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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156587/a-subnano-g-electrostatic-force-rebalanced-flexure-accelerometer-for-gravity-gradient-instruments
#1
Shitao Yan, Yafei Xie, Mengqi Zhang, Zhongguang Deng, Liangcheng Tu
A subnano-g electrostatic force-rebalanced flexure accelerometer is designed for the rotating accelerometer gravity gradient instrument. This accelerometer has a large proof mass, which is supported inversely by two pairs of parallel leaf springs and is centered between two fixed capacitor plates. This novel design enables the proof mass to move exactly along the sensitive direction and exhibits a high rejection ratio at its cross-axis directions. Benefiting from large proof mass, high vacuum packaging, and air-tight sealing, the thermal Brownian noise of the accelerometer is lowered down to less than 0...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153706/load-sharing-in-the-lumbosacral-spine-in-neutral-standing-flexed-postures-a-combined-finite-element-and-inverse-static-study
#2
Tao Liu, Kinda Khalaf, Sadegh Naserkhaki, Marwan El-Rich
Understanding load-sharing in the spine during in-vivo conditions is critical for better spinal implant design and testing. Previous studies of load-sharing that considered actual spinal geometry applied compressive follower load, with or without moment, to simulate muscle forces. Other studies used musculoskeletal models, which include muscle forces, but model the discs by simple beams or spherical joints and ignore the articular facet joints. This study investigated load-sharing in neutral standing and flexed postures using a detailed Finite Element (FE) model of the ligamentous lumbosacral spine, where muscle forces, gravity loads and intra-abdominal pressure, as predicted by a musculoskeletal model of the upper body, are input into the FE model...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153346/gravity-tissue-engineering-and-the-missing-link
#3
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Pedro L Granja, Manuela E Gomes
The influence of microgravity and hypergravity on living systems has attracted significant attention, but the use of these tools in tissue engineering (TE) remains relatively unexplored. This Forum article highlights an emerging field of research to uncover new potential applications at the interface between altered gravity and TE.
November 16, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152570/the-mediterranean-overflow-in-the-gulf-of-cadiz-a-rugged-journey
#4
Ricardo F Sánchez-Leal, María Jesús Bellanco, Luis Miguel Fernández-Salas, Jesús García-Lafuente, Marc Gasser-Rubinat, César González-Pola, Francisco J Hernández-Molina, Josep L Pelegrí, Alvaro Peliz, Paulo Relvas, David Roque, Manuel Ruiz-Villarreal, Simone Sammartino, José Carlos Sánchez-Garrido
The pathways and transformations of dense water overflows, which depend on small-scale interactions between flow dynamics and erosional-depositional processes, are a central piece in the ocean's large-scale circulation. A novel, high-resolution current and hydrographic data set highlights the intricate pathway travelled by the saline Mediterranean Overflow as it enters the Atlantic. Interaction with the topography constraints its spreading. Over the initial 200 km west of the Gibraltar gateway, distinct channels separate the initial gravity current into several plunging branches depth-sorted by density...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151808/constraining-generalized-non-local-cosmology-from-noether-symmetries
#5
Sebastian Bahamonde, Salvatore Capozziello, Konstantinos F Dialektopoulos
We study a generalized non-local theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether symmetry approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings is needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to be introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology...
