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Andrea Maselli, Paolo Pani, Vitor Cardoso, Tiziano Abdelsalhin, Leonardo Gualtieri, Valeria Ferrari
Several quantum-gravity models of compact objects predict microscopic or even Planckian corrections at the horizon scale. We explore the possibility of measuring two model-independent, smoking-gun effects of these corrections in the gravitational waveform of a compact binary, namely, the absence of tidal heating and the presence of tidal deformability. For events detectable by the future space-based interferometer LISA, we show that the effect of tidal heating dominates and allows one to constrain putative corrections down to the Planck scale...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Zicao Fu, Donald Marolf
The quantum null energy condition (QNEC) is a conjectured relation between a null version of quantum field theory energy and derivatives of quantum field theory von Neumann entropy. In some cases, divergences cancel between these two terms and the QNEC is intrinsically finite. We study the more general case here where they do not and argue that a QNEC can still hold for bare (unrenormalized) quantities. While the original QNEC applied only to locally stationary null congruences in backgrounds that solve semiclassical theories of quantum gravity, at least in the formal perturbation theory at a small Planck length, the quantum focusing conjecture can be viewed as the special case of our bare QNEC for which the metric is on shell...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Mohammad Nauzef Mahmood, Laura H C Peeters, Micha Paalman, Gijsbertus J Verkerke, Idsart Kingma, Jaap H van Dieën
BACKGROUND: Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy gradually lose the ability to use different muscles of their body. Consequently, they lose the ability to stabilize their trunk against gravity. This hinders them to effectively perform different daily activities. In this paper, we describe the design, realization and evaluation of a trunk orthosis for these patients that should allow them to move their trunk and maintain stability. METHOD: This study aimed to primarily assess the effectiveness of the trunk support system in terms of unloading of trunk muscles, so only healthy participants were recruited for this phase of the study...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
B Velika, A Birkova, R Dudic, P Urdzik, M Marekova
BACKGROUND: A hundred years ago, scientists believed that amniotic fluid is a yellowish hypotonic mixture of foetal urine and maternal transudate with peculiar odour. Current knowledge shows that it represents a dynamic, complex mixture of inorganic and organic compounds. OBJECTIVES: Despite modern technological procedures, information is still lacking about the composition and properties of amniotic fluid. We focused on dynamics of selected physical and chemical properties of the amniotic fluid with the increasing gestational week...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Mareike Roell, Kai Roecker, Dominic Gehring, Hubert Mahler, Albert Gollhofer
The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU) broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Cui Zhang, Liang Li, Yuanda Jiang, Cuicui Wang, Baoming Geng, Yanqiu Wang, Jianling Chen, Fei Liu, Peng Qiu, Guangjie Zhai, Ping Chen, Renfu Quan, Jinfu Wang
Bone formation is linked with osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow. Microgravity in spaceflight is known to reduce bone formation. In this study, we used a real microgravity environment of the SJ-10 Recoverable Scientific Satellite to examine the effects of space microgravity on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs were induced toward osteogenic differentiation for 2 and 7 d in a cell culture device mounted on the SJ-10 Satellite...
