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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935857/sensorimotor-computation-underlying-phototaxis-in-zebrafish
#1
Sébastien Wolf, Alexis M Dubreuil, Tommaso Bertoni, Urs Lucas Böhm, Volker Bormuth, Raphaël Candelier, Sophia Karpenko, David G C Hildebrand, Isaac H Bianco, Rémi Monasson, Georges Debrégeas
Animals continuously gather sensory cues to move towards favourable environments. Efficient goal-directed navigation requires sensory perception and motor commands to be intertwined in a feedback loop, yet the neural substrate underlying this sensorimotor task in the vertebrate brain remains elusive. Here, we combine virtual-reality behavioural assays, volumetric calcium imaging, optogenetic stimulation and circuit modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms through which a zebrafish performs phototaxis, i.e...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934711/alterations-of-larval-photo-dependent-swimming-responses-pdr-new-endpoints-for-rapid-and-diagnostic-screening-of-aquatic-contamination
#2
Luis Colón-Cruz, Lauren Kristofco, Jonathan Crooke-Rosado, Agnes Acevedo, Aranza Torrado, Bryan W Brooks, María A Sosa, Martine Behra
Detection and toxicity assessment of waterborne contaminants are crucial for protecting human health and the environment. Development of easy-to-implement, rapid and cost-effective tools to measure anthropogenic effects on watersheds are critical for responsible management, particularly in times of increasing development and urbanization. Traditionally, environmental toxicology has focused on limited endpoints, such as lethality and fertility, which are directly affecting population levels. However, more sensitive readings are needed to assess sub-lethal effects...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932120/natural-reduced-water-suppressed-anxiety-and-protected-the-heightened-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#3
Koji Masuda, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Masayuki Kanehisa, Taiga Ninomiya, Ayako Inoue, Haruka Higuma, Chiwa Kawashima, Mari Nakanishi, Kana Okamoto, Jotaro Akiyoshi
BACKGROUND: In Japan, the effects of reduced water, such as hydrogen-rich electrolyzed reduced water and natural reduced water, like Hita Tenryosui water(®), have been examined. The purpose of the present study was to identify the role of natural reduced water in anxiety and blood biochemical analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Natural reduced water and distilled water were administered to rats for 180 consecutive days, and their effect on anxiety-like behavior and depression was examined by using elevated plus maze, light/dark, forced swimming, and conditioned fear tests...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931777/antidepressant-like-effect-of-milk-derived-lactoferrin-in-the-repeated-forced-swim-stress-mouse-model
#4
Takashi Takeuchi, Kana Matsunaga, Akihiko Sugiyama
We investigated the antidepressant-like effect of lactoferrin (Lf) in a repeated forced-swim test (FST) stress mouse model. FST was performed on days 1, 2, 7 and 14. Bovine Lf (bLf) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) was supplemented at 1% to the commercial diet after the first FST throughout the experimental period. The FST-control and FST+BSA group showed a marked increase in immobility time on day 2, which remained increased up to the 14th day, while the FST+bLf group showed a significant lower immobility time...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927964/behavioral-responses-of-beluga-whales-delphinapterus-leucas-to-environmental-variation-in-an-arctic-estuary
#5
Paul A Anderson, Russell B Poe, Laura A Thompson, Nansen Weber, Tracy A Romano
Some Arctic estuaries serve as substrate rubbing sites for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the summer, representing a specialized resource for the species. Understanding how environmental variation affects the species' behavior is essential to management of these habitats in coming years as the climate changes. Spatiotemporal and environmental variables were recorded for behavioral observations, during which focal groups of whales in an estuary were video-recorded for enumeration and behavioral analysis...
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925539/expression-and-functional-proteomic-analyses-of-osteocytes-from-xenopus-laevis-tested-under-mechanical-stress-conditions-preliminary-observations-on-an-appropriate-new-animal-model
#6
Jessika Bertacchini, Marta Benincasa, Marta Checchi, Francesco Cavani, Alberto Smargiassi, Marzia Ferretti, Carla Palumbo
Hitherto, the role of the osteocyte as transducer of mechanical stimuli into biological signals is far from settled. In this study, we used an appropriate model represented by the cortex of Xenopus laevis long bone diaphysis lacking (unlike the mammalian one) of vascular structures and containing only osteocytes inside the bone matrix. These structural features allow any change of protein profile that might be observed upon different experimental conditions, such as bone adaptation to stress/mechanical loading, to be ascribed specifically to osteocytes...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923244/cardio-respiratory-function-during-exercise-in-the-cobia-rachycentron-canadum-the-impact-of-crude-oil-exposure
#7
Derek Nelson, John D Stieglitz, Georgina K Cox, Rachael M Heuer, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Aerobic exercise capacity is dependent on the cardiorespiratory system's ability to supply oxygen at a rate that meets energetic demands. In teleost fish crude oil exposure, with the associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), reduces exercise performance and this has been hypothesized to be due to compromised cardiovascular function. In this study, we test this hypothesis by simultaneously measuring cardiovascular performance, oxygen consumption, and swim performance in a pelagic teleost, the cobia (Rachycentron canadum)...
