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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615502/empirical-links-between-natural-mortality-and-recovery-in-marine-fishes
#1
Jeffrey A Hutchings, Anna Kuparinen
Probability of species recovery is thought to be correlated with specific aspects of organismal life history, such as age at maturity and longevity, and how these affect rates of natural mortality (M) and maximum per capita population growth (rmax). Despite strong theoretical underpinnings, these correlates have been based on predicted rather than realized population trajectories following threat mitigation. Here, we examine the level of empirical support for postulated links between a suite of life-history traits (related to maturity, age, size and growth) and recovery in marine fishes...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603671/spatial-variation-in-coral-reef-fish-and-benthic-communities-in-the-central-saudi-arabian-red-sea
#2
Maha T Khalil, Jessica Bouwmeester, Michael L Berumen
Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3-24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542850/reproductive-biology-of-black-seabream-acanthopagrus-schlegelii-threadfin-porgy-evynnis-cardinalis-and-red-pargo-pagrus-major-in-the-northern-south-china-sea-with-consideration-of-fishery-status-and-management-needs
#3
C S W Law, Y Sadovy de Mitcheson
The reproductive biology of three commercially significant seabream species (family: Sparidae) Acanthopagrus schlegelii, Evynnis cardinalis and Pagrus major, taken from Hong Kong and adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) waters, were investigated for their sexual patterns, spawning seasons, length at maturity and exploitation in relation to their conservation and management status. Histological analysis showed E. cardinalis and P. major to be functionally gonochoristic, the latter having a bisexual juvenile stage and being a rudimentary hermaphrodite...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489903/atoll-scale-patterns-in-coral-reef-community-structure-human-signatures-on-ulithi-atoll-micronesia
#4
Nicole L Crane, Peter Nelson, Avigdor Abelson, Kristin Precoda, John Rulmal, Giacomo Bernardi, Michelle Paddack
The dynamic relationship between reefs and the people who utilize them at a subsistence level is poorly understood. This paper characterizes atoll-scale patterns in shallow coral reef habitat and fish community structure, and correlates these with environmental characteristics and anthropogenic factors, critical to conservation efforts for the reefs and the people who depend on them. Hierarchical clustering analyses by site for benthic composition and fish community resulted in the same 3 major clusters: cluster 1-oceanic (close proximity to deep water) and uninhabited (low human impact); cluster 2-oceanic and inhabited (high human impact); and cluster 3-lagoonal (facing the inside of the lagoon) and inhabited (highest human impact)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422965/diet-and-condition-of-mesopredators-on-coral-reefs-in-relation-to-shark-abundance
#5
Shanta C Barley, Mark G Meekan, Jessica J Meeuwig
Reef sharks may influence the foraging behaviour of mesopredatory teleosts on coral reefs via both risk effects and competitive exclusion. We used a "natural experiment" to test the hypothesis that the loss of sharks on coral reefs can influence the diet and body condition of mesopredatory fishes by comparing two remote, atoll-like reef systems, the Rowley Shoals and the Scott Reefs, in northwestern Australia. The Rowley Shoals are a marine reserve where sharks are abundant, whereas at the Scott Reefs numbers of sharks have been reduced by centuries of targeted fishing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422134/genetic-structure-and-signatures-of-selection-in-grey-reef-sharks-carcharhinus-amblyrhynchos
#6
P Momigliano, R Harcourt, W D Robbins, V Jaiteh, G N Mahardika, A Sembiring, A Stow
With overfishing reducing the abundance of marine predators in multiple marine ecosystems, knowledge of genetic structure and local adaptation may provide valuable information to assist sustainable management. Despite recent technological advances, most studies on sharks have used small sets of neutral markers to describe their genetic structure. We used 5517 nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene to characterize patterns of genetic structure and detect signatures of selection in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos)...
