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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344774/physiological-mechanism-of-osmoregulatory-adaptation-in-anguillid-eels
#1
REVIEW
Quanquan Cao, Jie Gu, Dan Wang, Fenfei Liang, Hongye Zhang, Xinru Li, Shaowu Yin
In recent years, the production of eel larvae has dramatic declines due to reductions in spawning stocks, overfishing, growth habitat destruction and access reductions, and pollution. Therefore, it is particularly important and urgent for artificial production of glass eels. However, the technique of artificial hatching and rearing larvae is still immature, which has long been regarded as an extremely difficult task. One of the huge gaps is artificial condition which is far from the natural condition to develop their capability of osmoregulation...
January 17, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320518/increased-mitochondrial-dna-diversity-in-ancient-columbia-river-basin-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#2
Bobbi M Johnson, Brian M Kemp, Gary H Thorgaard
The Columbia River and its tributaries provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Chinook salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315339/bioeconomic-modeling-for-a-small-scale-sea-cucumber-fishery-in-yucatan-mexico
#3
Alvaro Hernández-Flores, Alfonso Cuevas-Jiménez, Alicia Poot-Salazar, Alfonso Condal, Juan Carlos Espinoza-Méndez
Due to the heavy exploitation of holothurians over the last few decades, it is necessary to implement fishing regulations aimed at reversing this situation. Holothurians require specific regulations that take into account their biology and ecology. Their behavior to group and form patches as a strategy for feeding, defense and reproduction, makes them vulnerable to overfishing. The higher the population density, the higher the catchability coefficient, and because they are sedentary organisms, the catchability does not change significantly until the density is very low...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315312/taking-the-metabolic-pulse-of-the-world-s-coral-reefs
#4
Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E Corredor, Rob B Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I Kline, David A Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly McMahon, Melissa Meléndez, Heather N Page, Isaac R Santos, Kai G Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto
Worldwide, coral reef ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressure from a variety of anthropogenic perturbations including ocean warming and acidification, increased sedimentation, eutrophication, and overfishing, which could shift reefs to a condition of net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution and erosion. Herein, we determine the net calcification potential and the relative balance of net organic carbon metabolism (net community production; NCP) and net inorganic carbon metabolism (net community calcification; NCC) within 23 coral reef locations across the globe...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285827/comparing-fishers-and-scientific-estimates-of-size-at-maturity-and-maximum-body-size-as-indicators-for-overfishing
#5
Elizabeth L Mclean, Graham E Forrester
We tested whether fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) of two fish life-history parameters, size-at-maturity (SAM) at maximum body size (MS), was comparable to scientific estimates (SEK) of the same parameters, and whether LEK influenced fishers' perceptions of sustainability. Local ecological knowledge was documented for 82 fishers from a small-scale fishery in Samaná Bay, Dominican Republic, whereas SEK was compiled from the scientific literature. Size-at-maturity estimates derived from LEK and SEK overlapped for most of the 15 commonly harvested species (10 of 15)...
December 29, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188005/connectivity-persistence-and-loss-of-high-abundance-areas-of-a-recovering-marine-fish-population-in-the-northwest-atlantic-ocean
#6
Stephanie A Boudreau, Nancy L Shackell, Stuart Carson, Cornelia E den Heyer
In the early 1990s, the Northwest Atlantic Ocean underwent a fisheries-driven ecosystem shift. Today, the iconic cod (Gadus morhua) remains at low levels, while Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) has been increasing since the mid-2000s, concomitant with increasing interest from the fishing industry. Currently, our knowledge about halibut ecology is limited, and the lack of recovery in other collapsed groundfish populations has highlighted the danger of overfishing local concentrations. Here, we apply a Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal approach to model the spatial structure of juvenile Atlantic halibut over 36 years and three fisheries management regimes using three model parameters to characterize the resulting spatiotemporal abundance structure: persistence (similarity of spatial structure over time), connectivity (coherence of temporal pattern over space), and spatial variance (variation across the seascape)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152747/genetic-structure-and-evidence-of-anthropogenic-effects-on-wild-populations-of-two-neotropical-catfishes-baselines-for-conservation
