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Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Peggy Fong
Local anthropogenic stressors such as overfishing, nutrient enrichment and increased sediment loading have been shown to push coral reefs toward greater dominance by algae. In a few cases this shift has been temporary, with the ability to recover to a healthy coral-dominated community after disturbance, suggesting some systems have considerable resilience. However, an understanding of the circumstances under which reefs may recover is only beginning to emerge. We monitored recovery of a coral-dominated reef in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) after cessation of a ∼6 month multiple stressor experiment (with herbivore exclosure, nutrient addition, and sediment addition)...
May 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Silas S O Hung
Sturgeons are fish species of biological and economical importance, and most of them are endangered, vulnerable or rare because of their large size, late sexual maturity, long period between spawning, and longevity. These unique biological characteristics make them highly susceptible to overfishing, degradation of habitat and spawning ground, and contamination of water and sediments by pollutants. The objective of the current review is not to exhaustively include all studies on sturgeon nutrient requirements and utilizations conducted under laboratory conditions, but to critique some studies and update previous reviews...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
Fernanda Almerón-Souza, Christian Sperb, Carolina L Castilho, Pedro I C C Figueiredo, Leonardo T Gonçalves, Rodrigo Machado, Larissa R Oliveira, Victor H Valiati, Nelson J R Fagundes
Elasmobranchs, the group of cartilaginous fishes that include sharks and rays, are especially vulnerable to overfishing due to low fecundity and late sexual maturation. A significant number of elasmobranch species are currently overexploited or threatened by fisheries activities. Additionally, several recent reports have indicated that there has been a reduction in regional elasmobranch population sizes. Brazil is an important player in elasmobranch fisheries and one of the largest importers of shark meat. However, carcasses entering the shark meat market have usually had their fins and head removed, which poses a challenge to reliable species identification based on the morphology of captured individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
A García Rellán, C Vázquez Brea, P M Bello Bugallo
Fishing is one of the most important marine activities. It contributes to both overfishing and marine pollution, the two main threats to the ocean environment. In this context, the aim of this work is to investigate and validate methodologies for the identification of more sustainable operating configurations for a tuna purse seiner. The proposed methodology is based on a previous one applied to secondary industrial systems, taking into account the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control focus, developed for the most potentially industrial polluting sources...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Maria A Pobedintseva, Alexey I Makunin, Iliya G Kichigin, Anastasia I Kulemzina, Nataliya A Serdyukova, Svetlana A Romanenko, Nadezhda V Vorobieva, Elena A Interesova, Marina A Korentovich, Vladimir F Zaytsev, Andrey V Mischenko, Vladimir A Zadelenov, Andrey A Yurchenko, Dmitry Yu Sherbakov, Alexander S Graphodatsky, Vladimir A Trifonov
The sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758) is a relatively small sturgeon widely distributed in Eurasian rivers from the Danube to the Yenisei. During the twentieth century, all wild sterlet populations have declined due to anthropogenic factors including: overfishing, poaching, construction of dams, and pollution. Despite the necessity of characterization both wild and captive stocks, few studies of population genetics have been performed thus far. Here we studied the genetic diversity and geographic structure of sterlet populations across the eastern range - Ob-Irtysh and Yenisei basins - by sequencing a 628-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region...
May 2, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Stéphanie Boulêtreau, Adeline Gaillagot, Laurent Carry, Stéphane Tétard, Eric De Oliveira, Frédéric Santoul
The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the world's most emblematic freshwater fish. Despite conservation and rehabilitation plans, populations of this species are dramatically declining due to human impacts such as habitat fragmentation, overfishing and water pollution. Owing to their large body size, anadromous adults were historically invulnerable to fish predation during their spawning period migration. This invulnerability has disappeared in Western Europe with the introduction of a new freshwater predator, the European catfish (Silurus glanis)...
