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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222606/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-functioning-in-overtraining-syndrome-findings-from-endocrine-and-metabolic-responses-on-overtraining-syndrome-eros-eros-hpa-axis
#1
Flavio A Cadegiani, Claudio E Kater
BACKGROUND: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) results from excessive training load without adequate recovery and leads to decreased performance and fatigue. The pathophysiology of OTS in athletes is not fully understood, which makes accurate diagnosis difficult. Previous studies indicate that alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be responsible for OTS; however, the data is not conclusive. This study aimed to compare, through gold standard and exercise-independent tests, the response of the HPA axis in OTS-affected athletes (OTS group) to healthy physically active subjects (ATL group) and healthy non-active subjects (NCS group)...
December 8, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216703/-effect-of-sports-training-in-angular-compartment-of-the-lower-limbs-in-children-footballers-aged-11-to-12-years-old
#2
J Burboa, M Bahamonde, M Inostroza, P Lillo, M Barahona, M Palet, J Hinzpeter
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is an important cause of days lost in athletes. Most ACL injuries are non-contact and are associated with biomechanical risk factors that increase tension in the ACL: increased knee valgus (KV) and hip flexion (HF) and decreased flexion of knee (KF). Muscle around the knee contributes to knee stability, so fatigue produced by exercise could alter knee balance, increasing LCA tension. The aim of the study is to determine the angular behavior before and after a physical load for CF, RR and RV in children born in 2002-2003...
May 2017: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216289/effects-of-load-carriage-on-physiological-determinants-in-adventure-racers
#3
Alex de O Fagundes, Elren P Monteiro, Leandro T Franzoni, Bruna S Fraga, Patrícia D Pantoja, Gabriela Fischer, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga
Adventure racing athletes need run carrying loads during the race. A better understanding of how different loads influence physiological determinants in adventure racers could provide useful insights to gauge training interventions to improve running performance. We compare the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), the cost of transport (C) and ventilatory thresholds of twelve adventure running athletes at three load conditions: unloaded, 7 and 15% of body mass. Twelve healthy men experienced athletes of Adventure Racing (age 31...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214319/electrocardiographic-findings-in-national-basketball-association-athletes
#4
Marc P Waase, R Kannan Mutharasan, William Whang, Marco R DiTullio, John P DiFiori, Lisa Callahan, Jimmie Mancell, Dermot Phelan, Allan Schwartz, Shunichi Homma, David J Engel
Importance: While it is known that long-term intensive athletic training is associated with cardiac structural changes that can be reflected on surface electrocardiograms (ECGs), there is a paucity of sport-specific ECG data. This study seeks to clarify the applicability of existing athlete ECG interpretation criteria to elite basketball players, an athlete group shown to develop significant athletic cardiac remodeling. Objective: To generate normative ECG data for National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes and to assess the accuracy of athlete ECG interpretation criteria in this population...
December 6, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212672/cardiovascular-response-to-prescribed-detraining-among-recreational-athletes
#5
Charles Richard Pedlar, Marcel G Brown, Robert E Shave, James M Otto, Aimee Drane, Jennifer Michaud-Finch, Miranda Contursi, Meagan M Wasfy, Adolph Hutter, Michael H Picard, Gregory D Lewis, Aaron L Baggish
Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR) and the attendant myocardial adaptations characteristic of the athlete's heart may regress during periods of exercise reduction or abstinence. The time course and mechanisms underlying this reverse remodeling, specifically the impact of concomitant plasma volume (PV) contraction on cardiac chamber size, remain incompletely understood. We therefore studied recreational runners (n=21, aged 34 ± 7 years; 48% male) who completed an 18-week training program (~7 h.w-1) culminating in the 2016 Boston Marathon after which total exercise exposure was confined to <2 h...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212552/validity-and-reliability-of-simple-measurement-device-to-assess-the-velocity-of-the-barbell-during-squats
#6
Silvio Lorenzetti, Thomas Lamparter, Fabian Lüthy
OBJECTIVES: The velocity of a barbell can provide important insights on the performance of athletes during strength training. The aim of this work was to assess the validity and reliably of four simple measurement devices that were compared to 3D motion capture measurements during squatting. Nine participants were assessed when performing 2 × 5 traditional squats with a weight of 70% of the 1 repetition maximum and ballistic squats with a weight of 25 kg. Simultaneously, data was recorded from three linear position transducers (T-FORCE, Tendo Power and GymAware), an accelerometer based system (Myotest) and a 3D motion capture system (Vicon) as the Gold Standard...
