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Training, athlete, performance

Gareth Turner, Barry W Fudge, Jamie S M Pringle, Neil S Maxwell, Alan J Richardson
This study sought to establish perceptions of elite endurance athletes on the role and worth of altitude training. Elite British endurance runners were surveyed to identify the altitude and hypoxic training methods utilised, along with reasons for use, and any situational, cultural and behaviour factors influencing these. Prior to the 2012 Olympics Games, 39 athletes and 20 support staff (coaches/practitioners) completed an internet-based survey to establish differences between current practices and the accepted "best-practice"...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Akihiro Sakamoto, Akihiro Kuroda, Peter James Sinclair, Hisashi Naito, Kazuhiko Sakuma
PURPOSE: Maximum force exertion against various resistance levels (heavy-light) is commonly implemented to improve both strength- and speed-oriented components of power. Medium-light resistances allow rapid accelerations, yet incur significant decelerations in the later concentric phase to bring the bar to a halt, which may limit the concentric effort and, therefore, the effectiveness of training. Accordingly, ballistic actions have been recommended. This study evaluated the effectiveness of power bench press training, with the bar thrown on a Smith machine (BPthrow ) or without throwing (BPnon-throw ), for developing strength and shot put distance...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Umile Giuseppe Longo, Laura Risi Ambrogioni, Mauro Ciuffreda, Nicola Maffulli, Vincenzo Denaro
Introduction: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) of young athletes during competition or training is a tragic event. The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrythmogenic disorder characterized by prolonged ventricular repolarization leading to torsade de pointes evident at electrocardiogram (ECG). Implantable cardioverter defibrillator is an option to revert ventricular fibrillation to sinus rhythm, although the implantation may result in denial of sports participations to the athlete. The authors reviewed the current literature on LQTS in young athletes, to clarify the role of different screening technologies to prevent SCD...
June 20, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Amber E Rowell, Robert J Aughey, William G Hopkins, Alizera Esmaeili, Brendan H Lazarus, Stuart J Cormack
Introduction: Training load and other measures potentially related to match performance are routinely monitored in team-sport athletes. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of training load on such measures and on match performance during a season of professional football. Materials and Methods: Training load was measured daily as session duration times perceived exertion in 23 A-League football players. Measures of exponentially weighted cumulative training load were calculated using decay factors representing time constants of 3-28 days...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Brad J Schoenfeld, Brett S Nickerson, Colin D Wilborn, Stacie L Urbina, Sara B Hayward, James Krieger, Alan A Aragon, Grant M Tinsley
Schoenfeld, BJ, Nickerson, BS, Wilborn, CD, Urbina, SL, Hayward, SB, Krieger, J, Aragon, AA, and Tinsley, G. Comparison of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance vs. dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessing body composition changes after participation in a 10-week resistance training program. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) to determine alterations in total and segmental body composition across a 10-week resistance training (RT) program in comparison with the criterion reference dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Santiago Sanz-Quinto, Raúl López-Grueso, Gabriel Brizuela, Andrew A Flatt, Manuel Moya-Ramón
Sanz-Quinto, S, López-Grueso, R, Brizuela, G, Flatt, AA, and Moya-Ramón, M. Influence of training models at 3,900-m altitude on the physiological response and performance of a professional wheelchair athlete: A case study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This case study compared the effects of two training camps using flexible planning (FP) vs. inflexible planning (IP) at 3,860-m altitude on physiological and performance responses of an elite marathon wheelchair athlete with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Bryce Dyer
Dyer, B. Insight into the development and competitiveness of male UK-based stand-up paddleboard flatwater distance racing from 2013 to 2017. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-An analysis of 2 stand-up paddleboard "distance" events was undertaken to investigate any change in their participation, racing behavior, and whether such events should be approached differently by practitioners. The completion time paddler-to-paddler gap was investigated as a means of assessing the performances in 2 flatwater distance events from 2013 to 2017...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Pedro E Alcaraz, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Bruno O Oponjuru, Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Sprinting is key in the development and final results of competitions in a range of sport disciplines, both individual (e.g., athletics) and team sports. Resisted sled training (RST) might provide an effective training method to improve sprinting, in both the acceleration and the maximum-velocity phases. However, substantial discrepancies exist in the literature regarding the influence of training status and sled load prescription in relation to the specific components of sprint performance to be developed and the phase of sprint...
