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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920781/refractometric-urine-specific-gravity-of-free-living-egyptian-fruit-bats-rousettus-aegyptiacus
#1
David Eshar, Roi Lapid, Maya Weinberg, Roni King, Lisa M Pohlman
In both human and veterinary medicine, urine specific gravity (USG) is commonly measured by refractometry to indirectly reflect the osmolality of urine to thereby evaluate the kidney's ability to concentrate or dilute urine according to physiologic need and certain disease conditions. However, for accurate interpretation of the significance of any value, knowledge of the expected USG for the healthy species in question is required. It is generally believed that fruit bats, and Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in particular, are unable to highly concentrate their urine...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919926/sustaining-fermentation-in-high-gravity-ethanol-production-by-feeding-yeast-to-a-temperature-profiled-multifeed-simultaneous-saccharification-and-co-fermentation-of-wheat-straw
#2
Johan O Westman, Ruifei Wang, Vera Novy, Carl Johan Franzén
BACKGROUND: Considerable progress is being made in ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks by fermentation, but negative effects of inhibitors on fermenting microorganisms are still challenging. Feeding preadapted cells has shown positive effects by sustaining fermentation in high-gravity simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). Loss of cell viability has been reported in several SSCF studies on different substrates and seems to be the main reason for the declining ethanol production toward the end of the process...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919622/incidence-of-diabetes-insipidus-in-postoperative-period-among-the-patients-undergoing-pituitary-tumour-surgery
#3
M L Kadir, M T Islam, M M Hossain, S Sultana, R Nasrin, M M Hossain
Post operative complications after pituitary tumour surgery vary according to procedure. There are several surgical procedures being done such as transcranial, transsphenoidal microsurgical and transsphenoidal endoscopic approaches. One of the commonest complications is diabetes insipidus (DI). Our main objective was to find out the incidence of diabetes insipidus in post operative period among patients undergoing surgical intervention for pituitary tumour in our institute. The presence of diabetes insipidus in the postoperative period was established by measuring serum Na+ concentration, hourly urine output and urinary specific gravity to find out the incidence of diabetes insipidus in postoperative period in relation to age, gender, tumour diameter, function of tumour (i...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918285/controlling-cell-volume-for-efficient-phb-production-by-halomonas
#4
Xiao-Ran Jiang, Zhi-Hao Yao, Guo-Qiang Chen
Bacterial morphology is decided by cytoskeleton protein MreB and cell division protein FtsZ encoded by essential genes mreB and ftsZ, respectively. Inactivating mreB and ftsZ lead to increasing cell sizes and cell lengths, respectively, yet seriously reduce cell growth ability. Here we develop a temperature-responsible plasmid expression system for compensated expression of relevant gene(s) in mreB or ftsZ disrupted recombinants H. campaniensis LS21, allowing mreB or ftsZ disrupted recombinants to grow normally at 30°C in a bioreactor for 12h so that a certain cell density can be reached, followed by 36h cell size expansions or cell shape elongations at elevated 37°C at which the mreB and ftsZ encoded plasmid pTKmf failed to replicate in the recombinants and thus lost themselves...
September 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917963/an-efficient-computational-fluid-particle-dynamics-method-to-predict-deposition-in-a-simplified-approximation-of-the-deep-lung
#5
P G Koullapis, P Hofemeier, J Sznitman, S C Kassinos
High-fidelity simulations of the complete airway tree are still largely beyond current computational capabilities. Towards large-scale simulations of the human lung, the current study introduces a numerical methodology to predict particle deposition in a simplified approximation of the deep lung during a full breathing cycle. The geometrical model employed consists of an idealised bronchial tree that represents generations 10 to 19 of the conducting zone and an heterogeneous acinar model created using a space-filling algorithm...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917859/superhydrophilic-graphene-oxide-electrospun-cellulose-nanofiber-hybrid-membrane-for-high-efficiency-oil-water-separation
#6
Chenghong Ao, Wei Yuan, Jiangqi Zhao, Xu He, Xiaofang Zhang, Qingye Li, Tian Xia, Wei Zhang, Canhui Lu
Inspired from fishscales, membranes with special surface wettability have been applied widely for the treatment of oily waste water. Herein, a novel superhydrophilic graphene oxide (GO)@electrospun cellulose nanofiber (CNF) membrane was successfully fabricated. This membrane exhibited a high separation efficiency, excellent antifouling properties, as well as a high flux for the gravity-driven oil/water separation. Moreover, the GO@CNF membrane was capable to effectively separate oil/water mixtures in a broad pH range or with a high concentration of salt, suggesting that this membrane was quite promising for future real-world practice in oil spill cleanup and oily wastewater treatment...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917232/compressed-food-with-added-functional-oligopeptides-improves-performance-during-military-endurance-training
#7