December 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212413/a-lower-extremity-strength-based-profile-of-ncaa-division-i-women-s-basketball-and-gymnastics-athletes-implications-for-knee-joint-injury-risk-assessment
#7
Brennan J Thompson, Curtis S Cazier, Eadric Bressel, Dennis G Dolny
This study aimed to provide a comprehensive strength-based physiological profile of women's NCAA Division I basketball and gymnastic athletes; and to make sport-specific comparisons for various strength characteristics of the knee flexor and extensor muscles. A focus on antagonist muscle balance (hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratios, H:Q) was used to elucidate vulnerabilities in these at-risk female athletes. Fourteen NCAA Division I women's basketball and 13 gymnastics athletes performed strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210955/comparison-between-power-off-ice-test-and-performance-on-ice-anaerobic-testing
#8
Vincent Gosselin Boucher, Andrée-Anne Parent, Fanie St-Jean Miron, Mario Leone, Alain Steve Comtois
The importance of specific testing has been shown in ice hockey performance and the understanding and connection between them may lead to adapting training and follow up in elite athletes. The aim of the present study was to compare two off-ice power tests with performances on ice with a complete professional hockey team. The broad jump test and the vertical jump test were used for the off-ice evaluations, while the SAS-40 and the repeated skate sprint modify (RSSm) tests were used as the performance variables...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210324/patterns-of-locomotor-regulation-during-the-pole-vault-approach-phase
#9
Laurie Needham, Timothy A Exell, Ian N Bezodis, Gareth Irwin
A successful approach phase is key to achieving high performances in the pole vault. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of locomotor control patterns during the pole vault approach phase. Fourteen well-trained athletes performed ten jumps which were recorded using 2D video sampling at 200 Hz and analysed. Key kinematics were reconstructed from camera data using a modified 2D-DLT. Patterns of regulation were determined from the standard deviation of footfall locations during the approach phase...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206785/three-weeks-of-overload-training-increases-resting-muscle-sympathetic-activity
#10
Alexandra M Coates, Anthony V Incognito, Jeremy D Seed, Connor J Doherty, Philip J Millar, Jamie F Burr
PURPOSE: Overload training is hypothesized to alter autonomic regulation, though interpretations using indirect measures of heart rate variability are conflicting. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of overload training on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), a direct measure of central sympathetic outflow, in recreational endurance athletes. METHODS: Measurements of heart rate variability, cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), MSNA (microneurography), and sympathetic BRS were obtained in seventeen healthy triathletes and cyclists after 1-week of reduced training (baseline) and following 3-weeks of either regular (CON, n=7) or overload (OL, n=10) training...
December 2, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200094/characteristics-of-a-national-level-female-weightlifter-peaking-for-competition-a-case-study
#11
Caleb D Bazyler, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Michael C Zourdos, Kimitake Sato, Ashley A Kavanaugh, Brad H DeWeese, Kevin F Breuel, Michael H Stone
This study investigated physiological and performance changes of a national level 69kg female weightlifter following three competition phases over a 28-week training period. The athlete first trained for a regional championship (weeks 1-12), followed by a local competition (weeks 13-23) and the national championship (weeks 24-28). Body mass, vastus lateralis cross-sectional area, and unloaded and loaded squat jump performance were assessed weekly during each 4-week competition phase. Serum biomarkers, and dynamic mid-thigh pulls were assessed prior to and after each competition phase...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199551/royal-sun-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-agaricus-brasiliensis-agaricomycetes-supplement-in-training-capacity-improvement-parameters
#12
Flávio F Silva, Guilherme A C de Oliveira, Hugo C Martins Costa, Wiliam C B Regis
People seek a greater quality of life and healthy aging that culminates in improved self-esteem and vitality in the performance of daily activities; this is generating a growing number of people enrolled in gyms in search of quick results. However, this training can result in physical and metabolic damage. During physical exercise, under conditions of oxidative stress, changes take place that lead to the onset of fatigue. The Agaricus brasiliensis mushroom is native to Brazil and has therapeutic potential, with widely studied antioxidant and immunomodulatory capabilities...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199550/facilitating-dual-careers-by-improving-resistance-to-chronic-stress-effects-of-an-intervention-programme-for-elite-student-athletes
#13
Jeffrey Sallen, Karen Hemming, Alfred Richartz
The starting point of this contribution is the potential risk to health and performance from the combination of elite sporting careers with the pursuit of education. In European sport science and politics, structural measures to promote dual careers in elite sports have been discussed increasingly of late. In addition to organisational measures, there are calls for educational-psychological intervention programmes supporting the successful management of dual careers at the individual level. This paper presents an appropriate intervention programme and its evaluation: stress-resistance training for elite athletes (SRT-EA)...
