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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331909/linking-composition-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-eps-to-the-physical-structure-and-hydraulic-resistance-of-membrane-biofilms
#1
Peter Desmond, James P Best, Eberhard Morgenroth, Nicolas Derlon
The effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the meso-scale physical structure and hydraulic resistance of membrane biofilms during gravity driven membrane (GDM) filtration was investigated. Biofilms were developed on the surface of ultrafiltration membranes during dead-end filtration at ultra-low pressure (70 mbar). Biofilm EPS composition (total protein, polysaccharide and eDNA) was manipulated by growing biofilms under contrasting nutrient conditions. Nutrient conditions consisted of (i) a nutrient enriched condition with a nutrient ratio of 100:30:10 (C: N: P), (ii) a phosphorus limitation (C: N: P ratio: 100:30:0), and (iii) a nitrogen limitation (C: N: P ratio: 100:0:10)...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331401/preoperative-dipstick-albuminuria-and-other-urine-abnormalities-predict-acute-kidney-injury-and-patient-outcomes
#2
Sehoon Park, Soojin Lee, Anna Lee, Jin Hyuk Paek, Ho Jun Chin, Ki Young Na, Dong-Wan Chae, Sejoong Kim
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether pathologic findings on preoperative urinalysis are associated with the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review to investigate this association. METHODS: We assessed the clinical significance of preoperative dipstick urinalysis in a 10-year surgery cohort from a tertiary hospital in Korea. Patients without available information on perioperative serum creatinine levels or kidney injury prior to surgery were excluded...
January 10, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329343/effect-of-freeze-thaw-cycling-on-grain-size-of-biochar
#3
Zuolin Liu, Brandon Dugan, Caroline A Masiello, Leila M Wahab, Helge M Gonnermann, Jeffrey A Nittrouer
Biochar may improve soil hydrology by altering soil porosity, density, hydraulic conductivity, and water-holding capacity. These properties are associated with the grain size distributions of both soil and biochar, and therefore may change as biochar weathers. Here we report how freeze-thaw (F-T) cycling impacts the grain size of pine, mesquite, miscanthus, and sewage waste biochars under two drainage conditions: undrained (all biochars) and a gravity-drained experiment (mesquite biochar only). In the undrained experiment plant biochars showed a decrease in median grain size and a change in grain-size distribution consistent with the flaking off of thin layers from the biochar surface...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328726/atom-interferometry-with-the-sr-optical-clock-transition
#4
Liang Hu, Nicola Poli, Leonardo Salvi, Guglielmo M Tino
We report on the realization of a matter-wave interferometer based on single-photon interaction on the ultranarrow optical clock transition of strontium atoms. We experimentally demonstrate its operation as a gravimeter and as a gravity gradiometer. No reduction of interferometric contrast was observed for a total interferometer time up to ∼10  ms, limited by geometric constraints of the apparatus. Single-photon interferometers represent a new class of high-precision sensors that could be used for the detection of gravitational waves in so far unexplored frequency ranges and to enlighten the boundary between quantum mechanics and general relativity...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327715/de-novo-pure-erythroid-leukemia-refining-the-clinicopathologic-and-cytogenetic-characteristics-of-a-rare-entity
#5
Erica F Reinig, Patricia T Greipp, April Chiu, Matthew T Howard, Kaaren K Reichard
Per the revised fourth edition World Health Organization classification of acute myeloid leukemia, pure erythroid leukemia is now the sole type of acute erythroid leukemia. The diagnosis of this rare entity is often challenging and the cytologic overlap with non-neoplastic (eg, megaloblastic anemia) and neoplastic entities (eg, other types of acute leukemia and non-hematopoietic malignancies) warrants a significant degree of clinical, laboratory, immunophenotypic, and genetic investigation. Given the limited number of reports of this rare and diagnostically challenging entity, we report detailed clinicopathologic characteristics from 15 patients, the largest series thus far, of primary de novo pure erythroid leukemia to provide further diagnostic insights into this entity and reveal strategies for making the diagnosis...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326976/ultrafast-rotation-of-magnetically-levitated-macroscopic-steel-spheres
#6
Marcel Schuck, Daniel Steinert, Thomas Nussbaumer, Johann W Kolar
Our world is increasingly powered by electricity, which is largely converted to or from mechanical energy using electric motors. Several applications have driven the miniaturization of these machines, resulting in high rotational speeds. Although speeds of several hundred thousand revolutions per minute have been used industrially, we report the realization of an electrical motor reaching 40 million rpm to explore the underlying physical boundaries. Millimeter-scale steel spheres, which are levitated and accelerated by magnetic fields inside a vacuum, are used as a rotor...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326135/isolation-of-human-testicular-cells-and-co-culture-with-embryonic-stem-cells
#7
Meenakshi Gaur, Cyril Ramathal, Renee A Reijo Pera, Paul J Turek, Constance M John
Our overall goal is to create a three-dimensional human cell-based testicular model for toxicological and spermatogenesis studies. Methods to purify the major somatic testicular cells, namely Leydig cells (LCs), peritubular myoid cells (PCs) and Sertoli cells (SCs), from rats, mice and guinea pigs have been reported. In humans, the isolation of populations enriched for primary LCs, PCs or SCs also have described. One objective of this study was to determine if populations of cells enriched for all three of these cell types can be isolated from testes of single human donors, and we were successful in doing so from testes of three donors...
