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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777386/substrate-metabolism-during-ironman-triathlon-different-horses-on-the-same-courses
#1
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775772/occurrence-genotyping-and-health-risk-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-recreational-lakes-in-tianjin-china
#2
Shumin Xiao, Pengna Yin, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Liping Sun, Hongying Yuan, Jingfang Lu, Sike Hu
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are critical parasites in the etiology of diarrhea worldwide, and often cause waterborne outbreaks. The presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational lakes was investigated with molecular characterization, and a comprehensive quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of protozoan infections was performed, considering multiple exposure pathways, differences in age, sex, and disease severity, and the genotypes of the protozoa. Forty-three (82.7%) and 51 (98.1%) water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, respectively, with average counts of 3...
May 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763587/mice-exposed-to-bisphenol-a-exhibit-depressive-like-behavior-with-neurotransmitter-and-neuroactive-steroid-dysfunction
#3
Frances Xin, Erin Fischer, Christopher Krapp, Elizabeth N Krizman, Yemin Lan, Clementina Mesaros, Nathaniel W Snyder, Amita Bansal, Michael B Robinson, Rebecca A Simmons, Marisa S Bartolomei
Fetal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with adverse neurobehavioral outcomes across the lifespan and can persist across multiple generations of offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms driving these changes are not well understood. We investigated the molecular perturbations associated with EDC-induced behavioral changes in first (F1) and second (F2) filial generations, using the model EDC bisphenol A (BPA). C57BL/6J dams were exposed to BPA from preconception until lactation through the diet at doses (10 μg/kg bw/d-lower dose or 10 mg/kg bw/d-upper dose) representative of human exposure levels...
May 12, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762082/predicting-and-optimizing-microswimmer-performance-from-the-hydrodynamics-of-its-components-the-relevance-of-interactions
#4
Nicola Giuliani, Luca Heltai, Antonio DeSimone
Interest in the design of bioinspired robotic microswimmers is growing rapidly, motivated by the spectacular capabilities of their unicellular biological templates. Predicting the swimming speed and efficiency of such devices in a reliable way is essential for their rational design, and to optimize their performance. The hydrodynamic simulations needed for this purpose are demanding and simplified models that neglect nonlocal hydrodynamic interactions (e.g., resistive force theory for slender, filament-like objects that are the typical propulsive apparatus for unicellular swimmers) are commonly used...
May 15, 2018: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761007/behavioral-changes-induced-through-adenosine-a2a-receptor-ligands-in-a-rat-depression-model-induced-by-olfactory-bulbectomy
#5
Karla Margarita Padilla, Andres Quintanar-Setephano, Fabian López-Vallejo, Laura Cristina Berumen, Ricardo Miledi, Guadalupe García-Alcocer
Background: Major depressive disorders are characterized by their severity and long-lasting symptoms, which make such disorders highly disabling illnesses. Unfortunately, 50% of major depressive patients experience relapses, perhaps partly because drug research has been performed only in animal models that screen for antidepressant drugs that appear to only ameliorate acute depression symptoms. The bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) animal model presents the advantage of mimicking the symptoms of chronic depression by means of brain surgery...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760410/motivational-changes-that-develop-in-a-mouse-model-of-inflammation-induced-depression-are-independent-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase
#6
Elisabeth G Vichaya, Geoffroy Laumet, Diana L Christian, Aaron J Grossberg, Darlene J Estrada, Cobi J Heijnen, Annemieke Kavelaars, Robert Dantzer
Despite years of research, our understanding of the mechanisms by which inflammation induces depression is still limited. As clinical data points to a strong association between depression and motivational alterations, we sought to (1) characterize the motivational changes that are associated with inflammation in mice, and (2) determine if they depend on inflammation-induced activation of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated or spared nerve injured (SNI) wild type (WT) and Ido1 -/- mice underwent behavioral tests of antidepressant activity (e...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757157/state-diagram-of-a-three-sphere-microswimmer-in-a-channel
#7
Abdallah Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Maciej Lisicki, Arnold J T M Mathijssen, Christian Hoell, Segun Goh, Jerzy Blawzdziewicz, Andreas M Menzel, Hartmut Löwen
Geometric confinements are frequently encountered in soft matter systems and in particular significantly alter the dynamics of swimming microorganisms in viscous media. Surface-related effects on the motility of microswimmers can lead to important consequences in a large number of biological systems, such as biofilm formation, bacterial adhesion and microbial activity. On the basis of low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics, we explore the state diagram of a three-sphere microswimmer under channel confinement in a slit geometry and fully characterize the swimming behavior and trajectories for neutral swimmers, puller- and pusher-type swimmers...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754533/the-validation-of-a-swimming-turn-wall-contact-time-measurement-system-a-touchpad-application-reliability-study
#8
Victoria Brackley, Kevin Ball, Elaine Tor
The effectiveness of the swimming turn is highly influential to overall performance in competitive swimming. The push-off or wall contact, within the turn phase, is directly involved in determining the speed the swimmer leaves the wall. Therefore, it is paramount to develop reliable methods to measure the wall-contact-time during the turn phase for training and research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the concurrent validity and reliability of the Pool Pad App to measure wall-contact-time during the freestyle and backstroke tumble turn...
