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Overfishing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071699/rye-polyphenols-and-the-metabolism-of-n-3-fatty-acids-in-rats-a-dose-dependent-fatty-fish-like-effect
#1
Fayçal Ounnas, Michel de Lorgeril, Patricia Salen, François Laporte, Luca Calani, Pedro Mena, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio, Christine Demeilliers
As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers' health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056064/marine-reserve-targets-to-sustain-and-rebuild-unregulated-fisheries
#2
Nils C Krueck, Gabby N Ahmadia, Hugh P Possingham, Cynthia Riginos, Eric A Treml, Peter J Mumby
Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%-20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002499/targeting-abundant-fish-stocks-while-avoiding-overfished-species-video-and-fishing-surveys-to-inform-management-after-long-term-fishery-closures
#3
Richard M Starr, Mary G Gleason, Corina I Marks, Donna Kline, Steve Rienecke, Christian Denney, Anne Tagini, John C Field
Historically, it has been difficult to balance conservation goals and yield objectives when managing multispecies fisheries that include stocks with various vulnerabilities to fishing. As managers try to maximize yield in mixed-stock fisheries, exploitation rates can lead to less productive stocks becoming overfished. In the late 1990s, population declines of several U.S. West Coast groundfish species caused the U.S. Pacific Fishery Management Council to create coast-wide fishery closures, known as Rockfish Conservation Areas, to rebuild overfished species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991535/implications-for-management-and-conservation-of-the-population-genetic-structure-of-the-wedge-clam-donax-trunculus-across-two-biogeographic-boundaries
#4
Amandine D Marie, Christophe Lejeusne, Evgenia Karapatsiou, José A Cuesta, Pilar Drake, Enrique Macpherson, Louis Bernatchez, Ciro Rico
In a resource management perspective, the understanding of the relative influence of the physical factors on species connectivity remains a major challenge and is also of great ecological and conservation biology interest. Despite the overfishing threat on the wedge clam Donax trunculus in Europe, relatively little information is known about its population genetic structure and connectivity and their consequences on conservation policies. We employed 16 microsatellite loci to characterise the genetic diversity and population structure of D...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987303/nonconsumptive-effects-of-a-predator-weaken-then-rebound-over-time
#5
David L Kimbro, Jonathan H Grabowski, A Randall Hughes, Michael F Piehler, J Wilson White
Predators can influence prey traits and behavior (nonconsumptive effects, NCE), often with cascading effects for basal resources and ecosystem function. But critiques of NCE experiments suggest that their duration and design produce results that describe the potential importance of NCEs rather than their actual importance. In light of these critiques, we re-evaluated a toadfish (predator), crab (prey), and oyster (resource) NCE-mediated trophic cascade. In a 4-month field experiment, we varied toadfish cue (NCE) and crab density (approximating variation in predator consumptive effects, CE)...
December 17, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973538/abundance-and-distribution-patterns-of-thunnus-albacares-in-isla-del-coco-national-park-through-predictive-habitat-suitability-models
#6
Cristina Gonzáles-Andrés, Priscila F M Lopes, Jorge Cortés, José Luis Sánchez-Lizaso, Maria Grazia Pennino
Information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically and commercially important species is essential for their management and protection. This is especially important as climate change, pollution, and overfishing change the structure and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. In this study, we used Bayesian hierarchical spatial-temporal models to map the Essential Fish Habitats of the Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the waters around Isla del Coco National Park, Pacific Costa Rica, based on independent underwater observations from 1993 to 2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911770/the-right-incentives-enable-ocean-sustainability-successes-and-provide-hope-for-the-future
#7
Jane Lubchenco, Elizabeth B Cerny-Chipman, Jessica N Reimer, Simon A Levin
Healthy ocean ecosystems are needed to sustain people and livelihoods and to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Using the ocean sustainably requires overcoming many formidable challenges: overfishing, climate change, ocean acidification, and pollution. Despite gloomy forecasts, there is reason for hope. New tools, practices, and partnerships are beginning to transform local fisheries, biodiversity conservation, and marine spatial planning. The challenge is to bring them to a global scale...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902715/local-stressors-resilience-and-shifting-baselines-on-coral-reefs
#8
Matthew McLean, Javier Cuetos-Bueno, Osamu Nedlic, Marston Luckymiss, Peter Houk