April 19, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356408/biological-responses-of-sharks-to-ocean-acidification
#7
REVIEW
Rui Rosa, Jodie L Rummer, Philip L Munday
Sharks play a key role in the structure of marine food webs, but are facing major threats due to overfishing and habitat degradation. Although sharks are also assumed to be at relatively high risk from climate change due to a low intrinsic rate of population growth and slow rates of evolution, ocean acidification (OA) has not, until recently, been considered a direct threat. New studies have been evaluating the potential effects of end-of-century elevated CO2 levels on sharks and their relatives' early development, physiology and behaviour...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276458/coral-reef-grazer-benthos-dynamics-complicated-by-invasive-algae-in-a-small-marine-reserve
#8
Kostantinos A Stamoulis, Alan M Friedlander, Carl G Meyer, Iria Fernandez-Silva, Robert J Toonen
Blooms of alien invasive marine algae have become common, greatly altering the health and stability of nearshore marine ecosystems. Concurrently, herbivorous fishes have been severely overfished in many locations worldwide, contributing to increases in macroalgal cover. We used a multi-pronged, interdisciplinary approach to test if higher biomass of herbivorous fishes inside a no-take marine reserve makes this area more resistant to invasive algal overgrowth. Over a two year time period, we (1) compared fish biomass and algal cover between two fished and one unfished patch reef in Hawai'i, (2) used acoustic telemetry to determine fidelity of herbivorous fishes to the unfished reef, and (3) used metabarcoding and next-generation sequencing to determine diet composition of herbivorous fishes...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264006/timing-and-locations-of-reef-fish-spawning-off-the-southeastern-united-states
#9
Nicholas A Farmer, William D Heyman, Mandy Karnauskas, Shinichi Kobara, Tracey I Smart, Joseph C Ballenger, Marcel J M Reichert, David M Wyanski, Michelle S Tishler, Kenyon C Lindeman, Susan K Lowerre-Barbieri, Theodore S Switzer, Justin J Solomon, Kyle McCain, Mark Marhefka, George R Sedberry
Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS) support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221708/improved-management-of-small-pelagic-fisheries-through-seasonal-climate-prediction
#10
Désirée Tommasi, Charles A Stock, Kathleen Pegion, Gabriel A Vecchi, Richard D Methot, Michael A Alexander, David M Checkley
Populations of small pelagic fish are strongly influenced by climate. The inability of managers to anticipate environment-driven fluctuations in stock productivity or distribution can lead to overfishing and stock collapses, inflexible management regulations inducing shifts in the functional response to human predators, lost opportunities to harvest populations, bankruptcies in the fishing industry, and loss of resilience in the human food supply. Recent advances in dynamical global climate prediction systems allow for sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly predictions at a seasonal scale over many shelf ecosystems...
October 12, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198382/re-shifting-the-ecological-baseline-for-the-overexploited-mediterranean-red-coral
#11
J Garrabou, E Sala, C Linares, J B Ledoux, I Montero-Serra, J M Dominici, S Kipson, N Teixidó, E Cebrian, D K Kersting, J G Harmelin
Overexploitation leads to the ecological extinction of many oceanic species. The depletion of historical abundances of large animals, such as whales and sea turtles, is well known. However, the magnitude of the historical overfishing of exploited invertebrates is unclear. The lack of rigorous baseline data limits the implementation of efficient management and conservation plans in the marine realm. The precious Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum has been intensively exploited since antiquity for its use in jewellery...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164155/historical-ecology-and-the-conservation-of-large-hermaphroditic-fishes-in-pacific-coast-kelp-forest-ecosystems
#12
Todd J Braje, Torben C Rick, Paul Szpak, Seth D Newsome, Joseph M McCain, Emma A Elliott Smith, Michael Glassow, Scott L Hamilton
The intensive commercial exploitation of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has become a complex, multimillion-dollar industry. The fishery is of concern because of high harvest levels and potential indirect impacts of sheephead removals on the structure and function of kelp forest ecosystems. California sheephead are protogynous hermaphrodites that, as predators of sea urchins and other invertebrates, are critical components of kelp forest ecosystems in the northeast Pacific. Overfishing can trigger trophic cascades and widespread ecological dysfunction when other urchin predators are also lost from the system...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111002/more-surprises-in-the-global-greenhouse-human-health-impacts-from-recent-toxic-marine-aerosol-formations-due-to-centennial-alterations-of-world-wide-coastal-food-webs
#13
REVIEW
J J Walsh, J M Lenes, R H Weisberg, L Zheng, C Hu, K A Fanning, R Snyder, J Smith
Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings...
