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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900312/dynamic-patterns-of-overexploitation-in-fisheries
#1
Ilaria Perissi, Ugo Bardi, Toufic El Asmar, Alessandro Lavacchi
Understanding overfishing and regulating fishing quotas is a major global challenge for the 21st Century both in terms of providing food for humankind and to preserve the oceans' ecosystems. However, fishing is a complex economic activity, affected not just by overfishing but also by such factors as pollution, technology, financial factors and more. For this reason, it is often difficult to state with complete certainty that overfishing is the cause of the decline of a fishery. In this study, we developed a simple dynamic model specifically designed to isolate and to study the role of depletion on production...
September 10, 2017: Ecological Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890766/some-biological-aspects-of-bigeye-scad-selar-crumenophthalmus-from-bangaa-faru-maldives
#2
Nik Fadzly, Shaza Adeeb, Amir Shah Ruddin Md Sah
In this paper, we studied some biological aspects of big eye scad (Selar crumenophthalmus) from Maldives. The fish sample was collected from the local fish market at Bangaa Faru, Male, Maldives. The length of the samples were ranged from 7.7 cm to 24.5 cm (mean value = 16.85 ± 2.82 cm) in fork length. Body weight ranged between 8 g to 255.6 g (mean value = 87.76 ± 40.41 g). The exponent values (b slope) of lengthweight relationship of S. crumenophthalmus are 2.9838 for females and 2.7687 for males; indicating negative allometric growth pattern for both sexes...
July 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886179/local-overfishing-may-be-avoided-by-examining-parameters-of-a-spatio-temporal-model
#3
Stuart Carson, Nancy Shackell, Joanna Mills Flemming
Spatial erosion of stock structure through local overfishing can lead to stock collapse because fish often prefer certain locations, and fisheries tend to focus on those locations. Fishery managers are challenged to maintain the integrity of the entire stock and require scientific approaches that provide them with sound advice. Here we propose a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal modelling framework for fish abundance data to estimate key parameters that define spatial stock structure: persistence (similarity of spatial structure over time), connectivity (coherence of temporal pattern over space), and spatial variance (variation across the seascape)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873449/benthic-community-structure-on-coral-reefs-exposed-to-intensive-recreational-snorkeling
#4
Bobbie Renfro, Nanette E Chadwick
Chronic anthropogenic disturbances on coral reefs in the form of overfishing and pollution can shift benthic community composition away from stony corals and toward macroalgae. The use of reefs for recreational snorkeling and diving potentially can lead to similar ecological impacts if not well-managed, but impacts of snorkeling on benthic organisms are not well understood. We quantified variation in benthic community structure along a gradient of snorkeling frequency in an intensively-visited portion of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843512/diversity-of-culturable-yeasts-associated-with-zoanthids-from-brazilian-reef-and-its-relation-with-anthropogenic-disturbance
#5
Gustavo Vasconcelos Bastos Paulino, Ciro Ramon Félix, Leonardo Broetto, Melissa Fontes Landell
Some of the main threats to coral reefs come from human actions on marine environment, such as tourism, overfishing and pollution from urban development. While several studies have demonstrated an association between bacteria and corals, demonstrating how these communities react to different anthropogenic stressors, yeast communities associated with corals have received far less attention from researchers. The aim of this work was therefore to describe cultivable yeasts associated with three coral species and to evaluate the influence of sewage discharge on yeasts community...
August 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794280/marine-reserves-solve-an-important-bycatch-problem-in-fisheries
#6
Alan Hastings, Steven D Gaines, Christopher Costello
Management of the diverse fisheries of the world has had mixed success. While managing single species in data-rich environments has been largely effective, perhaps the greatest challenge facing fishery managers is how to deal with mixed stocks of fish with a range of life histories that reside in the same location. Because many fishing gears are nonselective, and the costs of making gear selective can be high, a particular problem is bycatch of weak stocks. This problem is most severe when the weak stock is long-lived and has low fecundity and thus requires a very long recovery time once overfished...
