Read by QxMD icon Read


Matthew McLean, Javier Cuetos-Bueno, Osamu Nedlic, Marston Luckymiss, Peter Houk
Understanding how and why coral reefs have changed over the last twenty to thirty years is crucial for sustaining coral-reef resilience. We used a historical baseline from Kosrae, a typical small island in Micronesia, to examine changes in fish and coral assemblages since 1986. We found that natural gradients in the spatial distribution of fish and coral assemblages have become amplified, as island geography is now a stronger determinant of species abundance patterns, and habitat forming Acropora corals and large-bodied fishes that were once common on the leeward side of the island have become scarce...
2016: PloS One
J R Guest, K Tun, J Low, A Vergés, E M Marzinelli, A H Campbell, A G Bauman, D A Feary, L M Chou, P D Steinberg
Coral cover on reefs is declining globally due to coastal development, overfishing and climate change. Reefs isolated from direct human influence can recover from natural acute disturbances, but little is known about long term recovery of reefs experiencing chronic human disturbances. Here we investigate responses to acute bleaching disturbances on turbid reefs off Singapore, at two depths over a period of 27 years. Coral cover declined and there were marked changes in coral and benthic community structure during the first decade of monitoring at both depths...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
F A Sepúlveda, M T González
The genetic population structure and genetic diversity of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi from the coastal south-eastern Pacific Ocean (SEP) were evaluated at spatiotemporal scale in order to understand the ecology of this species. Between 2012 and 2015, temporal and spatial population genetic structure and a low genetic diversity were detected in S. lalandi from SEP. These results suggest that S. lalandi specimens arriving annually from offshore to the SEP coast could come from at least two genetically distinct populations, revealing a particular life strategy (i...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Paolo Usseglio, Alan M Friedlander, Haruko Koike, Johanna Zimmerhackel, Anna Schuhbauer, Tyler Eddy, Pelayo Salinas-de-León
The regionally endemic Galapagos Grouper, locally known as bacalao, is one of the most highly prized finfish species within the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Concerns of overfishing, coupled with a lack of fishing regulations aimed at this species raises concerns about the current population health. We assessed changes in population health over a 30-year period using three simple indicators: (1) percentage of fish below reproductive size (Lm); (2) percentage of fish within the optimum length interval (Lopt); and (3) percentage of mega-spawners in the catch...
2016: PloS One
Peter M Chapman
We are facing a dynamic future in the face of multiple stressors acting individually and in combination: climate change; habitat change/loss; overfishing; invasive species; harmful algal blooms/eutrophication; and, chemical contaminants. Historic assessment and management approaches will be inadequate for addressing risks from climate change and other stressors. Wicked problems (non-linear, complex, competing risks and benefits, not easily solvable), will become increasingly common. We are facing irreversible changes to our planetary living conditions...
October 16, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Mónica Lopes-Marques, Rodrigo Ozório, Ricardo Amaral, Douglas R Tocher, Óscar Monroig, L Filipe C Castro
The Brazilian teleost Arapaima gigas is an iconic species of the Amazon. In recent years a significant effort has been put into the farming of arapaima to mitigate overfishing threats. However, little is known regarding the nutritional requirements of A. gigas in particular those for essential fatty acids including the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The ability to biosynthesize LC-PUFA is dependent upon the gene repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads) and elongases (Elovl), as well as their fatty acid specificities...
September 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Ango C Hsu, Andre M Boustany, Jason J Roberts, Jui-Han Chang, Patrick N Halpin
To analyze the effects of mesoscale eddies, sea surface temperature (SST), and gear configuration on the catch of Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the U.S. northwest Atlantic longline fishery, we constructed multivariate statistical models relating these variables to the catch of the four species in 62 121 longline hauls made between 1993 and 2005. During the same 13-year period, 103 anticyclonic eddies and 269 cyclonic eddies were detected by our algorithm in the region 30-55°N, 30-80°W...