March 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Lanny V Griffin, John F Kragh, Michael A Dubick
BACKGROUND: To develop knowledge of mechanical control of bleeding in first aid, a laboratory model was set up to simulate flow through a blood vessel. A collapsible tube was used to mimic an artery in two experiments to determine (1) the extent of volumetric flow reduction caused by increases in the degree of compression of the vessel and (2) the extent of flow reduction caused by increases in the length of compression. METHODS: Water was used in vertical tubing...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Hugo Maciejewski, Abderrahmane Rahmani, Frédéric Chorin, Julien Lardy, Pierre Samozino, Sébastien Ratel
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether three different approaches for evaluating squat jump performance were correlated to rowing ergometer performance in elite adolescent rowers. Fourteen young male competitive rowers (15.3 ± 0.6 years), who took part in the French rowing national championships, performed a 1,500-m all-out rowing ergometer performance (P1500) and a squat jump (SJ) test. The performance in SJ was determined by calculating the jump height (HSJ in cm), a jump index (ISJ = HSJ · body mass · gravity, in J) and the mean power output (PSJ in W) from the Samozino et al...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mark C Lawlor, Melissa A Kluczynski, John M Marzo
BACKGROUND: The utility of computed tomography (CT) for measuring medial clear space (MCS) for determination of the stability of supination external rotation (SER) ankle fractures and in comparison to standard radiographs is unknown. We compared MCS on gravity stress (GS) radiographs to GS and weight bearing (WB) cone-beam CT (CBCT). METHODS: An AO SER 44B3.1 ankle fracture was simulated in 10 human cadavers, also serving as controls. MCS was measured on GS radiographs, GS CBCT, and a simulated WB CBCT scan...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Doreen Huppert, Thomas Brandt
Seasickness, fear of heights, and adverse effects of alcohol were the major areas where descriptions of vertigo and dizziness were found in Roman, Greek, and Chinese texts from about 730 BC-600 AD. A few detailed accounts were suggestive of specific vestibular disorders such as Menière's attacks (Huangdi Neijing, the Yellow Thearch's Classic of Internal Medicine) or vestibular migraine (Aretaeus of Cappadocia). Further, the etymological and metaphorical meanings of the terms and their symptoms provide fascinating historical insights, e...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Sadikah Behbehani, Stefano Polesello, Joseph Hasson, Justin Silver, Weon-Young Son, Michael Dahan
OBJECTIVE: Asses clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates in the presence of non-cavity deforming intramural fibroids in single fresh blastocyst transfer cycles DESIGN CLASSIFICATION: Canadian Task Force classification II-2 SETTING SETTING: Academic fertility center. PATIENT(S): 929 fresh single blastocyst transfer cycles were included; 94 with only non cavity distorting intramural fibroids and 764 without fibroids. Cleavage embryo transfers were excluded to reduce bias based on embryo quality INTERVENTION(S): none MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth rate (LBR) and clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) RESULT(S): There were no differences noted in gravity, parity, or body mass index in patients with and without fibroids...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Antonius J van Rooij, Christopher J Ferguson, Michelle Colder Carras, Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, Jing Shi, Espen Aarseth, Anthony M Bean, Karin Helmersson Bergmark, Anne Brus, Mark Coulson, Jory Deleuze, Pravin Dullur, Elza Dunkels, Johan Edman, Malte Elson, Peter J Etchells, Anne Fiskaali, Isabela Granic, Jeroen Jansz, Faltin Karlsen, Linda K Kaye, Bonnie Kirsh, Andreas Lieberoth, Patrick Markey, Kathryn L Mills, Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen, Amy Orben, Arne Poulsen, Nicole Prause, Patrick Prax, Thorsten Quandt, Adriano Schimmenti, Vladan Starcevic, Gabrielle Stutman, Nigel E Turner, Jan van Looy, Andrew K Przybylski
We greatly appreciate the care and thought that is evident in the 10 commentaries that discuss our debate paper, the majority of which argued in favor of a formalized ICD-11 gaming disorder. We agree that there are some people whose play of video games is related to life problems. We believe that understanding this population and the nature and severity of the problems they experience should be a focus area for future research. However, moving from research construct to formal disorder requires a much stronger evidence base than we currently have...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
G Zhou, K P Wang, H W Liu, L Wang, X F Xiao, D D Dou, Y B Fan
Owing to low bearing capacity and efficiency, traditional filters or adsorbents for removal of contaminants like crystal violet (CV) dye required frequent replacement. Besides, the combination of three-dimensional (3D) printing and bionics could break the constraints of traditional configuration. In this study, a novel depth-type hybrid polylactic acid (PLA)@graphene oxide (GO)/chitosan (CS) sponge filter with bionic fish-mouth structure was prepared and fabricated, assisted by 3D printing and double freeze-drying technology, according to the theories of vertical cross-step filtration and swirling flow...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Min Jiang, Qiang Lyu, Yun-Gang Bai, Huan Liu, Jing Yang, Jiu-Hua Cheng, Ming Zheng, Jin Ma
Recent studies have suggested that microgravity-induced arterial remodelling contributes to post-flight orthostatic intolerance and that multiple mechanisms are involved in arterial remodelling. However, the initial mechanism by which haemodynamic changes induce arterial remodelling is unknown. Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic protein complexes that have mechanotransduction properties. This study aimed to investigate the role of FAs in simulated microgravity-induced basilar and femoral arterial remodelling...