August 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768885/satellite-telemetry-reveals-higher-fishing-mortality-rates-than-previously-estimated-suggesting-overfishing-of-an-apex-marine-predator
#7
Michael E Byrne, Enric Cortés, Jeremy J Vaudo, Guy C McN Harvey, Mark Sampson, Bradley M Wetherbee, Mahmood Shivji
Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the western North Atlantic Ocean...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734075/high-occurrence-of-jellyfish-predation-by-black-browed-and-campbell-albatross-identified-by-dna-metabarcoding
#8
Julie C McInnes, Rachael Alderman, Mary-Anne Lea, Ben Raymond, Bruce E Deagle, Richard A Phillips, Andrew Stanworth, David R Thompson, Paulo Catry, Henri Weimerskirch, Cristián G Suazo, Michaël Gras, Simon N Jarman
Gelatinous zooplankton are a large component of the animal biomass in all marine environments, but are considered to be uncommon in the diet of most marine top predators. However, the diets of key predator groups like seabirds have conventionally been assessed from stomach content analyses, which cannot detect most gelatinous prey. As marine top predators are used to identify changes in the overall species composition of marine ecosystems, such biases in dietary assessment may impact our detection of important ecosystem regime shifts...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731569/diversity-in-thermal-affinity-among-key-piscivores-buffers-impacts-of-ocean-warming-on-predator-prey-interactions
#9
Rebecca L Selden, Ryan D Batt, Vincent S Saba, Malin L Pinsky
Asymmetries in responses to climate change have the potential to alter important predator-prey interactions, in part by altering the location and size of spatial refugia for prey. We evaluated the effect of ocean warming on interactions between four important piscivores and four of their prey in the U.S. Northeast Shelf by examining species overlap under historical conditions (1968-2014) and with a doubling in CO2 . Because both predator and prey shift their distributions in response to changing ocean conditions, the net impact of warming or cooling on predator-prey interactions was not determined a priori from the range extent of either predator or prey alone...
July 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690109/species-interactions-drive-fish-biodiversity-loss-in-a-high-co2-world
#10
Ivan Nagelkerken, Silvan U Goldenberg, Camilo M Ferreira, Bayden D Russell, Sean D Connell
Accelerating climate change is eroding the functioning and stability of ecosystems by weakening the interactions among species that stabilize biological communities against change [1]. A key challenge to forecasting the future of ecosystems centers on how to extrapolate results from short-term, single-species studies to community-level responses that are mediated by key mechanisms such as competition, resource availability (bottom-up control), and predation (top-down control) [2]. We used CO2 vents as potential analogs of ocean acidification combined with in situ experiments to test current predictions of fish biodiversity loss and community change due to elevated CO2 [3] and to elucidate the potential mechanisms that drive such change...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686610/genetic-differentiation-of-spring-spawning-and-fall-spawning-male-atlantic-sturgeon-in-the-james-river-virginia
#11
Matthew T Balazik, Daniel J Farrae, Tanya L Darden, Greg C Garman
Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations are currently at severely depleted levels due to historic overfishing, habitat loss, and pollution. The importance of biologically correct stock structure for effective conservation and management efforts is well known. Recent improvements in our understanding of Atlantic sturgeon migrations, movement, and the occurrence of putative dual spawning groups leads to questions regarding the true stock structure of this endangered species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667790/modeling-the-impacts-of-two-age-related-portfolio-effects-on-recruitment-variability-with-and-without-a-marine-reserve
#12
Carey R McGilliard, André E Punt, Ray Hilborn, Tim Essington
Many rockfish species are long-lived and thought to be susceptible to being overfished. Hypotheses about the importance of older female rockfish to population persistence have led to arguments that marine reserves are needed to ensure the sustainability of rockfish populations. However, the implications of these hypotheses for rockfish population dynamics are still unclear. We modeled two mechanisms by which reducing the proportion of older fish in a population has been hypothesized to influence sustainability, and explored whether these mechanisms influenced mean population dynamics and recruitment variability...