November 2015: Fisheries Oceanography
Louise S L Teh, Allison Witter, William W L Cheung, U Rashid Sumaila, Xueying Yin
Governance of South China Sea (SCS) fisheries remains weak despite acknowledgement of their widespread overexploitation for the past few decades. This review incorporates unreported fish catches to provide an improved baseline of the current status and societal contribution of SCS marine fisheries, so that the socio-economic and ecological consequences of continued fisheries unsustainability may be understood. Potential fisheries contribution to food and livelihoods include 11-17 million t in fisheries catch and USD 12-22 × 10(9) in fisheries landed value annually in the 2000s, and close to 3 million jobs...
September 23, 2016: Ambio
Georgi M Daskalov, Laura Boicenco, Alexandre N Grishin, Luminita Lazar, Vesselina Mihneva, Vladislav A Shlyakhov, Mustafa Zengin
By the late 20th century, a series of events or 'natural experiments', for example the depletion of apex predators, extreme eutrophication and blooms of invasive species, had suggested that the Black Sea could be considered as a large ecosystem 'laboratory'. The events resulted in regime shifts cascading through all trophic levels, disturbing ecosystem functioning and damaging the water environment. Causal pathways by which the external (hydroclimate, overfishing) and internal (food web interactions) drivers provoke regime shifts are investigated...
September 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
Kenshu Shimada, Naoko Egi, Takehisa Tsubamoto, Maung-Maung Maung-Maung, Thaung-Htike Thaung-Htike, Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein, Yuichiro Nishioka, Teppei Sonoda, Masanaru Takai
We redescribe an extinct river shark, Glyphis pagoda (Noetling), on the basis of 20 teeth newly collected from three different Miocene localities in Myanmar. One locality is a nearshore marine deposit (Obogon Formation) whereas the other two localities represent terrestrial freshwater deposits (Irrawaddy sediments), suggesting that G. pagoda from the Irrawaddy sediments was capable of tolerating low salinity like the extant Glyphis. Glyphis pagoda likely reached up to at least 185 cm in total body length and was probably piscivorous...
2016: Zootaxa
D Smyth, I Al-Maslamani, M Chatting, B Giraldes
The study aimed to confirm the presence of historic oyster banks of Qatar and code the biotopes present. The research also collated historical records and scientific publications to create a timeline of fishery activity. The oyster banks where once an extremely productive economic resource however, intense overfishing, extreme environmental conditions and anthropogenic impacts caused a fishery collapse. The timeline highlighted the vulnerability of ecosystem engineering bivalves if overexploited. The current status of the oyster banks meant only one site could be described as oyster dominant...
September 7, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
B Finucci, C Bustamante, E G Jones, M R Dunn
The reproductive biology and diet of prickly dogfish Oxynotus bruniensis, a deep-sea elasmobranch, endemic to the outer continental and insular shelves of southern Australia and New Zealand, and caught as by-catch in demersal fisheries, are described from specimens caught in New Zealand waters. A total of 53 specimens were obtained from research surveys and commercial fisheries, including juveniles and adults ranging in size from 33·5 to 75·6 cm total length (LT ). Estimated size-at-maturity was 54·7 cm LT in males and 64·0 cm LT in females...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Justin H Baumann, Joseph E Townsend, Travis A Courtney, Hannah E Aichelman, Sarah W Davies, Fernando P Lima, Karl D Castillo
Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by global and local anthropogenic stressors such as rising seawater temperature, nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, and overfishing. Although many studies have investigated the impacts of local and global stressors on coral reefs, we still do not fully understand how these stressors influence coral community structure, particularly across environmental gradients on a reef system. Here, we investigate coral community composition across three different temperature and productivity regimes along a nearshore-offshore gradient on lagoonal reefs of the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS)...