2017: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149418/randomized-multicenter-trial-of-lateral-trendelenburg-versus-semirecumbent-body-position-for-the-prevention-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#6
Gianluigi Li Bassi, Mauro Panigada, Otavio T Ranzani, Alberto Zanella, Lorenzo Berra, Massimo Cressoni, Vieri Parrini, Hassan Kandil, Giovanni Salati, Paola Selvaggi, Alessandro Amatu, Miquel Sanz-Moncosi, Emanuela Biagioni, Fernanda Tagliaferri, Mirella Furia, Giovanna Mercurio, Antonietta Costa, Tullio Manca, Simone Lindau, Jaksa Babel, Marco Cavana, Chiara Chiurazzi, Joan-Daniel Marti, Dario Consonni, Luciano Gattinoni, Antonio Pesenti, Janine Wiener-Kronish, Cecilia Bruschi, Andrea Ballotta, Pierpaolo Salsi, Sergio Livigni, Giorgio Iotti, Javier Fernandez, Massimo Girardis, Maria Barbagallo, Gabriella Moise, Massimo Antonelli, Maria Luisa Caspani, Antonella Vezzani, Patrick Meybohm, Vladimir Gasparovic, Edoardo Geat, Marcelo Amato, Michael Niederman, Theodor Kolobow, Antoni Torres
PURPOSE: The lateral Trendelenburg position (LTP) may hinder the primary pathophysiologic mechanism of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We investigated whether placing patients in the LTP would reduce the incidence of VAP in comparison with the semirecumbent position (SRP). METHODS: This was a randomized, multicenter, controlled study in invasively ventilated critically ill patients. Two preplanned interim analyses were performed. Patients were randomized to be placed in the LTP or the SRP...
November 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148004/cephalad-dislocation-of-piccs-under-different-upper-limb-positions-influence-of-age-gender-bmi-number-of-lumens
#7
Chie-Hee Cho, Peter Schlattmann, Sebastian Nagel, Nina Schmittbuttner, Frederic Hartung, Ulf K Teichgraber
PURPOSE: To evaluate parameters that influence the amount of movement of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) tips regarding upper limb movement. METHODS: In a prospective 12-month observational study, 200 PICCs were implanted in 162 patients (mean age 56.8 ± 15.2 years) by interventional radiologists into the basilic vein of the mid-aspect of the upper arm. Three PICC tip positions were documented with a chest x-ray: patient supine with an abducted (90°), an adducted arm, and in an upright position with an adducted arm...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146981/fast-forwarding-of-hamiltonians-and-exponentially-precise-measurements
#8
Yosi Atia, Dorit Aharonov
The time-energy uncertainty relation (TEUR) [Formula: see text] holds if the Hamiltonian is completely unknown, but can be violated otherwise; here we initiate a rigorous study describing when and to what extent such violations can occur. To this end, we propose a computational version of the TEUR (cTEUR), in which Δt is replaced by the computational complexity of simulating the measurement. cTEUR violations are proved to occur if and only if the Hamiltonian can be fast forwarded (FF), namely, simulated for time t with complexity significantly smaller than t...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145128/microgravity-simulation-activates-cdc42-via-rap1gds1-to-promote-vascular-branch-morphogenesis-during-vasculogenesis
#9
Shouli Wang, Zhao Yin, Bei Zhao, Yanmei Qi, Jie Liu, Saum A Rahimi, Leonard Y Lee, Shaohua Li
Gravity plays an important role in normal tissue maintenance. The ability of stem cells to repair tissue loss in space through regeneration and differentiation remains largely unknown. To investigate the impact of microgravity on blood vessel formation from pluripotent stem cells, we employed the embryoid body (EB) model for vasculogenesis and simulated microgravity by clinorotation. We first differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells into cystic EBs containing two germ layers and then analyzed vessel formation under clinorotation...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144567/reliable-recognition-of-lying-sitting-and-standing-with-a-hip-worn-accelerometer
#10
Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Pauliina Husu, Jaana Suni, Tommi Vasankari, Harri Sievänen
Hip-worn accelerometers are widely used to estimate physical activity (PA), but the accuracy of acceleration-threshold based analysis is compromised when it comes to identifying stationary and sedentary behaviors, let alone classifying body postures into lying, sitting or standing. The purpose of this study was to devise a novel method for accurate classification of body posture using triaxial data from hip-worn accelerometer and to evaluate its performance in free-living conditions against a thigh-worn accelerometer...