July 1, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654685/spatial-variability-of-spanish-sardine-sardinella-aurita-abundance-as-related-to-the-upwelling-cycle-off-the-southeastern-caribbean-sea
#13
Digna Rueda-Roa, Jeremy Mendoza, Frank Muller-Karger, Juan José Cárdenas, Alina Achury, Yrene Astor
The Sardinella aurita fishery off northeastern Venezuela, region of seasonal wind-driven coastal-upwelling, accounts for 90% of the Caribbean Sea small pelagic catch. This law-protected artisanal fishery takes place up to ~10 km offshore. The spatial distribution, number of schools, and biomass of S. aurita were studied using eight hydro-acoustic surveys (1995-1998). The study included the analysis of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. Surveys were grouped by strong, weak, and transitional upwelling seasons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615502/empirical-links-between-natural-mortality-and-recovery-in-marine-fishes
#14
Jeffrey A Hutchings, Anna Kuparinen
Probability of species recovery is thought to be correlated with specific aspects of organismal life history, such as age at maturity and longevity, and how these affect rates of natural mortality (M) and maximum per capita population growth (rmax). Despite strong theoretical underpinnings, these correlates have been based on predicted rather than realized population trajectories following threat mitigation. Here, we examine the level of empirical support for postulated links between a suite of life-history traits (related to maturity, age, size and growth) and recovery in marine fishes...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603671/spatial-variation-in-coral-reef-fish-and-benthic-communities-in-the-central-saudi-arabian-red-sea
#15
Maha T Khalil, Jessica Bouwmeester, Michael L Berumen
Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3-24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542850/reproductive-biology-of-black-seabream-acanthopagrus-schlegelii-threadfin-porgy-evynnis-cardinalis-and-red-pargo-pagrus-major-in-the-northern-south-china-sea-with-consideration-of-fishery-status-and-management-needs
#16
C S W Law, Y Sadovy de Mitcheson
The reproductive biology of three commercially significant seabream species (family: Sparidae) Acanthopagrus schlegelii, Evynnis cardinalis and Pagrus major, taken from Hong Kong and adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) waters, were investigated for their sexual patterns, spawning seasons, length at maturity and exploitation in relation to their conservation and management status. Histological analysis showed E. cardinalis and P. major to be functionally gonochoristic, the latter having a bisexual juvenile stage and being a rudimentary hermaphrodite...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489903/atoll-scale-patterns-in-coral-reef-community-structure-human-signatures-on-ulithi-atoll-micronesia
#17
Nicole L Crane, Peter Nelson, Avigdor Abelson, Kristin Precoda, John Rulmal, Giacomo Bernardi, Michelle Paddack
The dynamic relationship between reefs and the people who utilize them at a subsistence level is poorly understood. This paper characterizes atoll-scale patterns in shallow coral reef habitat and fish community structure, and correlates these with environmental characteristics and anthropogenic factors, critical to conservation efforts for the reefs and the people who depend on them. Hierarchical clustering analyses by site for benthic composition and fish community resulted in the same 3 major clusters: cluster 1-oceanic (close proximity to deep water) and uninhabited (low human impact); cluster 2-oceanic and inhabited (high human impact); and cluster 3-lagoonal (facing the inside of the lagoon) and inhabited (highest human impact)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422965/diet-and-condition-of-mesopredators-on-coral-reefs-in-relation-to-shark-abundance
#18
Shanta C Barley, Mark G Meekan, Jessica J Meeuwig
Reef sharks may influence the foraging behaviour of mesopredatory teleosts on coral reefs via both risk effects and competitive exclusion. We used a "natural experiment" to test the hypothesis that the loss of sharks on coral reefs can influence the diet and body condition of mesopredatory fishes by comparing two remote, atoll-like reef systems, the Rowley Shoals and the Scott Reefs, in northwestern Australia. The Rowley Shoals are a marine reserve where sharks are abundant, whereas at the Scott Reefs numbers of sharks have been reduced by centuries of targeted fishing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422134/genetic-structure-and-signatures-of-selection-in-grey-reef-sharks-carcharhinus-amblyrhynchos
#19
P Momigliano, R Harcourt, W D Robbins, V Jaiteh, G N Mahardika, A Sembiring, A Stow
With overfishing reducing the abundance of marine predators in multiple marine ecosystems, knowledge of genetic structure and local adaptation may provide valuable information to assist sustainable management. Despite recent technological advances, most studies on sharks have used small sets of neutral markers to describe their genetic structure. We used 5517 nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene to characterize patterns of genetic structure and detect signatures of selection in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos)...
September 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356408/biological-responses-of-sharks-to-ocean-acidification
#20
REVIEW
Rui Rosa, Jodie L Rummer, Philip L Munday
Sharks play a key role in the structure of marine food webs, but are facing major threats due to overfishing and habitat degradation. Although sharks are also assumed to be at relatively high risk from climate change due to a low intrinsic rate of population growth and slow rates of evolution, ocean acidification (OA) has not, until recently, been considered a direct threat. New studies have been evaluating the potential effects of end-of-century elevated CO2 levels on sharks and their relatives' early development, physiology and behaviour...
March 2017: Biology Letters
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