February 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324818/root-tip-mediated-inhibition-of-hydrotropism-is-accompanied-with-the-suppression-of-asymmetric-expression-of-auxin-inducible-genes-in-response-to-moisture-gradients-in-cucumber-roots
#8
Nobuharu Fujii, Sachiko Miyabayashi, Tomoki Sugita, Akie Kobayashi, Chiaki Yamazaki, Yutaka Miyazawa, Motoshi Kamada, Haruo Kasahara, Ikuko Osada, Toru Shimazu, Yasuo Fusejima, Akira Higashibata, Takashi Yamazaki, Noriaki Ishioka, Hideyuki Takahashi
In cucumber seedlings, gravitropism interferes with hydrotropism, which results in the nearly complete inhibition of hydrotropism under stationary conditions. However, hydrotropic responses are induced when the gravitropic response in the root is nullified by clinorotation. Columella cells in the root cap sense gravity, which induces the gravitropic response. In this study, we found that removing the root tip induced hydrotropism in cucumber roots under stationary conditions. The application of auxin transport inhibitors to cucumber seedlings under stationary conditions suppressed the hydrotropic response induced by the removal of the root tip...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324450/quantification-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoform-mrna-transcripts-in-the-supraspinatus-muscle-of-vertical-clinger-primates
#9
Josep Maria Potau, Rosa Artells, Carmen Muñoz, Júlia Arias-Martorell, Juan Francisco Pastor, Félix Jesús de Paz, Mercedes Barbosa, Gaëlle Bello-Hellegouarch, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez
Vertical clinging is a specialized form of locomotion characteristic of the primate family Callitrichidae. Vertical clinging requires these pronograde primates to maintain a vertical posture, so the protraction of their forelimbs must resist gravity. Since pronograde primates usually move as horizontal quadrupeds, we hypothesized that the supraspinatus muscle of vertical clingers would present specific characteristics related to the functional requirements imposed on the shoulder area by vertical clinging. To test this hypothesis, we quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction the mRNA transcripts of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus muscle of 15 species of pronograde primates, including vertical clingers...
January 12, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323150/stratification-induced-reorientation-of-disk-settling-through-ambient-density-transition
#10
Magdalena M Mrokowska
Settling due to gravity force is a basic transport mechanism of solid particles in fluids in the Earth. A large portion of particles occurring in nature and used in technical applications are non-spherical. Settling of particles is usually studied in homogeneous ambient conditions, however, stratification is inherent of natural fluids. It has been acknowledged that stratification modifies the velocity of settling spheres and amorphous aggregates. However, the effect of particle shape on the dynamics of settling through density-stratified ambient fluid has not been recognized well enough...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322521/fitting-unanchored-puzzle-pieces-in-the-skeleton-appropriate-3d-scapular-positions-for-the-quadrupedal-support-in-tetrapods
#11
Shin-Ichi Fujiwara
Deducing the scapular positions of extinct tetrapod skeletons remains difficult, because the scapulae and rib cage are connected with each other not directly by skeletal joint, but by thoracic muscles. In extant non-testudine quadrupedal tetrapods, the top positions of the scapulae/suprascapulae occur at the anterior portion of the rib cage, above the vertebral column and near the median plane. The adequacy of this position was tested using three-dimensional mechanical models of Felis, Rattus and Chamaeleo that assumed stances on a forelimb on a single side and the hindlimbs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319761/isotonic-sports-drink-promotes-rehydration-and-decreases-proteinuria-following-karate-training
#12
Simone Geraldini, Igor de Freitas Cruz, Alexandre Romero, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Michelle Parreira de Campos
INTRODUCTION: Adequate hydration status in the sport is essential for good health, yet the relationship between hydration, proteinuria and sports is little studied. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of an isotonic sports drink as rehydration strategy on the hydration status and proteinuria after karate training. METHODS: Ten athletes participated in this study. In the first session of standard training, called observation training session (STO), the athletes hydrated themselves according to their habits, and in the second session of standard training, called nutritional intervention training session (STIN), an ideal practice of hydration protocol was followed, using an isotonic sports drink as a rehydration liquid during the training...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317681/the-effect-of-gravity-on-flame-spread-over-pmma-cylinders
#13
Shmuel Link, Xinyan Huang, Carlos Fernandez-Pello, Sandra Olson, Paul Ferkul
Fire safety is a concern in space travel, particularly with the current plans of increasing the length of the manned space missions, and of using spacecraft atmospheres different than in Earth, such as microgravity, low-velocity gas flow, low pressure and elevated oxygen concentration. In this work, the spread of flame over a thermoplastic polymer, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), was conducted in the International Space Station and on Earth. The tests consisted of determining the opposed flame spread rate over PMMA cylinders under low-flow velocities ranging from 0...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317639/tectonically-triggered-sediment-and-carbon-export-to-the-hadal-zone
#14
Rui Bao, Michael Strasser, Ann P McNichol, Negar Haghipour, Cameron McIntyre, Gerold Wefer, Timothy I Eglinton