#7
F D Do Prado, R Fernandez-Cebrián, F Foresti, C Oliveira, P Martínez, F Porto-Foresti
Genetic diversity and structure of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and P. reticulatum, large migratory South America catfishes, where overfishing and the construction of numerous dams in their feeding and reproducing areas are affecting their migratory processes negatively, were studied using microsatellites in samples from Paraguay (that comprises the Pantanal biome), and the upper and lower Paraná Basins. Genetic diversity was in accordance to that observed for other large migratory fishes, but the most geographically isolated populations of P...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136657/contrasts-in-the-marine-ecosystem-of-two-macaronesian-islands-a-comparison-between-the-remote-selvagens-reserve-and-madeira-island
#8
Alan M Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Sabrina Clemente, Emanuel J Gonçalves, Andrew Estep, Paul Rose, Enric Sala
The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira), and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens) within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114261/low-genetic-diversity-and-structuring-of-the-arapaima-osteoglossiformes-arapaimidae-population-of-the-araguaia-tocantins-basin
#9
Carla A Vitorino, Fabrícia Nogueira, Issakar L Souza, Juliana Araripe, Paulo C Venere
The arapaima, Arapaima gigas, is a fish whose populations are threatened by both overfishing and the ongoing destruction of its natural habitats. In the Amazon basin, varying levels of population structure have been found in A. gigas, although no data are available on the genetic diversity or structure of the populations found in the Araguaia-Tocantins basin, which has a topographic profile, hydrological regime, and history of fishing quite distinct from those of the Amazon. In this context, microsatellite markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and connectivity of five wild A...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023580/effects-of-fish-movement-assumptions-on-the-design-of-a-marine-protected-area-to-protect-an-overfished-stock
#10
Jorge Cornejo-Donoso, Baldvin Einarsson, Bjorn Birnir, Steven D Gaines
Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are important management tools shown to protect marine organisms, restore biomass, and increase fisheries yields. While MPAs have been successful in meeting these goals for many relatively sedentary species, highly mobile organisms may get few benefits from this type of spatial protection due to their frequent movement outside the protected area. The use of a large MPA can compensate for extensive movement, but testing this empirically is challenging, as it requires both large areas and sufficient time series to draw conclusions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900312/dynamic-patterns-of-overexploitation-in-fisheries
#11
Ilaria Perissi, Ugo Bardi, Toufic El Asmar, Alessandro Lavacchi
Understanding overfishing and regulating fishing quotas is a major global challenge for the 21st Century both in terms of providing food for humankind and to preserve the oceans' ecosystems. However, fishing is a complex economic activity, affected not just by overfishing but also by such factors as pollution, technology, financial factors and more. For this reason, it is often difficult to state with complete certainty that overfishing is the cause of the decline of a fishery. In this study, we developed a simple dynamic model specifically designed to isolate and to study the role of depletion on production...
September 10, 2017: Ecological Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890766/some-biological-aspects-of-bigeye-scad-selar-crumenophthalmus-from-bangaa-faru-maldives
#12
Nik Fadzly, Shaza Adeeb, Amir Shah Ruddin Md Sah
In this paper, we studied some biological aspects of big eye scad (Selar crumenophthalmus) from Maldives. The fish sample was collected from the local fish market at Bangaa Faru, Male, Maldives. The length of the samples were ranged from 7.7 cm to 24.5 cm (mean value = 16.85 ± 2.82 cm) in fork length. Body weight ranged between 8 g to 255.6 g (mean value = 87.76 ± 40.41 g). The exponent values (b slope) of lengthweight relationship of S. crumenophthalmus are 2.9838 for females and 2.7687 for males; indicating negative allometric growth pattern for both sexes...