Understanding how and why coral reefs have changed over the last twenty to thirty years is crucial for sustaining coral-reef resilience. We used a historical baseline from Kosrae, a typical small island in Micronesia, to examine changes in fish and coral assemblages since 1986. We found that natural gradients in the spatial distribution of fish and coral assemblages have become amplified, as island geography is now a stronger determinant of species abundance patterns, and habitat forming Acropora corals and large-bodied fishes that were once common on the leeward side of the island have become scarce...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824083/27-years-of-benthic-and-coral-community-dynamics-on-turbid-highly-urbanised-reefs-off-singapore
#9
J R Guest, K Tun, J Low, A Vergés, E M Marzinelli, A H Campbell, A G Bauman, D A Feary, L M Chou, P D Steinberg
Coral cover on reefs is declining globally due to coastal development, overfishing and climate change. Reefs isolated from direct human influence can recover from natural acute disturbances, but little is known about long term recovery of reefs experiencing chronic human disturbances. Here we investigate responses to acute bleaching disturbances on turbid reefs off Singapore, at two depths over a period of 27 years. Coral cover declined and there were marked changes in coral and benthic community structure during the first decade of monitoring at both depths...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781264/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-genetic-variations-in-populations-of-yellowtail-kingfish-seriola-lalandi-from-the-south-eastern-pacific-ocean-and-potential-implications-for-its-fishery-management
#10
F A Sepúlveda, M T González
The genetic population structure and genetic diversity of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi from the coastal south-eastern Pacific Ocean (SEP) were evaluated at spatiotemporal scale in order to understand the ecology of this species. Between 2012 and 2015, temporal and spatial population genetic structure and a low genetic diversity were detected in S. lalandi from SEP. These results suggest that S. lalandi specimens arriving annually from offshore to the SEP coast could come from at least two genetically distinct populations, revealing a particular life strategy (i...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780213/so-long-and-thanks-for-all-the-fish-overexploitation-of-the-regionally-endemic-galapagos-grouper-mycteroperca-olfax-jenyns-1840
#11
Paolo Usseglio, Alan M Friedlander, Haruko Koike, Johanna Zimmerhackel, Anna Schuhbauer, Tyler Eddy, Pelayo Salinas-de-León
The regionally endemic Galapagos Grouper, locally known as bacalao, is one of the most highly prized finfish species within the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Concerns of overfishing, coupled with a lack of fishing regulations aimed at this species raises concerns about the current population health. We assessed changes in population health over a 30-year period using three simple indicators: (1) percentage of fish below reproductive size (Lm); (2) percentage of fish within the optimum length interval (Lopt); and (3) percentage of mega-spawners in the catch...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760713/assessing-and-managing-stressors-in-a-changing-marine-environment
#12
Peter M Chapman
We are facing a dynamic future in the face of multiple stressors acting individually and in combination: climate change; habitat change/loss; overfishing; invasive species; harmful algal blooms/eutrophication; and, chemical contaminants. Historic assessment and management approaches will be inadequate for addressing risks from climate change and other stressors. Wicked problems (non-linear, complex, competing risks and benefits, not easily solvable), will become increasingly common. We are facing irreversible changes to our planetary living conditions...
October 16, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693628/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-a-fads2-orthologue-in-the-amazonian-teleost-arapaima-gigas
#13
Mónica Lopes-Marques, Rodrigo Ozório, Ricardo Amaral, Douglas R Tocher, Óscar Monroig, L Filipe C Castro
The Brazilian teleost Arapaima gigas is an iconic species of the Amazon. In recent years a significant effort has been put into the farming of arapaima to mitigate overfishing threats. However, little is known regarding the nutritional requirements of A. gigas in particular those for essential fatty acids including the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The ability to biosynthesize LC-PUFA is dependent upon the gene repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads) and elongases (Elovl), as well as their fatty acid specificities...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667909/tuna-and-swordfish-catch-in-the-u-s-northwest-atlantic-longline-fishery-in-relation-to-mesoscale-eddies
#14
Ango C Hsu, Andre M Boustany, Jason J Roberts, Jui-Han Chang, Patrick N Halpin
To analyze the effects of mesoscale eddies, sea surface temperature (SST), and gear configuration on the catch of Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the U.S. northwest Atlantic longline fishery, we constructed multivariate statistical models relating these variables to the catch of the four species in 62 121 longline hauls made between 1993 and 2005. During the same 13-year period, 103 anticyclonic eddies and 269 cyclonic eddies were detected by our algorithm in the region 30-55°N, 30-80°W...