May 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754167/an-extract-of-synedrella-nodiflora-l-gaertn-exhibits-antidepressant-properties-through-monoaminergic-mechanisms
#9
Patrick Amoateng, Kennedy Kwami Edem Kukuia, Jeffrey Amoako Mensah, Dorcas Osei-Safo, Samuel Adjei, Audrey Akyea Eklemet, Emmanuel Atsu Vinyo, Thomas K Karikari
Synedrella nodiflora (SNE) has been used traditionally for many neurological conditions and some of these neuroactive effects have been scientifically substantiated. The usefulness of SNE in depression has however not been investigated despite the availability of data in other disease models indicating it may be useful. The present study therefore examined the effect of SNE in acute murine models of depression and the possible mechanisms mediating its activities in these models. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) screening were conducted on SNE...
May 12, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751512/screening-of-natural-product-derivatives-identifies-two-structurally-related-flavonoids-as-potent-quorum-sensing-inhibitors-against-gram-negative-bacteria
#10
Suvi Manner, Adyary Fallarero
Owing to the failure of conventional antibiotics in biofilm control, alternative approaches are urgently needed. Inhibition of quorum sensing (QS) represents an attractive target since it is involved in several processes essential for biofilm formation. In this study, a compound library of natural product derivatives ( n = 3040) was screened for anti-quorum sensing activity using Chromobacterium violaceum as reporter bacteria. Screening assays, based on QS-mediated violacein production and viability, were performed in parallel to identify non-bactericidal QS inhibitors (QSIs)...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749641/antioxidant-rich-foods-and-response-to-altitude-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#11
Anu Elisa Koivisto, Gøran Paulsen, Ingvild Paur, Ina Garthe, Espen Tønnessen, Truls Raastad, Nasser Ezzatkhah Bastani, Jostein Hallén, Rune Blomhoff, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn
High doses of isolated antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E, have demonstrated the potential to blunt cellular adaptations to training It is, however, unknown whether intake of high doses of antioxidants from foods has similar effects. Hence, the aim of the study was to investigate whether intake of antioxidant-rich foods affects adaptations to altitude training in elite athletes. In a randomized controlled trial, 31 national team endurance athletes (23 ± 5 years), ingested antioxidant-rich foods (n=16) or eucaloric control foods (n=15) daily during a 3-week altitude training camp (2320 m)...
May 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749276/cryopreservation-of-low-number-of-human-spermatozoa-which-is-better-vapor-phase-or-direct-submerging-in-liquid-nitrogen
#12
Akram Hosseini, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Ali Reza Talebi, Azam Agha-Rahimi, Saeed Ghasemi-Esmailabad, Bryan Woodward, Nahid Yari
Cryopreservation and subsequent survival of semen samples with low numbers of human spermatozoa in assisted reproductive technology (ART) facilities can be challenging. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of warmed human spermatozoa following vitrification using direct submerging (DS) in liquid nitrogen (LN2 ) or with LN2 vapour (V). Normozoospermic ejaculates were prepared by the swim-up technique and the motile sperm fraction was divided into three groups: (i) fresh (control); (ii) DS methods in LN2 (DS Group); or (iii) cryopreserved in V (Group V)...
May 11, 2018: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749100/controlled-propulsion-of-two-dimensional-microswimmers-in-a-precessing-magnetic-field
#13
Soichiro Tottori, Bradley J Nelson
Magnetically actuated micro-/nanoswimmers can potentially be used in noninvasive biomedical applications, such as targeted drug delivery and micromanipulation. Herein, two-dimensional (2D) rigid ferromagnetic microstructures are shown to be capable of propelling themselves in three dimensions at low Reynolds numbers in a precessing field. Importantly, the above propulsion relies neither on soft structure deformation nor on the geometrical chirality of swimmers, but is rather driven by the dynamic chirality generated by field precession, which allows an almost unconstrained choice of materials and fabrication methods...
