24-hour urine specimen in 2014...
March 7, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Patrícia Miranda Mendes, Aline Araújo Nobre, Rosane Härter Griep, Joanna Miguez Nery Guimarães, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Sandhi Maria Barreto, Alexandre Pereira, Dóra Chor
"Pardos" and blacks in Brazil and blacks in the USA are at greater risk of developing arterial hypertension than whites, and the causes of this inequality are still little understood. Psychosocial and contextual factors, including racial discrimination, are indicated as conditions associated with this inequality. The aim of this study was to identify the association between perceived racial discrimination and hypertension. The study evaluated 14,012 workers from the ELSA-Brazil baseline population...
March 1, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Louise Mary Webster, Carolyn Gill, Paul T Seed, Kate Bramham, Cornelia Wiesender, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Jenny E Myers, Lucy C Chappell
Black ethnicity is associated with worse pregnancy outcomes in women with chronic hypertension. Pre-existing endothelial and renal dysfunction, and poor placentation may contribute but pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning increased risk are poorly understood. This cohort study aimed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity, superimposed pre-eclampsia and longitudinal changes in markers of endothelial, renal and placental dysfunction in women with chronic hypertension. Plasma concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF), syndecan-1, renin, aldosterone, and urinary angiotensinogen:creatinine ratio (AGTCR), protein:creatinine ratio (PCR) and albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) were quantified during pregnancy and postpartum in women with chronic hypertension...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Jeremiah Stamler, Queenie Chan, Martha L Daviglus, Alan R Dyer, Linda Van Horn, Daniel B Garside, Katsuyuki Miura, Yangfeng Wu, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Liancheng Zhao, Paul Elliott
Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118...
March 5, 2018: Hypertension
Alana M LeBrón, Amy J Schulz, Graciela Mentz, Cindy Gamboa, Angela Reyes
Antihypertensive medication use protects against adverse health effects of hyper-tension. Residents of low-income urban communities are disproportionately Black and Latino, and may experience heightened cardiovascular health risks due to reduced medication use. We estimate the odds of antihypertensive medication use by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Data are from the Healthy Environments Partnership Community Survey, restricted to 377 hypertensive participants. Antihypertensive medication use was defined as people with hypertension who were taking antihypertensive medication...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Ian A Thomas, Jeffrey J Gaynor, Tameka Joseph, Nestor De La Cruz-Munoz, Junichiro Sageshima, Warren Kupin, Linda J Chen, Gaetano Ciancio, George W Burke, Adela D Mattiazzi, David Roth, Giselle Guerra
Body mass index(BMI)>35-40kg/m2 is often a contraindication, while Roux-en-Y gastric bypass(RYGB) is performed to enable kidney transplantation. This single-center retrospective study evaluated pre- and post-transplant outcomes of 31 morbidly obese end-stage-renal-disease patients having RYGB before kidney transplantation between July,2009-June,2014. Fourteen RYGB patients were subsequently transplanted. Nineteen recipients not having GB with a BMI>36kg/m2 at transplantation were used as historical controls...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Paulina Kaiser, Carmen A Peralta, Richard Kronmal, Michael G Shlipak, Bruce M Psaty, Michelle C Odden
OBJECTIVES: Research has demonstrated that the association between high blood pressure and outcomes is attenuated among older adults with functional limitations, compared with healthier elders. However, it is not known whether these patterns vary by racial/ethnic group. We evaluated race/ethnicity-specific patterns of effect modification in the association between blood pressure and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) by functional status. SETTING: We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2002-2004, with an average of 8...
February 23, 2018: BMJ Open
Jing Fang, Cathleen Gillespie, Carma Ayala, Fleetwood Loustalot
Hypertension, which affects nearly one third of adults in the United States, is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke (1), and only approximately half of those with hypertension have their hypertension under control (2). The prevalence of hypertension is highest among non-Hispanic blacks, whereas the prevalence of antihypertensive medication use is lowest among Hispanics (1). Geographic variations have also been identified: a recent report indicated that the Southern region of the United States had the highest prevalence of hypertension as well as the highest prevalence of medication use (3)...
February 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Raquel Rodrigues Ferreira Rocha de Alencar, Tais Freire Galvao, Bruno Vianei Real Antonio, Marcus Tolentino Silva
Objectives: To assess the prevalence of, and associated factors to, self-reported chronic diseases and health care utilization by ethnicity in the Manaus Metropolitan Region. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey from May through August 2015. Using probabilistic sampling in three stages, we recruited adults aged ≥18 years. Ethnicity was self-identified as White, Black, Yellow, Brown (Brazilian mixed-race), and Indigenous. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CI of chronic diseases and health service utilization for each ethnic minority and compared the data using Poisson regression with data from White respondents...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Negar Asdaghi, Kefeng Wang, Maria A Ciliberti-Vargas, Carolina Marinovic Gutierrez, Sebastian Koch, Hannah Gardener, Chuanhui Dong, David Z Rose, Enid J Garcia, W Scott Burgin, Juan Carlos Zevallos, Tatjana Rundek, Ralph L Sacco, Jose G Romano
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild stroke is the most common cause for thrombolysis exclusion in patients acutely presenting to the hospital. Thrombolysis administration in this subgroup is highly variable among different clinicians and institutions. We aim to study the predictors of thrombolysis in patients with mild ischemic stroke in the FL-PR CReSD registry (Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities). METHODS: Among 73 712 prospectively enrolled patients with a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or TIA from January 2010 to April 2015, we identified 7746 cases with persistent neurological symptoms and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤5 who arrived within 4 hours of symptom onset...
March 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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