September 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920966/-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases-prophylactic-program-in-a-selected-enterprise
#8
Jadwiga Siedlecka, Elżbieta Gadzicka, Agata Szyjkowska, Patryk Siedlecki, Wiesław Szymczak, Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Alicja Bortkiewicz
BACKGROUND: In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD), classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents' expectations concerning the prevention program...
September 18, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919494/shoulder-injury-in-water-polo-a-systematic-review-of-incidence-and-intrinsic-risk-factors
#9
REVIEW
Andrea H Miller, Kerrie Evans, Roger Adams, Gordon Waddington, Jeremy Witchalls
OBJECTIVES: Water polo is a popular water-based contact sport that involves swimming, throwing and defending. Cumulatively, these repetitive overhead activities are thought to increase the risk of shoulder injury and, subsequently to affect players' physical conditioning as well as team performance. The purpose of this review was to examine available evidence relating to shoulder injury rates and risk factors for shoulder injury in water polo. DESIGN: Systematic review METHODS: CINAHL, AUSPORT, Pubmed, Pedro and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for original research papers using the predefined terms ("water polo") AND (shoulder OR glenohumeral* OR arm OR "upper limb")...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914562/the-effect-of-regular-aquatic-exercise-on-blood-pressure-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#10
Yutaka Igarashi, Yoshie Nogami
Background No meta-analysis has examined the effect of regular aquatic exercise on blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of regular aquatic exercise on blood pressure. Design A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods Databases were searched for literature published up to April 2017. The randomized controlled trials analysed involved healthy adults, an intervention group that only performed aquatic exercise and a control group that did not exercise, no other intervention, and trials indicated mean systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913953/marine-depth-use-of-sea-trout-salmo-trutta-in-fjord-areas-of-central-norway
#11
S H Eldøy, J G Davidsen, E B Thorstad, F G Whoriskey, K Aarestrup, T F Naesje, L Rønning, A D Sjursen, A H Rikardsen, J V Arnekleiv
The vertical behaviour of 44 veteran sea trout Salmo trutta (275-580 mm) in different marine fjord habitats (estuary, pelagic, near shore with and without steep cliffs) was documented during May-February by acoustic telemetry. The swimming depth of S. trutta was influenced by habitat, time of day (day v. night), season, seawater temperature and the body length at the time of tagging. Mean swimming depth during May-September was 1·7 m (individual means ranged from 0·4 to 6·4 m). Hence, S. trutta were generally surface oriented, but performed dives down to 24 m...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911850/activation-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-pathway-by-olanzapine-augments-antidepressant-effects-of-venlafaxine-in-mice
#12
Jaya Thomas, Razia Khanam, Divya Vohora
Recent clinical studies report antipsychotics as a better option to augment the action of antidepressants in treatment resistant cases. However, the proper mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of antipsychotics is still not clear. Indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) pathway is considered to be an important pathway in pro-inflammatory cytokine associated stress-induced depression. The present study investigated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine, olanzapine and their combinations in chronic forced-swim stress-induced depression in mice...