November 2015: Fisheries Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663231/what-is-at-stake-status-and-threats-to-south-china-sea-marine-fisheries
#15
REVIEW
Louise S L Teh, Allison Witter, William W L Cheung, U Rashid Sumaila, Xueying Yin
Governance of South China Sea (SCS) fisheries remains weak despite acknowledgement of their widespread overexploitation for the past few decades. This review incorporates unreported fish catches to provide an improved baseline of the current status and societal contribution of SCS marine fisheries, so that the socio-economic and ecological consequences of continued fisheries unsustainability may be understood. Potential fisheries contribution to food and livelihoods include 11-17 million t in fisheries catch and USD 12-22 × 10(9) in fisheries landed value annually in the 2000s, and close to 3 million jobs...
September 23, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643946/architecture-of-collapse-regime-shift-and-recovery-in-an-hierarchically-structured-marine-ecosystem
#16
Georgi M Daskalov, Laura Boicenco, Alexandre N Grishin, Luminita Lazar, Vesselina Mihneva, Vladislav A Shlyakhov, Mustafa Zengin
By the late 20th century, a series of events or 'natural experiments', for example the depletion of apex predators, extreme eutrophication and blooms of invasive species, had suggested that the Black Sea could be considered as a large ecosystem 'laboratory'. The events resulted in regime shifts cascading through all trophic levels, disturbing ecosystem functioning and damaging the water environment. Causal pathways by which the external (hydroclimate, overfishing) and internal (food web interactions) drivers provoke regime shifts are investigated...
September 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615926/the-extinct-river-shark-glyphis-pagoda-from-the-miocene-of-myanmar-and%C3%A2-a-review-of-the-fossil-record-of-the-genus-glyphis-carcharhiniformes-carcharhinidae
#17
Kenshu Shimada, Naoko Egi, Takehisa Tsubamoto, Maung-Maung Maung-Maung, Thaung-Htike Thaung-Htike, Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein, Yuichiro Nishioka, Teppei Sonoda, Masanaru Takai
We redescribe an extinct river shark, Glyphis pagoda (Noetling), on the basis of 20 teeth newly collected from three different Miocene localities in Myanmar. One locality is a nearshore marine deposit (Obogon Formation) whereas the other two localities represent terrestrial freshwater deposits (Irrawaddy sediments), suggesting that G. pagoda from the Irrawaddy sediments was capable of tolerating low salinity like the extant Glyphis. Glyphis pagoda likely reached up to at least 185 cm in total body length and was probably piscivorous...
September 5, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614563/benthic-surveys-of-the-historic-pearl-oyster-beds-of-qatar-reveal-a-dramatic-ecological-change
#18
D Smyth, I Al-Maslamani, M Chatting, B Giraldes
The study aimed to confirm the presence of historic oyster banks of Qatar and code the biotopes present. The research also collated historical records and scientific publications to create a timeline of fishery activity. The oyster banks where once an extremely productive economic resource however, intense overfishing, extreme environmental conditions and anthropogenic impacts caused a fishery collapse. The timeline highlighted the vulnerability of ecosystem engineering bivalves if overexploited. The current status of the oyster banks meant only one site could be described as oyster dominant...
December 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606943/reproductive-biology-and-feeding-habits-of-the-prickly-dogfish-oxynotus-bruniensis
#19
B Finucci, C Bustamante, E G Jones, M R Dunn
The reproductive biology and diet of prickly dogfish Oxynotus bruniensis, a deep-sea elasmobranch, endemic to the outer continental and insular shelves of southern Australia and New Zealand, and caught as by-catch in demersal fisheries, are described from specimens caught in New Zealand waters. A total of 53 specimens were obtained from research surveys and commercial fisheries, including juveniles and adults ranging in size from 33·5 to 75·6 cm total length (LT ). Estimated size-at-maturity was 54·7 cm LT in males and 64·0 cm LT in females...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606598/temperature-regimes-impact-coral-assemblages-along-environmental-gradients-on-lagoonal-reefs-in-belize
#20
Justin H Baumann, Joseph E Townsend, Travis A Courtney, Hannah E Aichelman, Sarah W Davies, Fernando P Lima, Karl D Castillo
Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by global and local anthropogenic stressors such as rising seawater temperature, nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, and overfishing. Although many studies have investigated the impacts of local and global stressors on coral reefs, we still do not fully understand how these stressors influence coral community structure, particularly across environmental gradients on a reef system. Here, we investigate coral community composition across three different temperature and productivity regimes along a nearshore-offshore gradient on lagoonal reefs of the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS)...
2016: PloS One
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