March 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071699/rye-polyphenols-and-the-metabolism-of-n-3-fatty-acids-in-rats-a-dose-dependent-fatty-fish-like-effect
#14
Fayçal Ounnas, Michel de Lorgeril, Patricia Salen, François Laporte, Luca Calani, Pedro Mena, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio, Christine Demeilliers
As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers' health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056064/marine-reserve-targets-to-sustain-and-rebuild-unregulated-fisheries
#15
Nils C Krueck, Gabby N Ahmadia, Hugh P Possingham, Cynthia Riginos, Eric A Treml, Peter J Mumby
Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%-20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002499/targeting-abundant-fish-stocks-while-avoiding-overfished-species-video-and-fishing-surveys-to-inform-management-after-long-term-fishery-closures
#16
Richard M Starr, Mary G Gleason, Corina I Marks, Donna Kline, Steve Rienecke, Christian Denney, Anne Tagini, John C Field
Historically, it has been difficult to balance conservation goals and yield objectives when managing multispecies fisheries that include stocks with various vulnerabilities to fishing. As managers try to maximize yield in mixed-stock fisheries, exploitation rates can lead to less productive stocks becoming overfished. In the late 1990s, population declines of several U.S. West Coast groundfish species caused the U.S. Pacific Fishery Management Council to create coast-wide fishery closures, known as Rockfish Conservation Areas, to rebuild overfished species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991535/implications-for-management-and-conservation-of-the-population-genetic-structure-of-the-wedge-clam-donax-trunculus-across-two-biogeographic-boundaries
#17
Amandine D Marie, Christophe Lejeusne, Evgenia Karapatsiou, José A Cuesta, Pilar Drake, Enrique Macpherson, Louis Bernatchez, Ciro Rico
In a resource management perspective, the understanding of the relative influence of the physical factors on species connectivity remains a major challenge and is also of great ecological and conservation biology interest. Despite the overfishing threat on the wedge clam Donax trunculus in Europe, relatively little information is known about its population genetic structure and connectivity and their consequences on conservation policies. We employed 16 microsatellite loci to characterise the genetic diversity and population structure of D...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987303/nonconsumptive-effects-of-a-predator-weaken-then-rebound-over-time
#18
David L Kimbro, Jonathan H Grabowski, A Randall Hughes, Michael F Piehler, J Wilson White
Predators can influence prey traits and behavior (nonconsumptive effects [NCEs]), often with cascading effects for basal resources and ecosystem function. But critiques of NCE experiments suggest that their duration and design produce results that describe the potential importance of NCEs rather than their actual importance. In light of these critiques, we re-evaluated a toadfish (predator), crab (prey), and oyster (resource) NCE-mediated trophic cascade. In a 4-month field experiment, we varied toadfish cue (NCE) and crab density (approximating variation in predator consumptive effects, CE)...
December 17, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973538/abundance-and-distribution-patterns-of-thunnus-albacares-in-isla-del-coco-national-park-through-predictive-habitat-suitability-models
#19
Cristina Gonzáles-Andrés, Priscila F M Lopes, Jorge Cortés, José Luis Sánchez-Lizaso, Maria Grazia Pennino
Information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically and commercially important species is essential for their management and protection. This is especially important as climate change, pollution, and overfishing change the structure and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. In this study, we used Bayesian hierarchical spatial-temporal models to map the Essential Fish Habitats of the Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the waters around Isla del Coco National Park, Pacific Costa Rica, based on independent underwater observations from 1993 to 2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911770/the-right-incentives-enable-ocean-sustainability-successes-and-provide-hope-for-the-future
#20
Jane Lubchenco, Elizabeth B Cerny-Chipman, Jessica N Reimer, Simon A Levin
Healthy ocean ecosystems are needed to sustain people and livelihoods and to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Using the ocean sustainably requires overcoming many formidable challenges: overfishing, climate change, ocean acidification, and pollution. Despite gloomy forecasts, there is reason for hope. New tools, practices, and partnerships are beginning to transform local fisheries, biodiversity conservation, and marine spatial planning. The challenge is to bring them to a global scale...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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