June 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Javier Sanchez-Sanchez, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Manuel Carretero, Victor Martín, Daniel Hernández, Fabio Y Nakamura
In order to investigate the physical demands of widely used in soccer small-sided games (SSGs), we compared game variations performed under different interval (fixed or variable) and timing regimens (beginning or end of a training session). Twelve male players wore GPS devices during the SSGs to record total distance, relative distance, distance at different speeds, and maximum velocity variables. Four variations of SSGs (4x4) were randomly applied: beginning of a training session with fixed and variable recovery, or end of a training session with fixed and variable recovery...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
María Cañadas, Miguel-Ángel Gómez, Javier García-Rubio, Sergio J Ibáñez
Scientific literature has stated the presence of various stages in athletes sportive development, with different objectives in each one of them. This should lead coaches to different training plans according to the athlete's formation stage. The aim of this study was to analyse training plans and identify differences in basketball objectives according to formative stages (U'12 and U'14) in boys and girls. A total of 1,976 training tasks were collected and analysed, for a total of four teams (girls and boys of U'12 and U'14 categories) during an entire season...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Mateusz Radojewski, Tomasz Podgórski, Barbara Pospieszna, Jakub Kryściak, Ewa Śliwicka, Joanna Karolkiewicz
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the competitive phase on physiological and metabolic indices and selected markers of skeletal muscle damage in male volleyball players. The study group consisted of 24 young male volleyball players. During the study, participants underwent two series of measurements, before and after the competitive phase of the annual training cycle. In both study terms, players performed an incremental treadmill running test to determine their ventilatory threshold and maximal oxygen uptake...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Christian Puta, Thomas Steidten, Philipp Baumbach, Toni Wöhrl, Rico May, Michael Kellmann, Marco Herbsleb, Brunhild Gabriel, Stephanie Weber, Urs Granacher, Holger H W Gabriel
From a health and performance-related perspective, it is crucial to evaluate subjective symptoms and objective signs of acute training-induced immunological responses in young athletes. The limited number of available studies focused on immunological adaptations following aerobic training. Hardly any studies have been conducted on resistance-training induced stress responses. Therefore, the aim of this observational study was to investigate subjective symptoms and objective signs of immunological stress responses following resistance training in young athletes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mojgan Amiri, Reza Ghiasvand, Mojtaba Kaviani, Scott C Forbes, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chocolate milk (CM) contains carbohydrates, proteins, and fat, as well as water and electrolytes, which may be ideal for post-exercise recovery. We systematically reviewed the evidence regarding the efficacy of CM compared to either water or other "sport drinks" on post-exercise recovery markers. SUBJECTS/METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were explored up to April 2017 for controlled trials investigating the effect of CM on markers of recovery in trained athletes...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Dawn E Anderson, Sarah E LeGrand, Reece D McCart
Anderson, DE, LeGrand, SE, and McCart, RD. Effect of caffeine on sprint cycling in experienced cyclists. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Research regarding the ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF) in anaerobic activity remains inconclusive. However, some researchers have found significant improvements in anaerobic performance when testing specifically trained athletes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, cross-over design was implemented to assess the impact of CAF on a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) in experienced cyclists...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Oliver R L Farley, Josh L Secomb, Ellen R Raymond, Lina E Lundgren, Brendon K Ferrier, Chris R Abbiss, Jeremy M Sheppard
Farley, ORL, Secomb, JL, Raymond, ER, Lundgren, LE, Ferrier, BK, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Workloads of competitive surfing: work-to-relief ratios, surf-break demands, and updated analysis. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The study provides an in-depth descriptive and quantitative time-motion analysis of competitive surfing, using Global Positioning System (GPS) units and video synchronization, which serves to extend upon the results of Farley, Harris, and Kilding (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 7 [2012])...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Anna M Kaleta, Ewa Lewicka, Alicja Dąbrowska-Kugacka, Zuzanna Lewicka-Potocka, Elżbieta Wabich, Anna Szerszyńska, Julia Dyda, Jakub Sobolewski, Jakub Koenner, Grzegorz Raczak
BACKGROUND: Sports activity has become extremely popular among amateurs. Electrocardiography is a useful tool in screening for cardiac pathologies in athletes; however, there is little data on electrocardiographic abnormalities in the group of amateur athletes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the abnormalities in resting and exercise electrocardiograms (ECGs) in a group of amateur athletes, and try to determine whether the criteria applied for the general population or for athletes' ECGs should be implemented in this group...
June 18, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
In this overview, we summarize the findings of the literature with regards to physiology and pathophysiology of ultra-marathon running. The number of ultra-marathon races and the number of official finishers considerably increased in the last decades especially due to the increased number of female and age-group runners. A typical ultra-marathoner is male, married, well-educated, and ~45 years old. Female ultra-marathoners account for ~20% of the total number of finishers. Ultra-marathoners are older and have a larger weekly training volume, but run more slowly during training compared to marathoners...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Suleyman Zora, Gorkem Aybars Balci, Muzaffer Colakoglu, Tahsin Basaran
In this study, thermal behaviours of the athletes were investigated with respect to thermal comfort and exercise intensity. The relationship between an index for analysing thermal comfort (Predicted Mean Vote: PMV) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) which shows exercise intensity and exhaustion level was evaluated. Eleven moderately trained male athletes ( V ˙ O2max 54 ± 9.9 mL∙min-1 ∙kg-1 ) had volunteered for the study (age: 22.2 ± 3.7 years; body mass: 73.8 ± 6.9 kg; height: 181 ± 6.3 cm; Body surface area (BSA): 1...
December 19, 2017: Sports
John P Wagle, Kevin M Carroll, Aaron J Cunanan, Christopher B Taber, Alexander Wetmore, Garett E Bingham, Brad H DeWeese, Kimitake Sato, Charles A Stuart, Michael H Stone
The purpose of the current study was (1) to examine the differences between standing and lying measures of vastus lateralis (VL), muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA), and cross-sectional area (CSA) using ultrasonography; and (2) to explore the relationships between lying and standing measures with isometric and dynamic assessments of force production-specifically peak force, rate of force development (RFD), impulse, and one-repetition maximum back squat. Fourteen resistance-trained subjects (age = 26...
November 21, 2017: Sports
Frank A Bourgeois, Paul Gamble, Nic D Gill, Mike R McGuigan
This study investigated the effects of eccentric phase-emphasis strength training (EPE) on unilateral strength and performance in 180- and 45-degree change of direction (COD) tasks in rugby union players. A 12-week cross-over design was used to compare the efficacy of resistance training executed with 3 s eccentric duration (EPE, n = 12) against conventional strength training, with no constraints on tempo (CON, n = 6). Players in each condition were categorised as 'fast' (FAST) or 'slow' (SLOW) using median trial times from baseline testing...
October 24, 2017: Sports
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