2018: PloS One
Richard K F Unsworth, Rohani Ambo-Rappe, Benjamin L Jones, Yayu A La Nafie, A Irawan, Udhi E Hernawan, Abigail M Moore, Leanne C Cullen-Unsworth
Indonesia's marine ecosystems form a fundamental part of the world's natural heritage, representing a global maxima of marine biodiversity and supporting the world's second largest production of seafood. Seagrasses are a key part of that support. In the absence of empirical data we present evidence from expert opinions as to the state of Indonesia's seagrass ecosystems, their support for ecosystem services, with a focus on fisheries, and the damaging activities that threaten their existence. We further draw on expert opinion to elicit potential solutions to prevent further loss...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew G Burgess, Grant R McDermott, Brandon Owashi, Lindsey E Peavey Reeves, Tyler Clavelle, Daniel Ovando, Bryan P Wallace, Rebecca L Lewison, Steven D Gaines, Christopher Costello
Reductions in global fishing pressure are needed to end overfishing of target species and maximize the value of fisheries. We ask whether such reductions would also be sufficient to protect non-target species threatened as bycatch. We compare changes in fishing pressure needed to maximize profits from 4713 target fish stocks-accounting for >75% of global catch-to changes in fishing pressure needed to reverse ongoing declines of 20 marine mammal, sea turtle, and seabird populations threatened as bycatch. We project that maximizing fishery profits would halt or reverse declines of approximately half of these threatened populations...
March 16, 2018: Science
Jailson F Moura, Davi C Tavares, Leila S Lemos, Victor Vilas-Bôas Silveira, Salvatore Siciliano, Rachel A Hauser-Davis
The vulnerability of seabirds related to their migratory dynamics is frequently linked to environmental problems along the migration path. In this context, Magellanic penguins (Sphenicus magellanicus) seem to be vulnerable to an extensive range of environmental disturbances during their northward migration along the Atlantic waters of South America, which include by catch, marine debris ingestion, overfishing and environmental contamination. In this study, we investigate mercury accumulation in muscle and hepatic tissues of juveniles penguins collected along the Brazilian coast during three migratory seasonal years (2006, 2008 and 2012) and three areas along a latitudinal gradient...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Linda Wegley Kelly, Andreas F Haas, Craig E Nelson
Over the past 2 decades, molecular techniques have established the critical role of both free-living and host-associated microbial partnerships in the environment. Advancing research to link microbial community dynamics simultaneously to host physiology and ecosystem biogeochemistry is required to broaden our understanding of the ecological roles of environmental microbes. Studies on coral reefs are actively integrating these data streams at multiple levels, from the symbiotic habitat of the coral holobiont to microbially mediated interactions between corals and algae to the effects of these interactions on the microbial community structure, metabolism, and organic geochemistry of the reef ecosystem...
March 2018: MSystems
A Jacobs, C Doran, D S Murray, J Duffill Telsnig, K L Laskowski, N A R Jones, S K Auer, K Praebel
Many fish species face increasing challenges associated with climate change and overfishing. At the same time, aquaculture is becoming vital for food security. Gaining a deeper understanding of the basic biology of fish is therefore more important than ever. Here we synthesize and summarize key questions, opportunities and challenges in fish biology highlighted during a round-table discussion at the 50th Anniversary Symposium of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles, held at the University of Exeter, U...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
T A C Gordon, H R Harding, F K Clever, I K Davidson, W Davison, D W Montgomery, R C Weatherhead, F M Windsor, J D Armstrong, A Bardonnet, E Bergman, J R Britton, I M Côté, D D'agostino, L A Greenberg, A R Harborne, K K Kahilainen, N B Metcalfe, S C Mills, N J Milner, F H Mittermayer, L Montorio, S L Nedelec, J M Prokkola, L A Rutterford, A G V Salvanes, S D Simpson, A Vainikka, J K Pinnegar, E M Santos
Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Ana Paula Barbosa Martins, Leonardo Manir Feitosa, Rosangela Paula Lessa, Zafira Silva Almeida, Michelle Heupel, Wagner Macedo Silva, Ligia Tchaicka, Jorge Luiz Silva Nunes
Increasing fishing effort has caused declines in shark populations worldwide. Understanding biological and ecological characteristics of sharks is essential to effectively implement management measures, but to fully understand drivers of fishing pressure social factors must be considered through multidisciplinary and integrated approaches. The present study aimed to use fisher and trader knowledge to describe the shark catch and product supply chain in Northeastern Brazil, and evaluate perceptions regarding the regional conservation status of shark species...