Zhi-Qiang Zheng, Zhan-Hui Geng, Jia-Xi Liu, Shun-Tang Guo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Oligosaccharide or oligopeptide supplementation may have a significant impact on endurance performance. This study evaluated the effects of adding maltooligosaccharides (MO) or soy oligopeptides (SO) to compressed food (CF) on the physical response of soldiers to daily military training. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Twelve soldiers were randomized to four diet groups: regular meals, CF, CFMO, and CFSO (crossover design). They participated in exercise tests including 90 minutes running at 55-65% VO2max and exhaustive running...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916103/controlled-synchronized-actuation-of-microdroplets-by-gravity-in-a-superhydrophobic-3d-printed-device
#8
P E Oomen, J P S H Mulder, E Verpoorte, R D Oleschuk
Droplet manipulation over open surfaces allows one to perform assays with a large degree of control and high throughput, making them appealing for applications in drug screening or (bio)analysis. However, the design, manufacturing and operation of these systems comes with high technical requirements. In this study we employ a commercial, low-friction, superhydrophobic coating, Ultra-Ever Dry(®), on a 3D-printed microfluidic device. The device features individual droplet compartments, which allow the manipulation of discrete droplets (10-50 μL) actuated by gravity alone...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914872/-the-efficacy-of-desmopressin-in-the-treatment-of-central-diabetes-insipidus-after-resection-of-chiasmo-sellar-region-tumors
#9
L I Astaf'eva
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a neuroendocrine disease, the pathogenesis of which is associated with abnormal secretion of the antidiuretic hormone. One of the specific causes of CDI is neurosurgical resection of chiasmatic-sellar region tumors. AIM: to study the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in CDI patients after resection of chiasmatic-sellar region (CSR) tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Examination and treatment of patients were performed at a hospital for 7-14 days after surgery and then were continued after discharge...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913321/mixed-tumor-in-deep-lobe-and-versatility-of-acellular-dermal-matrix
#10
Jin Hwan Byun, Jung Soo Lim, Hye Kyung Lee
Frey's syndrome and infra-auricular depressed deformities are the ones of the most common complications that can occur after total parotidectomy. We report 1 case of pleomorphic adenoma occurred in the deep lobe that obtained good results from using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) after total parotidectomy. A 24-year-old man visited the hospital with oval shape mass in right mandibular angle which of 4 cm in size was found in the deep lobe of right parotid gland from Magnetic resonance imaging scanning and a pleomorphic adenoma was suspected...
June 2017: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910670/mental-imagery-of-gravitational-motion
#11
Silvio Gravano, Myrka Zago, Francesco Lacquaniti
There is considerable evidence that gravitational acceleration is taken into account in the interaction with falling targets through an internal model of Earth gravity. Here we asked whether this internal model is accessed also when target motion is imagined rather than real. In the main experiments, naïve participants grasped an imaginary ball, threw it against the ceiling, and caught it on rebound. In different blocks of trials, they had to imagine that the ball moved under terrestrial gravity (1g condition) or under microgravity (0g) as during a space flight...
August 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910243/fluoride-exposure-and-reported-learning-disability-diagnosis-among-canadian-children-implications-for-community-water-fluoridation
#12
Amanda M Barberio, Carlos Quiñonez, F Shaun Hosein, Lindsay McLaren
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have connected increased fluoride exposure with increased risk of neurodevelopmental-related outcomes, such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and lower IQ in children. Our primary objective was to examine the association between fluoride exposure and reported diagnosis of a learning disability among a population-based sample of Canadian children aged 3-12 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903057/failure-of-non-vacuum-steam-sterilization-processes-for-dental-handpieces
#13
S Winter, Andrew Smith, David Lappin, George McDonagh, Brian Kirk
BACKGROUND: Dental handpieces are used in critical and semi-critical operative interventions. Although a number of dental professional bodies recommend that dental handpieces are sterilized between patient use there is a lack of clarity and understanding of the effectiveness of different steam sterilization processes. The internal mechanisms of dental handpieces contain narrow lumens (0·8-2·3mm) which can impede the removal of air and ingress of saturated steam required to achieve sterilization conditions...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902158/controlled-shrinkage-of-expanded-glass-particles-in-metal-syntactic-foams
#14
Kadhim Al-Sahlani, Mehdi Taherishargh, Erich Kisi, Thomas Fiedler
Metal matrix syntactic foams have been fabricated via counter-gravity infiltration of a packed bed of recycled expanded glass particles (EG) with A356 aluminum alloy. Particle shrinkage was studied and has been utilized to increase the particles' strength and tailor the mechanical properties of the expanded glass/metal syntactic foam (EG-MSF). The crushing strength of particles could be doubled by shrinking them for 20 min at 700 °C. Owing to the low density of EG (0.20-0.26 g/cm³), the resulting foam exhibits a low density (1...