2016: PloS One
Sandra Bibiana Correa, Joisiane K Arujo, Jerry Penha, Catia Nunes da Cunha, Karen E Bobier, Jill T Anderson
When species within guilds perform similar ecological roles, functional redundancy can buffer ecosystems against species loss. Using data on the frequency of interactions between fish and fruit, we assessed whether co-occurring frugivores provide redundant seed dispersal services in three species-rich Neotropical wetlands. Our study revealed that frugivorous fishes have generalized diets; however, large-bodied fishes had greater seed dispersal breadth than small species, in some cases, providing seed dispersal services not achieved by smaller fish species...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
N D Gallo, L A Levin
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) and oxygen limited zones (OLZs) are important oceanographic features in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean, and are characterized by hypoxic conditions that are physiologically challenging for demersal fish. Thickness, depth of the upper boundary, minimum oxygen levels, local temperatures, and diurnal, seasonal, and interannual oxycline variability differ regionally, with the thickest and shallowest OMZs occurring in the subtropics and tropics. Although most fish are not hypoxia-tolerant, at least 77 demersal fish species from 16 orders have evolved physiological, behavioural, and morphological adaptations that allow them to live under the severely hypoxic, hypercapnic, and at times sulphidic conditions found in OMZs...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
Andreas F Haas, Mohamed F M Fairoz, Linda W Kelly, Craig E Nelson, Elizabeth A Dinsdale, Robert A Edwards, Steve Giles, Mark Hatay, Nao Hisakawa, Ben Knowles, Yan Wei Lim, Heather Maughan, Olga Pantos, Ty N F Roach, Savannah E Sanchez, Cynthia B Silveira, Stuart Sandin, Jennifer E Smith, Forest Rohwer
Microbialization refers to the observed shift in ecosystem trophic structure towards higher microbial biomass and energy use. On coral reefs, the proximal causes of microbialization are overfishing and eutrophication, both of which facilitate enhanced growth of fleshy algae, conferring a competitive advantage over calcifying corals and coralline algae. The proposed mechanism for this competitive advantage is the DDAM positive feedback loop (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disease, algae, microorganism), where DOC released by ungrazed fleshy algae supports copiotrophic, potentially pathogenic bacterial communities, ultimately harming corals and maintaining algal competitive dominance...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Frederick Goetz, Sara E Smith, Giles Goetz, Cheryl A Murphy
BACKGROUND: The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a jawless vertebrate that parasitizes fish as an adult and, with overfishing, was responsible for the decline in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations in the Great Lakes. While laboratory studies have looked at the rates of wounding on various fish hosts, there have been few investigations on the physiological effects of lamprey wounding on the host. In the current study, two morphotypes of lake trout, leans and siscowets, were parasitized in the laboratory by sea lampreys and the liver transcriptomes of parasitized and nonparasitized fish were analyzed by RNA-seq (DESeq2 and edgeR) to determine which genes and gene pathways (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) were altered by lamprey parasitism...
2016: BMC Genomics
Carlos Henrique Dos A Dos Santos, Carolina S de Sá Leitão, Maria de N Paula-Silva, Vera Maria F Almeida-Val
Red-bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri) are widely caught with different intensities throughout the region of Solimões-Amazonas River by local fishermen. Thus, the management of this resource is performed in the absence of any information on its genetic stock. P. nattereri is a voracious predator and widely distributed in the Neotropical region, and it is found in other regions of American continent. However, information about genetic variability and structure of wild populations of red-bellied piranha is unavailable...
June 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Tamer A Mansour, Joshua J C Rosenthal, C Titus Brown, Loretta M Roberson
BACKGROUND: Porites astreoides is a ubiquitous species of coral on modern Caribbean reefs that is resistant to increasing temperatures, overfishing, and other anthropogenic impacts that have threatened most other coral species. We assembled and annotated a transcriptome from this coral using Illumina sequences from three different developmental stages collected over several years: free-swimming larvae, newly settled larvae, and adults (>10 cm in diameter). This resource will aid understanding of coral calcification, larval settlement, and host-symbiont interactions...
2016: GigaScience
Hui Huang, Colin Kuo-Chang Wen, Xiubao Li, Yuan Tao, Jainshen Lian, Jianhui Yang, Kah-Leng Cherh
Marine reserves (MRs) have emerged as a preferred method to protect coral reefs from overfishing and human disturbance. However, due to ineffective enforcement by governments, many MRs have been reduced to mere "paper parks" which fail to achieve conservation goals. This is especially true in countries such as China where compliance is low and resources dedicated to enforcement may be scarce. Privately managed marine reserves (PMMRs) may be effective in areas where government enforcement is lacking. To determine if PMMRs are a viable alternative strategy to protect coral reefs, we surveyed and compared fish assemblages and coral coverage in national MRs in Sanya, China to areas of reef privately leased to and managed by dive operators and hospitality industries...
July 18, 2016: Ambio
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"