December 3, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198093/-strenuous-and-prolonged-exercise-and-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-treatment-or-threat
#14
REVIEW
Danit Atias-Varon, Yuval Heled
Prolonged and strenuous exercise may lead to changes in the immune system function and to temporary suppression in defense against pathogens. These changes likely increase the risk of those engaging in prolonged and strenuous physical activity to develop upper respiratory tract infection and to reduce the level of performance. On the other hand, it appears that moderate physical activity reduces the risk of upper respiratory tract infection. Various populations, such as professional athletes and soldiers in combat units, who engage in daily strenuous exercise, may therefore be a high risk group...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198023/the-use-of-stimulant-medication-to-treat-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-elite-athletes-a-performance-and-health-perspective
#15
Annie A Garner, Ashley A Hansen, Catherine Baxley, Michael J Ross
The use of stimulants as a treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among elite athletes is a controversial area with some arguing that stimulant use should not be permitted because it offers an advantage to athletes (fair play perspective). Guided by an integrated model of athletic performance, we address common concerns raised about stimulant use in sports from our perspective, which we coined the "performance and health perspective," highlighting relevant research and pointing to gaps in empirical research that should be addressed before bans on use of stimulants for athletes with ADHD are considered...
December 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194184/biomechanical-comparison-of-loaded-countermovement-jumps-performed-on-land-and-in-water
#16
Talin Louder, Eadric Bressel, Clint Nardoni, Dennis Dolny
Researchers have observed physical improvements following the completion of aquatic-based jump training. However, there is a lack of research on the biomechanical specificity of aquatic-based movement. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the kinetics and kinematics of loaded countermovement jumps performed in water versus land. Twenty young males and twenty-four NCAA division I women's soccer and gymnastics athletes were asked to perform unloaded and loaded countermovement jumps on land and in chest-deep water immersion...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194183/hyperactivity-of-the-sympatho-adrenomedullary-system-without-any-modification-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-following-food-restriction-among-high-level-weightlifters
#17
Alexandre Durguerian, Edith Filaire, Catherine Drogou, Fabien Sauvet, Clément Bougard, Mounir Chennaoui
We examined the effects of six days of food restriction on salivary α-amylase (sAA), cortisol and dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA) awakening responses, psychological parameters and performance among eleven international weightlifters. Assessments were made at baseline (T1) and 6 days after a normal period of training while maintaining body weight (T2). Then, participants were assigned into two groups depending on whether they lost (Diet group) or maintained (Control group) their body weight. Anthropometric, psychological, physical and physiological assessments were also realized 6 days (T3) following the restricted dietary period for the Diet group...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189930/periodization-theory-confronting-an-inconvenient-truth
#18
John Kiely
Periodization theory has, over the past seven decades, emerged as the preeminent training planning paradigm. The philosophical underpinnings of periodization theory can be traced back to the integration of diverse shaping influences, whereby coaching beliefs and traditions were blended with historically available scientific insights and contextualized against pervading social planning models. Since then, many dimensions of elite preparation have evolved significantly, as driven by a combination of coaching innovations and science-led advances in training theory, techniques, and technologies...
November 30, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189929/correction-to-the-effect-of-natural-or-simulated-altitude-training-on-high-intensity-intermittent-running-performance-in-team-sport-athletes-a-meta-analysis
#19
Michael J Hamlin, Catherine A Lizamore, Will G Hopkins
Page 10, Fig. 2: The filled circle labelled "3" was plotted inaccurately and should have been in the "harmful" section of the graph, as shown in the corrected version below.
November 30, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189584/body-image-amongst-elite-rugby-union-players
#20
Claire Gibson, Chloe Hindle, Rebecca McLay-Cooke, Joanne Slater, Rachel Brown, Brett Smith, Dane Baker, Philip Healey, Katherine Black
There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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