November 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142237/inner-ear-otolith-asymmetry-in-late-larval-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus-perciformes-showing-kinetotic-behaviour-under-diminished-gravity
#11
Ralf Anken, Miriam Knie, Reinhard Hilbig
The inner ears of all vertebrates are designed to perceive auditory and vestibular inputs. Although a tremendous diversity in the inner ear can be found even among bony fishes, the morphologies of the utricle and of the semicircular canals are rather conservative among vertebrates. Fish show kinetoses under reduced gravity (spinning movements and looping responses) and are regarded model organisms concerning the performance of the otolithic organs. Otoliths can be analysed easily because they are compact, in contrast to the otoconial masses of other vertebrates...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141844/architectural-t-wave-analysis-and-identification-of-on-therapy-breakthrough-arrhythmic-risk-in-type-1-and-type-2-long-qt-syndrome
#12
Alan Sugrue, Ram K Rohatgi, Peter A Noseworthy, Vaclav Kremen, J Martijn Bos, Bo Qiang, Yehu Sapir, Zachi I Attia, Christopher G Scott, Peter Brady, Samuel J Asirvatham, Paul A Friedman, Michael J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Although the hallmark of long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is abnormal cardiac repolarization, there are varying degrees of phenotypic expression and arrhythmic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of a morphological T-wave analysis program in defining breakthrough LQTS arrhythmic risk beyond the QTc value. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 407 genetically confirmed patients with LQT1 (n=246; 43% men) and LQT2 (n=161; 41% men) over the mean follow-up period of 6...
November 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140780/full-body-animation-of-human-locomotion-in-reduced-gravity-using-physics-based-control
#13
Yun-Hyeong Kim, Taesoo Kwon, Daeun Song, Young J Kim
The proposed physics-based approach can generate stable and robust full-body animation of various gaits under different gravitational conditions. As input, this method takes motion-captured human motions in the Earth's gravity and builds an inverted-pendulum on cart (IPC) control model, which is analyzed using the motion-captured data. The authors use a pre-estimation model based on the Froude number to predict the desired velocity and stride frequency of a character model in hypogravity and then generate full-body animation using a pendulum trajectory generator, motion planner, and tracking...
November 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140244/subcellular-analysis-of-pigeon-hair-cells-implicates-vesicular-trafficking-in-cuticulosome-formation-and-maintenance
#14
Simon Nimpf, Erich Pascal Malkemper, Mattias Lauwers, Lyubov Ushakova, Gregory Nordmann, Andrea Wenninger-Weinzierl, Thomas R Burkard, Sonja Jacob, Thomas Heuser, Guenter P Resch, David A Keays
Hair cells are specialized sensors located in the inner ear that enable the transduction of sound, motion, and gravity into neuronal impulses. In birds some hair cells contain an iron-rich organelle, the cuticulosome, that has been implicated in the magnetic sense. Here, we exploit histological, transcriptomic and tomographic methods to investigate the development of cuticulosomes, as well as the molecular and subcellular architecture of cuticulosome positive hair cells. We show that this organelle forms rapidly after hatching in a process that involves vesicle fusion and nucleation of ferritin nanoparticles...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140134/a-nutrition-recovery-station-following-recreational-exercise-improves-fruit-consumption-but-does-not-influence-fluid-recovery
#15
Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Caroline Young, Gregory R Cox, Chris Irwin
Immediate post-exercise access to fruit/fluid via a recovery "station" is a common feature of mass participation sporting events. Yet little evidence exists examining their impact on subsequent dietary intake. The aim of this study was to determine if access to fruit/water/sports drinks within a recovery station significantly alters dietary and fluid intakes in the immediate post-exercise period and influences hydration status the next morning. 127 (79 males) healthy participants (mean±SD, age=22.5±3.5y, body mass (BM)=73±13kg) completed two self-paced morning 10km runs separated by 1 week...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138743/renal-adenocarcinoma-associated-erythrocytosis-in-a-cat-clinicopathological-features-and-immunohistochemical-results