July 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886179/local-overfishing-may-be-avoided-by-examining-parameters-of-a-spatio-temporal-model
#13
Stuart Carson, Nancy Shackell, Joanna Mills Flemming
Spatial erosion of stock structure through local overfishing can lead to stock collapse because fish often prefer certain locations, and fisheries tend to focus on those locations. Fishery managers are challenged to maintain the integrity of the entire stock and require scientific approaches that provide them with sound advice. Here we propose a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal modelling framework for fish abundance data to estimate key parameters that define spatial stock structure: persistence (similarity of spatial structure over time), connectivity (coherence of temporal pattern over space), and spatial variance (variation across the seascape)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873449/benthic-community-structure-on-coral-reefs-exposed-to-intensive-recreational-snorkeling
#14
Bobbie Renfro, Nanette E Chadwick
Chronic anthropogenic disturbances on coral reefs in the form of overfishing and pollution can shift benthic community composition away from stony corals and toward macroalgae. The use of reefs for recreational snorkeling and diving potentially can lead to similar ecological impacts if not well-managed, but impacts of snorkeling on benthic organisms are not well understood. We quantified variation in benthic community structure along a gradient of snorkeling frequency in an intensively-visited portion of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843512/diversity-of-culturable-yeasts-associated-with-zoanthids-from-brazilian-reef-and-its-relation-with-anthropogenic-disturbance
#15
Gustavo Vasconcelos Bastos Paulino, Ciro Ramon Félix, Leonardo Broetto, Melissa Fontes Landell
Some of the main threats to coral reefs come from human actions on marine environment, such as tourism, overfishing and pollution from urban development. While several studies have demonstrated an association between bacteria and corals, demonstrating how these communities react to different anthropogenic stressors, yeast communities associated with corals have received far less attention from researchers. The aim of this work was therefore to describe cultivable yeasts associated with three coral species and to evaluate the influence of sewage discharge on yeasts community...
August 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794280/marine-reserves-solve-an-important-bycatch-problem-in-fisheries
#16
Alan Hastings, Steven D Gaines, Christopher Costello
Management of the diverse fisheries of the world has had mixed success. While managing single species in data-rich environments has been largely effective, perhaps the greatest challenge facing fishery managers is how to deal with mixed stocks of fish with a range of life histories that reside in the same location. Because many fishing gears are nonselective, and the costs of making gear selective can be high, a particular problem is bycatch of weak stocks. This problem is most severe when the weak stock is long-lived and has low fecundity and thus requires a very long recovery time once overfished...
August 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768885/satellite-telemetry-reveals-higher-fishing-mortality-rates-than-previously-estimated-suggesting-overfishing-of-an-apex-marine-predator
#17
Michael E Byrne, Enric Cortés, Jeremy J Vaudo, Guy C McN Harvey, Mark Sampson, Bradley M Wetherbee, Mahmood Shivji
Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the western North Atlantic Ocean...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734075/high-occurrence-of-jellyfish-predation-by-black-browed-and-campbell-albatross-identified-by-dna-metabarcoding
#18
Julie C McInnes, Rachael Alderman, Mary-Anne Lea, Ben Raymond, Bruce E Deagle, Richard A Phillips, Andrew Stanworth, David R Thompson, Paulo Catry, Henri Weimerskirch, Cristián G Suazo, Michaël Gras, Simon N Jarman
Gelatinous zooplankton are a large component of the animal biomass in all marine environments, but are considered to be uncommon in the diet of most marine top predators. However, the diets of key predator groups like seabirds have conventionally been assessed from stomach content analyses, which cannot detect most gelatinous prey. As marine top predators are used to identify changes in the overall species composition of marine ecosystems, such biases in dietary assessment may impact our detection of important ecosystem regime shifts...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731569/diversity-in-thermal-affinity-among-key-piscivores-buffers-impacts-of-ocean-warming-on-predator-prey-interactions
#19
Rebecca L Selden, Ryan D Batt, Vincent S Saba, Malin L Pinsky
Asymmetries in responses to climate change have the potential to alter important predator-prey interactions, in part by altering the location and size of spatial refugia for prey. We evaluated the effect of ocean warming on interactions between four important piscivores and four of their prey in the U.S. Northeast Shelf by examining species overlap under historical conditions (1968-2014) and with a doubling in CO2 . Because both predator and prey shift their distributions in response to changing ocean conditions, the net impact of warming or cooling on predator-prey interactions was not determined a priori from the range extent of either predator or prey alone...
July 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690109/species-interactions-drive-fish-biodiversity-loss-in-a-high-co2-world
#20
Ivan Nagelkerken, Silvan U Goldenberg, Camilo M Ferreira, Bayden D Russell, Sean D Connell
Accelerating climate change is eroding the functioning and stability of ecosystems by weakening the interactions among species that stabilize biological communities against change [1]. A key challenge to forecasting the future of ecosystems centers on how to extrapolate results from short-term, single-species studies to community-level responses that are mediated by key mechanisms such as competition, resource availability (bottom-up control), and predation (top-down control) [2]. We used CO2 vents as potential analogs of ocean acidification combined with in situ experiments to test current predictions of fish biodiversity loss and community change due to elevated CO2 [3] and to elucidate the potential mechanisms that drive such change...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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