2018: PloS One
Rômulo V Paixão, Josiane Ribolli, Evoy Zaniboni-Filho
Steindachneridion scriptum is an important species as a resource for fisheries and aquaculture; it is currently threatened and has a reduced occurrence in South America. The damming of rivers, overfishing, and contamination of freshwater environments are the main impacts on the maintenance of this species. We accessed the genetic diversity and structure of S. scriptum using the DNA barcode and control region (D-loop) sequences of 43 individuals from the Upper Uruguay River Basin (UUR) and 10 sequences from the Upper Paraná River Basin (UPR), which were obtained from GenBank...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Jacqueline S Silva-Cavalcanti, Monica F Costa, Luis H B Alves
Spatial and temporal density and biomass of the infaunal mollusk Anomalocardia flexuosa (Linnaeus, 1767) evaluated a tidal plain at Goiana estuary (Northeast Brazil). Three hundred and sixty core samples were taken during an annual cycle from three intertidal habitats (A, B and C). Shell ranged from 2.20 to 28.48 mm (15.08 ± 4.08 mm). Recruitment occurred more intensely from January to March. Total (0-1,129 g m-2 ) differed seasons (rainy and dry), with highest values in the early rainy season (221.0 ± 231...
2018: PeerJ
Shannon J O'Leary, Christopher M Hollenbeck, Robert R Vega, John R Gold, David S Portnoy
BACKGROUND: Southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, historically support a substantial fishery along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the southern United States. Low year-class strengths over the past few years in the western Gulf of Mexico have raised concern that spawning stocks may be overfished. Current management of the resource includes releasing hatchery-raised juveniles to restock bays and estuaries; additionally, there is a growing interest in the potential for commercial aquaculture of the species...
February 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
Bruno C Araújo, Nicholas M Wade, Paulo H de Mello, Jandyr de A Rodrigues-Filho, Carlos E O Garcia, Mariana F de Campos, Natasha A Botwright, Diogo T Hashimoto, Renata G Moreira
Dusky grouper is an important commercial fish species in many countries, but some factors such as overfishing has significantly reduced their natural stocks. Aquaculture emerges as a unique way to conserve this species, but very little biological information is available, limiting the production of this endangered species. To understand and generate more knowledge about this species, liver transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly was performed for E. marginatus by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Sequences obtained were used as a tool to validate the presence of key genes relevant to lipid metabolism, and their expression was quantified by qPCR...
May 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Tyler D Eddy, William W L Cheung, John F Bruno
Coral reefs are important habitats that represent global marine biodiversity hotspots and provide important benefits to people in many tropical regions. However, coral reefs are becoming increasingly threatened by climate change, overfishing, habitat destruction, and pollution. Historical baselines of coral cover are important to understand how much coral cover has been lost, e.g., to avoid the 'shifting baseline syndrome'. There are few quantitative observations of coral reef cover prior to the industrial revolution, and therefore baselines of coral reef cover are difficult to estimate...
2018: PeerJ
Sara Bonanomi, Jacopo Pulcinella, Caterina Maria Fortuna, Fabrizio Moro, Antonello Sala
Elasmobranchs are among the most threatened long-lived marine species worldwide, and incidental capture is a major source of mortality. The northern central Adriatic Sea, though one of the most overfished basins of the Mediterranean Sea, supports a very valuable marine biodiversity, including elasmobranchs. This study assesses the impact of the northern central Adriatic pelagic trawl fishery on common smooth-hound (Mustelus mustelus), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), common eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila), and pelagic stingray (Pteroplatytrygon violacea) by examining incidental catches recorded between 2006 and 2015...
2018: PloS One
Quanquan Cao, Jie Gu, Dan Wang, Fenfei Liang, Hongye Zhang, Xinru Li, Shaowu Yin
In recent years, the production of eel larvae has dramatic declines due to reductions in spawning stocks, overfishing, growth habitat destruction and access reductions, and pollution. Therefore, it is particularly important and urgent for artificial production of glass eels. However, the technique of artificial hatching and rearing larvae is still immature, which has long been regarded as an extremely difficult task. One of the huge gaps is artificial condition which is far from the natural condition to develop their capability of osmoregulation...
January 17, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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