#16
Roberta Troia, Chiara Agnoli, Federico Fracassi, Giuliano Bettini, Alessandra Sfacteria, Luciano Pisoni, Francesco Dondi
This report documents a case of secondary inappropriate erythrocytosis in a cat with renal cell adenocarcinoma, its stabilization through manual erythrocytapheresis, and the EPO-immunostaining on the affected kidney. An 11-year-old cat was presented with lethargy, weight loss and polyuria/polydipsia. An abdominal mass was detected upon physical examination. Clinicopathological work-up revealed marked erythrocytosis (HCT value 64.8%), renal azotemia and decreased urine specific gravity (USG). An abdominal ultrasound was performed, localizing the mass in the right kidney...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138630/proteomic-analysis-of-coprinopsis-cinerea-under-conditions-of-horizontal-and-perpendicular-gravity
#17
Ji-Su Kim, Young-Sang Kwon, Dong-Won Bae, Youn-Sig Kwak, Yong-Bum Kwack
Coprinopsis cinerea was employed to investigate the fungal response to gravity. Mycelium growth revealed a consistent growth pattern, irrespective of the direction of gravity (i.e., horizontal vs. perpendicular). However, the fruiting body grew in the direction opposite to that of gravity once the primordia had formed. For the proteomic analysis, only curved-stem samples were used. Fifty-one proteins were identified and classified into 13 groups according to function. The major functional groups were hydrolases and transferases (16%), signal transduction (15%), oxidoreductases and isomerases (11%), carbohydrate metabolism (9%), and transport (5%)...
September 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134681/gravity-constraints-drive-biological-systems-toward-specific-organization-patterns-commitment-of-cell-specification-is-constrained-by-physical-cues
#18
REVIEW
Mariano Bizzarri, Maria Grazia Masiello, Alessandro Giuliani, Alessandra Cucina
Different cell lineages growing in microgravity undergo a spontaneous transition leading to the emergence of two distinct phenotypes. By returning these populations in a normal gravitational field, the two phenotypes collapse, recovering their original configuration. In this review, we hypothesize that, once the gravitational constraint is removed, the system freely explores its phenotypic space, while, when in a gravitational field, cells are "constrained" to adopt only one favored configuration. We suggest that the genome allows for a wide range of "possibilities" but it is unable per se to choose among them: the emergence of a specific phenotype is enabled by physical constraints that drive the system toward a preferred solution...
November 14, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132828/lactoferrin-chitosan-and-melaleuca-alternifolia-natural-products-that-show-promise-in-candidiasis-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Lorena de Oliveira Felipe, Willer Ferreira da Silva Júnior, Katialaine Corrêa de Araújo, Daniela Leite Fabrino
The evolution of microorganisms resistant to many medicines has become a major challenge for the scientific community around the world. Motivated by the gravity of such a situation, the World Health Organization released a report in 2014 with the aim of providing updated information on this critical scenario. Among the most worrying microorganisms, species from the genus Candida have exhibited a high rate of resistance to antifungal drugs. Therefore, the objective of this review is to show that the use of natural products (extracts or isolated biomolecules), along with conventional antifungal therapy, can be a very promising strategy to overcome microbial multiresistance...
November 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131673/evaluation-of-parasite-egg-and-cyst-recovery-using-devices-designed-for-centrifugal-or-stationary-flotation
#20
Kelsea L Medeiros, Araceli Lucio-Forster, Dwight Douglas Bowman
Two new devices (OT, ST), were recently introduced for the recovery of parasite eggs and cysts for microscopic examination. These devices, two stationary flotation devices, and a standard double-centrifugal sugar-flotation were compared using common flotation solutions and methods recommended by the manufacturers for the recovery of hookworm, ascaridoid, and whipworm eggs from companion animal fecal samples. Additionally, the recovery of Giardia cysts in the OT device using a zinc sulfate versus sodium nitrate solution was evaluated...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
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