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Cycling, athlete, performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922380/skeletal-muscle-cell-damage-indicators-in-volleyball-players-after-the-competitive-phase-of-the-annual-training-cycle
#1
Mateusz Radojewski, Tomasz Podgórski, Barbara Pospieszna, Jakub Kryściak, Ewa Śliwicka, Joanna Karolkiewicz
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the competitive phase on physiological and metabolic indices and selected markers of skeletal muscle damage in male volleyball players. The study group consisted of 24 young male volleyball players. During the study, participants underwent two series of measurements, before and after the competitive phase of the annual training cycle. In both study terms, players performed an incremental treadmill running test to determine their ventilatory threshold and maximal oxygen uptake...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912858/effect-of-caffeine-on-sprint-cycling-in-experienced-cyclists
#2
Dawn E Anderson, Sarah E LeGrand, Reece D McCart
Anderson, DE, LeGrand, SE, and McCart, RD. Effect of caffeine on sprint cycling in experienced cyclists. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Research regarding the ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF) in anaerobic activity remains inconclusive. However, some researchers have found significant improvements in anaerobic performance when testing specifically trained athletes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, cross-over design was implemented to assess the impact of CAF on a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) in experienced cyclists...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910457/associations-between-thermal-and-physiological-responses-of-human-body-during-exercise
#3
Suleyman Zora, Gorkem Aybars Balci, Muzaffer Colakoglu, Tahsin Basaran
In this study, thermal behaviours of the athletes were investigated with respect to thermal comfort and exercise intensity. The relationship between an index for analysing thermal comfort (Predicted Mean Vote: PMV) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) which shows exercise intensity and exhaustion level was evaluated. Eleven moderately trained male athletes ( V ˙ O2max 54 ± 9.9 mL∙min-1 ∙kg-1 ) had volunteered for the study (age: 22.2 ± 3.7 years; body mass: 73.8 ± 6.9 kg; height: 181 ± 6.3 cm; Body surface area (BSA): 1...
December 19, 2017: Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910340/is-a-bimodal-force-time-curve-related-to-countermovement-jump-performance
#4
Rodney A Kennedy, David Drake
A countermovement jump (CMJ) represents one of the most frequently used performance tests for monitoring neuromuscular function in athletes. An often-overlooked feature that may provide some useful diagnostic information is the actual shape of the force-time curve. The aim of this study was therefore to consider how the shape of the force-time curve influences jump performance. Thirty-three male rugby union players performed two CMJs on a force plate, with discrete variables and continuous curve analysis used...
April 18, 2018: Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900009/seated-pressures-in-daily-wheelchair-and-sports-equipment-investigating-the-protective-effects-of-cushioned-shorts
#5
Torey M Anderson, Kaitlynn L McKirgan, Jennifer D Hastings
Study design: The primary study design was a pretest and posttest study performed in a single session with subjects as their own control. We summarize three integrated and sequential studies. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate whether commercially available cushioned shorts would add skin protection when used in adaptive sports equipment (AE). Setting: Community in Tacoma Washington, USA. Methods: TekScan Pressure Mapping System for recording average (AP) and peak (PP) seating pressures...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894642/acute-modulation-in-dietary-behavior-following-glycogen-depletion-and-post-exercise-supplementation-in-trained-cyclists
#6
Hsuan-Yu Wan, Jonathon L Stickford, Emily Dawkins, Alice K Lindeman, Joel M Stager
We investigated the influence of immediate post-exercise dietary supplementation on the subsequent food consumption pattern and endurance exercise performance in physically trained individuals. On two occasions, trained male cyclists performed a glycogen-depleting exercise bout followed by a 2-hour nutritional supplementation period, 28 hours of free-living recovery, and a subsequent 40-km cycling time trial. During the 2-hour post-exercise supplementation, subjects consumed equal volumes of reduced-fat chocolate milk (CM) or a sports beverage (SB) in a single-blind, randomized design...