August 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911611/antifatigue-and-increasing-exercise-performance-of-actinidia-arguta-crude-alkaloids-in-mice
#13
Yangyang Liu, Changjiang Liu
Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc.) Planch. ex. Miq. is one of the most recently domesticated fruit species with increasing commercial production worldwide. It is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used to reduce blood glucose and treat atopic dermatitis. In addition, it possesses antioxidant, anticancer, and antiallergic properties. In this study, we investigated the physical antifatigue and exercise performance effects of A. arguta crude alkaloids (AACA) extracted with 70% ethanol. Four groups of male Kunming mice (n = 16) were orally administered AACA at doses of 0 mg/kg/d (vehicle), 50 mg/kg/d (AACA-50), 100 mg/kg/d (AACA-100), or 200 mg/kg/d (AACA-200) for 28 days...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904314/effects-of-tannin-fluoride-and-milk-fluoride-mixture-on-human-enamel-erosion-from-inappropriately-chlorinated-pool-water
#14
Sumalee Boonviriya, Sissada Tannukit, Suwanna Jitpukdeebodintra
This in vitro study aimed to investigate the efficacy of tannin-fluoride and milk-fluoride mixtures on human enamel erosion after exposure to inappropriately chlorinated pool water. Enamel specimens were immersed in swimming pool water (pH 2.7) for 30 min and in each test reagent for 4 min once a day for 60 consecutive days (group I: control, group II: tannin-fluoride, group III: milk-fluoride, group IV: tannin-fluoride before and milk-fluoride after erosive challenge, and group V: milk containing tannin-fluoride before and after erosive exposure)...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893665/does-aerobic-capacity-predict-the-spatial-position-of-individuals-within-schools-in-juvenile-qingbo-spinibarbus-sinensis
#15
Ling-Qing Zeng, Cheng Fu, Shi-Jian Fu
Schooling behavior is an adaptive trait of important biological and ecological significance in fish species. However, the question of how aerobic capacity and environmental factors (i.e., food and water velocity) affect the spatial positioning within fish schools has received little attention. Our study measured the aerobic capacity-as indicated by standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope (AS)-and swimming performance of juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis) and filmed their schooling behavior in a swim tunnel under both a control treatment and food stimulus treatment at three water velocities (20, 30 and 40cms(-1))...
September 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893591/neurosteroid-dehydroepiandrosterone-improves-active-avoidance-retrieval-and-induces-antidepressant-like-behavior-in-rats
#16
Janko Samardzic, Boris Hencic, Jasna Jancic, Dragana Jadzic, Milos Djuric, Dragan I Obradovic, Dubravka Svob Strac
Various studies reported beneficial effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS), the neurosteroids involved in various brain functions, on synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival, memory, learning and behavior. This study aimed to investigate the behavioral profile of acute DHEA treatment by using active avoidance (AA) task, primarily predictive of the effects on the retrieval-based learning, and by applying forced swim test (FST), for assessment of antidepressant-like potential. Adult male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of either DHEA (2, 10, 20mg/kg) or solvent, 30min prior to testing...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890521/effect-of-burdock-extract-on-physical-performance-and-physiological-fatigue-in-mice
#17
Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ju Hsu, Mon-Chien Lee, Hua Shuai Li, Chun-Sheng Ho, Chi-Chang Huang, Fu-An Chen
Burdock (BD) is a common vegetable with many pharmacological properties. However, few studies have examined the effect of BD on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of BD on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. METHODS: Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive either vehicle, or BD at 348.5, 697 or 1,742.5 mg/kg/day, by daily oral gavage for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and fatigue were evaluated from forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and post-exercise levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890389/motor-function-deficits-in-the-12-month-old-female-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
T P O'Leary, A Robertson, P H Chipman, V F Rafuse, R E Brown
Motor problems occur early in some patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and as the disease progresses many patients develop motor dysfunction. Motor dysfunction has been reported in some mouse models of AD, including the 5xFAD mouse, thus this model may be particularly useful for studying motor dysfunction in AD. In order to determine the extent of motor dysfunction in these mice, we tested 11-13 month old female 5xFAD and wildtype (WT) control mice in a battery of motor behaviour tasks. The 5xFAD mice showed hind limb clasping, weighed less and had slower righting reflexes than WT mice...
September 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889975/consistent-individual-differences-drive-collective-behavior-and-group-functioning-of-schooling-fish
#19
Jolle W Jolles, Neeltje J Boogert, Vivek H Sridhar, Iain D Couzin, Andrea Manica
The ubiquity of consistent inter-individual differences in behavior ("animal personalities") [1, 2] suggests that they might play a fundamental role in driving the movements and functioning of animal groups [3, 4], including their collective decision-making, foraging performance, and predator avoidance. Despite increasing evidence that highlights their importance [5-16], we still lack a unified mechanistic framework to explain and to predict how consistent inter-individual differences may drive collective behavior...
September 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888226/modulation-of-hippocampal-neuronal-activity-by-so-ochim-tang-gamibang-in-mice-subjected-to-chronic-restraint-stress
#20
Hwa Chul Shin, Jae Ho Lee, Ki Joong Kim, Hyun Jin Shin, Jeong June Choi, Chan Yong Lee, Uk Namgung, In Chul Jung
BACKGROUND: So-ochim-tang-gamibang (SOCG) is a decoction formula which has been used to improve mental activity in traditional Korean medicine. The present study was performed to evaluate whether the treatment of SOCG was involved in activating hippocampal neurons in mice which were subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS). METHODS: Mice were subjected to CRS for 2 weeks to induce depressive-like behaviors. SOCG was orally administered for the same period. mRNA expression in the hippocampus was analyzed by RT-PCR...
September 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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