September 13, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899425/the-physiological-determinants-of-low-level-urine-cadmium-an-assessment-in-a-cross-sectional-study-among-schoolchildren
#15
Hongyu Wang, Xavier Dumont, Vincent Haufroid, Alfred Bernard
BACKGROUND: Recent studies in children have reported associations of urinary cadmium (U-Cd), used as biomarker of Cd body burden, with renal dysfunction, retarded growth and impaired cognitive development in children. Little is known, however, about factors influencing U-Cd in children and likely to act as confounders. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study involving 249 schoolchildren (mean age, 5.72 years; 138 boys), we measured the urine concentrations of cadmium, zinc, lead, albumin, alpha1-microglobulin (A1M), retinol-binding protein, β2-microglobulin and club cell protein (CC16)...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898669/molecular-mechanisms-of-root-gravitropism
#16
REVIEW
Shih-Heng Su, Nicole M Gibbs, Amy L Jancewicz, Patrick H Masson
Plant shoots typically grow against the gravity vector to access light, whereas roots grow downward into the soil to take up water and nutrients. These gravitropic responses can be altered by developmental and environmental cues. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that govern the gravitropism of angiosperm roots, where a physical separation between sites for gravity sensing and curvature response has facilitated discovery. Gravity sensing takes place in the columella cells of the root cap, where sedimentation of starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) triggers a pathway that results in a relocalization to the lower side of the cell of PIN proteins, which facilitate efflux of the plant hormone auxin efflux...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898665/shaping-3d-root-system-architecture
#17
REVIEW
Emily C Morris, Marcus Griffiths, Agata Golebiowska, Stefan Mairhofer, Jasmine Burr-Hersey, Tatsuaki Goh, Daniel von Wangenheim, Brian Atkinson, Craig J Sturrock, Jonathan P Lynch, Kris Vissenberg, Karl Ritz, Darren M Wells, Sacha J Mooney, Malcolm J Bennett
Plants are sessile organisms rooted in one place. The soil resources that plants require are often distributed in a highly heterogeneous pattern. To aid foraging, plants have evolved roots whose growth and development are highly responsive to soil signals. As a result, 3D root architecture is shaped by myriad environmental signals to ensure resource capture is optimised and unfavourable environments are avoided. The first signals sensed by newly germinating seeds - gravity and light - direct root growth into the soil to aid seedling establishment...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894832/visual-effects-on-the-subjective-visual-vertical-and-subjective-postural-head-vertical-during-static-roll-tilt
#18
Atsushi Tamura, Yoshiro Wada, Akihiro Kurita, Takeshi Matsunobu, Takuo Inui, Akihiro Shiotani
OBJECTIVES: Tilt perception is part of the perception of spatial orientation. It is determined not only by the allocentric gravity axis, but also by a second allocentric axis induced by visual information as well as by the egocentric body (head) axis induced by somatosensory information. The aim of this study was to quantify roll-tilt perception using the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the newly developed subjective postural head vertical (SPHV) and to investigate the visual effects on both during static roll-tilt...
June 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894789/impact-of-the-mk-vi-skinsuit-on-skin-microbiota-of-terrestrial-volunteers-and-an-international-space-station-bound-astronaut
#19
Richard A Stabler, Helena Rosado, Ronan Doyle, David Negus, Philip A Carvil, Juan G Kristjánsson, David A Green, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Cadi Davies, Andreas Mogensen, Jonathan Scott, Peter W Taylor
Microgravity induces physiological deconditioning due to the absence of gravity loading, resulting in bone mineral density loss, atrophy of lower limb skeletal and postural muscles, and lengthening of the spine. SkinSuit is a lightweight compression suit designed to provide head-to-foot (axial) loading to counteract spinal elongation during spaceflight. As synthetic garments may impact negatively on the skin microbiome, we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon procedures to define bacterial skin communities at sebaceous and moist body sites of five healthy male volunteers undergoing SkinSuit evaluation...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892236/visualization-instructions-enhance-preschoolers-spatial-problem-solving
#20
Carolyn M Palmquist, Rachel Keen, Vikram K Jaswal
This study explores whether verbal instructions to visualize an event can improve children's ability to make predictions about a difficult spatial problem. Three-year-olds (N = 48) were introduced to two intertwined tubes, and prior to predicting how a ball would travel through a given tube, one group of children was told to imagine the ball rolling down the tube, one group was told an explicit rule about where the ball would land, and a third group was given no instructions. Children were prevented from interacting with the apparatus to investigate the effect of the different verbal instructions alone on their problem-solving...
September 11, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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