June 12, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889868/increasing-effort-without-noticing-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-about-the-ergogenic-placebo-effect-in-endurance-athletes-and-the-role-of-supplement-salience
#7
Ellen K Broelz, Sebastian Wolf, Patrick Schneeweiss, Andreas M Niess, Paul Enck, Katja Weimer
PURPOSE: Previous research shows that endurance performance can be enhanced by placebo ergogenic aids. This study investigates the ergogenic placebo response, which we define as an increase in objective and physiological effort without an increase in subjective effort, in competitive cyclists. The primary objective of this study is to explore the role of supplement salience in the ergogenic placebo response, while the secondary aim is to assess whether believing to have taken an inactive placebo supplement attenuates the desired ergogenic effect...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867580/validity-and-reliability-of-the-30-s-continuous-jump-for-anaerobic-power-and-capacity-assessment-in-combat-sport
#8
Drazen Čular, Vladimir Ivančev, Alessandro M Zagatto, Mirjana Milić, Tea Beslija, Maha Sellami, Johnny Padulo
Cycling test such Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) is used to measure anaerobic power (AP), but not anaerobic capacity (AC, i.e., the metabolic energy demand). However, in sports that do not involve cycling movements (Karate), the continuous jump for 30 s (vertical jumps for 30 s) has been extensively used to measure anaerobic performance in all young athletes. Limited information's are available concerning its validity and reliability especially in children. As such, the current study aimed to test validity and reliability of a continuous jumps test (the CJ30s), using WAnT as a reference...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809072/concurrent-training-for-sports-performance-the-two-sides-of-the-medal
#9
Nicolas Berryman, Inigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet
The classical work by Robert C. Hickson showed in 1980 that the addition of a resistance training protocol to a predominantly aerobic program could lead to impaired leg strength adaptations in comparison to a resistance-only training regimen. This interference phenomenon was later highlighted in many reports, including a meta-analysis. However, it seems that the interference effect has not been consistently reported, probably because of the complex interactions between training variables and methodological issues...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796856/impact-of-ischaemia-reperfusion-cycles-during-ischaemic-preconditioning-on-2000-m-rowing-ergometer-performance
#10
Tiago Turnes, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz, Amadeo Félix Salvador, Felipe Domingos Lisbôa, Kayo Leonardo Pereira, João Antônio Gesser Raimundo, Fabrizio Caputo
PURPOSE: Although ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), induced by cycles of transient limb ischaemia and reperfusion, seems to improve exercise performance, the optimal duration of ischaemia-reperfusion cycles is not established. The present study investigated the effect of ischaemia-reperfusion duration within each IPC cycle on performance in a 2000-m rowing ergometer test. METHODS: After incremental and familiarization tests, 16 trained rowers (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 11 years; weight, 74...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795728/effects-of-single-dose-dietary-nitrate-on-oxygen-consumption-during-and-after-maximal-and-submaximal-exercise-in-healthy-humans-a-pilot-study
#11
Genevieve M Kocoloski, Anne R Crecelius
Dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) has been shown to reduce oxygen consumption (VO2 ) during moderate to high-intensity (e.g. time to fatigue, time trials) exercise and often in trained athletes. However, less is known regarding prolonged exercise and the potential impact of NO3 - on post-exercise excess oxygen consumption (EPOC), particularly in untrained individuals, who may have different metabolic goals during exercise than trained individuals. We tested the hypothesis that acute nitrate supplementation in the form of beet root juice will significantly decrease both VO2 during maximal exercise and EPOC in both maximal and submaximal exercise trials...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794559/blood-pressure-response-to-maximal-dynamic-exercise-testing-in-an-athletic-population
#12
Axel Pressler, Angelika Jähnig, Martin Halle, Bernhard Haller
OBJECTIVE: Exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise testing has been linked to left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in competitive athletes. Due to frequent training, athletes are particularly exposed to high BP levels, but data on the magnitude and distribution of BP response to exercise in athletic populations is scarce. METHODS: Cycle ergometry was performed in 2419 healthy competitive adolescent, professional and master athletes (age 26 ± 12 years, range 9-74, 27% women, 84 disciplines) for preparticipation screening...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787610/the-influence-of-somatotype-on-anaerobic-performance
#13
Helen Ryan-Stewart, James Faulkner, Simon Jobson
The link between athlete physique and performance in sports is well established. However, a direct link between somatotype three-numeral rating and anaerobic performance has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between somatotype and anaerobic performance using both singular and multivariate analyses. Thirty-six physically active males (mean ± standard deviation age 26.0 ± 9.8 years; body mass 79.5 ± 12.9 kg; height 1.82 ± 0.07 m) were somatotype-rated using the Heath-Carter method...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777386/substrate-metabolism-during-ironman-triathlon-different-horses-on-the-same-courses