May 10, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748917/taurine-protects-from-pentylenetetrazole-induced-behavioral-and-neurochemical-changes-in-zebrafish
#14
Barbara D Fontana, Paola R Ziani, Julia Canzian, Nathana J Mezzomo, Talise E Müller, Matheus M Dos Santos, Vania L Loro, Nilda V Barbosa, Carlos F Mello, Denis B Rosemberg
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures, which culminate in various neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes. Taurine (TAU) is an amino sulfonic acid which acts an endogenous inhibitory neuromodulator. Moreover, TAU displays intrinsic antioxidant activity, contributing to its beneficial actions in the CNS. Here, we evaluated whether TAU pretreatment protects from pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress-related parameters in zebrafish brain tissue...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747665/comprehensive-behavioral-analysis-of-mice-deficient-in-rapgef2-and-rapgef6-a-subfamily-of-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factors-for-rap-small-gtpases-possessing-the-ras-rap-associating-domain
#15
Kazuhiro Maeta, Satoko Hattori, Junji Ikutomo, Hironori Edamatsu, Shymaa E Bilasy, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Tohru Kataoka
Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases, characterized by the possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domain. Previous genomic analyses suggested their possible involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia. We recently demonstrated the development of an ectopic cortical mass (ECM), which resembles the human subcortical band heterotopia, in the dorsal telencephalon-specific Rapgef2 conditional knockout (Rapgef2-cKO) brains. Additional knockout of Rapgef6 in Rapgef2-cKO mice resulted in gross enlargement of the ECM whereas knockout of Rapgef6 alone (Rapgef6-KO) had no discernible effect on the brain morphology...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739134/effects-of-tianeptine-on-adult-rats-following-prenatal-stress
#16
Hwayoung Lee, Hyung-Ki Kim, Jun-Tack Kwon, Young Ock Kim, Jonghoon Seo, Sanghyun Lee, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hak-Jae Kim
Objective: Exposing a pregnant female to stress during the critical period of embryonic fetal brain development increases the risk of psychiatric disorders in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant tianeptine on prenatally stressed (PNS) rats. Methods: In this study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the last week of gestation. To investigate the effects of antidepressant tianeptine on PNS rats, behavioral and protein expression analyses were performed...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736534/langevin-equations-for-the-run-and-tumble-of-swimming-bacteria
#17
G Fier, D Hansmann, R C Buceta
The run and tumble motions of a swimming bacterium are well characterized by two stochastic variables: the speed v(t) and the change of direction or deflection x(t) = cos φ(t), where φ(t) is the turning angle at time t. Recently, we have introduced [G. Fier, D. Hansmann and R. C. Buceta, A stochastic model for directional changes of swimming bacteria, Soft Matter, 2017, 13, 3385-3394.] a single stochastic model for the deflection x(t) of an E. coli bacterium performing both types of movement in isotropic media without taxis, based on available experimental data...
May 8, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736132/the-level-of-nesfatin-1-in-a-mouse-gastric-cancer-model-and-its-role-in-gastric-cancer-comorbid-with-depression
#18
Nan Zhang, Jiangbo Li, Huiling Wang, Ling Xiao, Yanyan Wei, Jing He, Gaohua Wang
Background: The incidence of depressive symptoms is higher in cancer patients. And depression can also affect the occurrence, development and outcome of cancer through the neuroendocrine-immune-network system. Objective: To study the level of Nesfatin-1 in the plasma and brain tissue and its role in the pathogenesis in gastric cancer comorbid with depression using a mouse gastric cancer model. Methods: 18 mice were randomly divided into the normal control group (NCG), gastric cancer without stress model group (GCNS), and gastric cancer combined with stress model group (GCS)...
April 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735445/-effect-of-intrahippocampal-injection-of-anti-cellular-prion-protein-monoclonal-antibody-on-cognitive-deficits-in-appswe-psen1-de9-transgenic-mice
#19
Hai-Ying Zhang, Yi-Heng Liu, Yuan Fu, Peng-Cheng Chen, Rui Lu, Jian-Xing Li, Ming-Hui Chen, Hao-Chi Yang, Yu-Sheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of intrahippocampal injection of cellular prion protein (PrPC ) antibody on cognitive deficits of APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic mice. METHODS: Eight-month-old male APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic mice were subjected to bilateral intrahippocampal injection of a single dose (2 µL) of anti-PrPC monoclonal antibody (EP1802Y) or PBS, with wild-type C57Bl/6J mice serving as the control group. After two months, the mice were tested for cognitive behaviors using open filed (OF) test, Morris water maze (MWM) test, fear conditioning (FC) test, and novel object recognition (NOR) test, and immunohistochemistry was used to examine the changes in hippocampal expression of Aβ1-42 ...
April 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735229/drones-for-provision-of-flotation-support-in-simulated-drowning
#20
Anders Bäckman, Jacob Hollenberg, Leif Svensson, Mattias Ringh, Per Nordberg, Therese Djärv, Sune Forsberg, Olof Hernborg, Andreas Claesson
OBJECTIVE: The feasibility and potential of using drones for providing flotation devices in cases of drowning have not yet been assessed. We hypothesize that a drone carrying an inflatable life buoy is a faster way to provide flotation compared with traditional methods. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and efficiency of using a drone for delivering and providing flotation support to conscious simulated drowning victims. METHODS: A simulation study was performed with a simulated drowning victim 100 m from the shore...
May 2018: Air Medical Journal
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