Sediments in deep ocean trenches may contain crucial information on past earthquake history and constitute important sites of carbon burial. Here we present 14C data on bulk organic carbon (OC) and its thermal decomposition fractions produced by ramped pyrolysis/oxidation for a core retrieved from the >7.5 km-deep Japan Trench. High-resolution 14C measurements, coupled with distinctive thermogram characteristics of OC, reveal hemipelagic sedimentation interrupted by episodic deposition of pre-aged OC in the trench...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317624/fast-intensity-adaptation-enhances-the-encoding-of-sound-in-drosophila
#15
Jan Clemens, Nofar Ozeri-Engelhard, Mala Murthy
To faithfully encode complex stimuli, sensory neurons should correct, via adaptation, for stimulus properties that corrupt pattern recognition. Here we investigate sound intensity adaptation in the Drosophila auditory system, which is largely devoted to processing courtship song. Mechanosensory neurons (JONs) in the antenna are sensitive not only to sound-induced antennal vibrations, but also to wind or gravity, which affect the antenna's mean position. Song pattern recognition, therefore, requires adaptation to antennal position (stimulus mean) in addition to sound intensity (stimulus variance)...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316572/improvement-of-respiratory-depression-in-a-patient-with-primary-medullary-hemorrhage-following-removal-of-hematoma-in-the-half-sitting-position
#16
Shinya Ichimura, Helmut Bertalanffy, Masato Nakaya, Yoichi Mochizuki, Raita Fukaya, Goroku Moriwaki, Masahito Fukuchi, Koji Fujii
Primary medullary hemorrhage is a rare event that may result in ataxic respiration. Although it remains controversial whether primary medullary hemorrhage should be managed conservatively or surgically, recent advancements in neuroimaging and microsurgical techniques have shown promise for improving outcomes and prognosis following surgery. The present report discusses the case of a 70-year-old woman admitted to our institution due to sudden-onset nausea and vomiting. The patient underwent surgical removal of a right medullary hematoma for the treatment of daytime respiratory depression and nocturnal apnea while in the half-sitting position...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316029/physiological-significance-of-gravity-receptors-on-larval-cephalic-cuticle-in-the-silk-moth-antheraea-proylei-jolly
#17
Sudip Dey, S Choudhury
The lateral aspects of larval cephalic cuticle of oak tasar moth, Antheraea proylei, a hybrid between Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea roylei exhibited the presence of gravity receptors in the form of dorsal campaniform sensilla. The distribution pattern and number of dome shaped dorsal campaniform sensilla were found to vary in different larval stages. In the first and second larval stages, 4-5 sensilla were localized near the apex of the lateral aspects of the cephalic cuticle on either side of the head. From the third larval stage onwards, on the other hand, both the right and left lateral aspects of the cephalic cuticle were covered with innumerable dome shaped dorsal campaniform sensilla...
January 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313368/tackling-the-health-impacts-of-climate-change-in-the-twenty-first-century
#18
Nicholas Heng
The turn of the twenty-first century has borne witness to the seemingly relentless march of climate change, with global mean temperatures and sea levels projected to rise significantly in the near future. Despite considerable improvements in healthcare, mortality rates and life expectancy worldwide over the past few decades, there is increasing evidence postulating the potentially adverse impacts of environmental alterations on health in more ways than one. These not only involve direct and indirect climatic-related health impacts, but also those modulated by human aspects...
January 9, 2018: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312872/weight-bearing-cone-beam-ct-scan-versus-gravity-stress-radiography-for-analysis-of-supination-external-rotation-injuries-of-the-ankle
#19
John M Marzo, Melissa A Kluczynski, Corey Clyde, Mark J Anders, Christopher E Mutty, Christopher A Ritter
For AO 44-B2 ankle fractures of uncertain stability, the current diagnostic standard is to obtain a gravity stress radiograph, but some have advocated for the use of weight-bearing radiographs. The primary aim was to compare measures of medial clear space (MCS) on weight-bearing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans versus gravity stress radiographs for determining the state of stability of ankle fractures classified as AO SER 44-B2 or Weber B. The secondary aim was to evaluate the details offered by CBCT scans with respect to other findings that may be relevant to patient care...
December 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310506/neuronal-activity-organization-features-in-human-consciousness-summary-of-introductory-remarks-in-a-dialogue-with-neurological-surgery-residents
#20
Cristian L Vera, Sunil J Patel, Fraser C Henderson, Donna R Roberts, Vibhor Krishna
Agreeing with Damasio's statement defining the "process" of consciousness, we propose the self as created by mind-based knowledge and a combination of images of an organism's intentional motor responses interacting with its environment. The lemniscal system, with plastic capabilities, manages gravity in voluntary movement. The spinal segment motor reflex represents the schema of gravity-managing neuronal activity, and it can become "nested" in cortical areas participating in consciousness-building, allowing consideration of the brain as a hyper-evolved nervous system segment harboring atavic spinal organization...
January 9, 2018: Neurocase
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