March 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Olivier White, Jean-Louis Thonnard, Philippe Lefèvre, Joachim Hermsdörfer
Humans have a remarkable ability to adjust the way they manipulate tools through a genuine regulation of grip force according to the task. However, rapid changes in the dynamical context may challenge this skill, as shown in many experimental approaches. Most experiments adopt perturbation paradigms that affect only one sensory modality. We hypothesize that very fast adaptation can occur if coherent information from multiple sensory modalities is provided to the central nervous system. Here, we test whether participants can switch between different and never experienced dynamical environments induced by centrifugation of the body...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Christopher T Brennan, David G Jenkins, Mark A Osborne, Michael Oyewale, Vincent G Kelly
This study examined the changes in running performance, maximal blood lactate concentrations and running kinematics between 85%BM anti-gravity (AG) running and normal over-ground (OG) running over an 8-week training period. Fifteen elite male developmental cricketers were assigned to either the AG or over-ground (CON) running group. The AG group (n = 7) ran twice a week on an AG treadmill and once per week over-ground. The CON group (n = 8) completed all sessions OG on grass. Both AG and OG training resulted in similar improvements in time trial and shuttle run performance...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Maria Schöller, Jürgen Kleine-Vehn, Elena Feraru
The typical parameter used to evaluate the root growth response to gravity is the degree of root bending in time. This employs the quantification of the root tip angle toward gravity and, hence, does not directly assess the actual differential growth process. Here, we describe the cortical cell length as a parameter to quantify cell elongation during the gravitropic response, using median longitudinal confocal sections. This analysis depicts that root organ bending is a consequence of differential cellular elongation on the upper versus lower side of the gravistimulated root...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xianqiang Tang, Qingyun Li, Zhenhua Wang, Yanping Hu, Yuan Hu, Miklas Scholz
Novel soil remediation equipment based on electro-kinetic geosynthetics (EKG) was developed for in situ isolation of metals from paddy soil. Two mutually independent field plot experiments A and B (with and without electric current applied) were conducted. After saturation using ferric chloride (FeCl3 ) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 ), soil water drainage capacity, soil cadmium (Cd) removal performance, energy consumption as well as soil residual of iron (Fe) and chloride (Cl) were assessed. Cadmium dissolved in the soil matrix and resulted in a 100% increase of diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extracted phyto-available Cd...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shuai Zhou, Xueyi Yang, Jiliang Hu, Chi Mo, Yanping Cao, Chun Yang
Osteoblasts are sensitive to altered gravity conditions, displaying changes in RNA and protein expression, proliferation, and differentiation; however, the effect of hypergravity on the mechanical properties of osteoblasts remains unclear. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the effect of hypergravity on the elasticity of osteoblasts. We demonstrate that a continuous hypergravitational environment increased the elasticity of the cytoplasm, but not the nuclei zone, of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Richard Boyle, Reza Ehsanian, Alireza Mofrad, Yekaterina Popova, Joseph Varelas
The utricle provides the vestibular reflex pathways with the sensory codes of inertial acceleration of self motion and head orientation with respect to gravity to control balance and equilibrium. Here we present an anatomical description of this structure in the adult oyster toadfish, and establish a morphological basis for interpretation of subsequent functional studies. Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were applied to visualize the sensory epithelium at varying levels of detail, its neural innervation and its synaptic organization...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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