#14
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758055/active-recovery-affects-the-recovery-of-the-corticospinal-system-but-not-of-muscle-contractile-properties
#15
Louis-Solal Giboin, Ehsan Amiri, Raphael Bertschinger, Markus Gruber
PURPOSE: Active recovery is often used by athletes after strenuous exercise or competition but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that active recovery speeds-up recovery processes within the muscle and the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS: We assessed muscular and CNS recovery by measuring the voluntary activation (VA) in the vastus lateralis muscle with transcranial magnetic stimulation (VATMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS) during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors in 11 subjects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745784/short-term-effects-of-rolling-massage-on-energy-cost-of-running-and-power-of-the-lower-limbs
#16
Nicola Giovanelli, Filippo Vaccari, Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Jasmine Copetti, Marco Garra, Lea Biasutti, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: Self-myofascial release (SMFR) is a type of self-massage that is becoming popular among athletes. However, SMFR effects on running performance have not been investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SMFR on cost of running (Cr). In addition, we evaluated the effects of SMFR on lower limbs muscle power. METHODS: The measurement of Cr and lower limb muscle power during squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) were performed before (PRE), immediately after (POST) and 3hours after (POST 3h) a SMFR protocol (experimental condition)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745735/time-trial-performance-in-elite-speed-skaters-after-remote-ischemic-preconditioning
#17
Philippe Richard, François Billaut
PURPOSE: Speed skating leads to blood-flow restriction and deoxygenation in the lower limbs (especially the right leg) that may affect performance. Although the acute influence of such deoxygenation is not clearly understood, we tested whether remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) could modify muscular oxygenation and improve time-trial performance in that sport. METHODS: Using a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 9 elite speed skaters performed 1000-m on-ice time-trials preceded by either RIPC of the upper limbs (3x5-min compression/5-min reperfusion cycles at 30 mmHg > arterial systolic pressure) or SHAM (10 mmHg)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743827/the-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-on-performance-biochemical-and-psychophysiological-variables-during-a-cycling-time-trial-a-crossover-randomized-trial
#18
Amanda M J Ferreira, Luiz F Farias-Junior, Thaynan A A Mota, Hassan M Elsangedy, Aline Marcadenti, Telma M A M Lemos, Alexandre H Okano, Ana P T Fayh
Background: The hypothesis of the central effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) on performance improvement in a fed state has not been established, and its psychophysiological responses have not yet been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CMR in athletes fed state on performance, biochemical and psychophysiological responses compared to ad libitum water intake. Methods: Eleven trained male cyclists completed a randomized, crossover trial, which consisted of a 30 km cycle ergometer at self-selected intensity and in a fed state...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721606/the-effects-of-different-durations-of-static-stretching-within-a-comprehensive-warm-up-on-voluntary-and-evoked-contractile-properties
#19
Jonathan C Reid, Rebecca Greene, James D Young, Daniel D Hodgson, Anthony J Blazevich, David G Behm
Evidence for performance decrements following prolonged static stretching (SS) has led to a paradigm shift in stretching routines within a warm-up. Rather than SS, dynamic stretching (DS) and dynamic activity (DA) have replaced SS within warm-up routines. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of differing lower limb SS durations (30 [SS30s], 60 [SS60s] or 120 s [SS120s] of SS per muscle group or no-stretch control) within a comprehensive warm-up protocol consisting of aerobic activity, DS and DA...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720479/scientific-rationale-for-changing-lower-water-temperature-limits-for-triathlon-racing-to-12%C3%A2-c-with-wetsuits-and-16%C3%A2-c-without-wetsuits
#20
Jane Saycell, Mitch Lomax, Heather Massey, Mike Tipton
OBJECTIVES: To provide a scientific rationale for lower water temperature and wetsuit rules for elite and subelite triathletes. METHODS: 11 lean, competitive triathletes completed a 20 min flume swim, technical transition including bike control and psychomotor testing and a cycle across five different wetsuit and water temperature conditions: with wetsuit: 10°C, 12°C and 14°C; without wetsuit (skins): 14°C and 16°C. Deep body (rectal) temperature (Tre ), psychomotor performance and the ability to complete a technical bike course after the swim were measured, as well as swimming and cycling performance...
June 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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