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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449080/influence-of-exercise-modality-on-cardiac-parasympathetic-and-sympathetic-indices-during-post-exercise-recovery
#1
Scott Michael, Ollie Jay, Kenneth S Graham, Glen M Davis
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated indirect measures of post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation (using heart-rate-variability, HRV) and sympathetic withdrawal (using systolic-time-intervals, STI) following upper- and lower-body exercise. DESIGN: Randomized, counter-balanced, crossover. METHODS: 13 males (age 26.4±4.7years) performed maximal arm-cranking (MAX-ARM) and leg-cycling (MAX-LEG). Subsequently, participants undertook separate 8-min bouts of submaximal HR-matched exercise of each mode (ARM and LEG)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444097/the-effects-of-intensified-training-on-resting-metabolic-rate-rmr-body-composition-and-performance-in-trained-cyclists
#2
Amy L Woods, Anthony J Rice, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Alice M Wallett, Bronwen Lundy, Margot A Rogers, Marijke Welvaert, Shona Halson, Andrew McKune, Kevin G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. METHOD: Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a "Baseline" week (100% of regular training load), a "Build" week (~120% of Baseline load), two "Loading" weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two "Recovery" weeks (~80% of Baseline load)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434077/low-proportion-of-dietary-plant-protein-among-athletes-with-premenstrual-syndrome-related-performance-impairment
#3
Keiko Yamada, Takashi Takeda
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is psychosomatic disorder that are limited to the late luteal phase in the menstrual cycle. PMS could impair athletic performance. To investigate associations between proportions of dietary plant and animal protein and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance, we surveyed 135 female athletes aged 18-23 years attending Kindai University. Participants belonged to authorized university clubs, all of which have high rankings in Japanese university sports. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on diet history, demographics, and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431536/multi-day-pomegranate-extract-supplementation-decreases-oxygen-uptake-during-submaximal-cycling-exercise-but-co-supplementation-with-n-acetylcysteine-negates-the-effect
#4
Emma M Crum, Matthew J Barnes, Stephen R Stannard
Pomegranate extract (POMx) has been suggested as an ergogenic aid, due to its rich concentration of polyphenols, which are proposed to enhance nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, thereby improving the efficiency of oxygen usage and consequently, endurance exercise performance. Although acute POMx supplementation improves aerobic exercise performance in untrained individuals, trained athletes appear to require chronic supplementation for a similar effect. Further, the combination of POMx with a thiol antioxidant may prove more effective than POMx alone, due to the protective effects of thiols on NO...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427565/intensified-training-increases-salivary-free-light-chains-in-trained-cyclists-indication-that-training-volume-increases-oral-inflammation
#5
Jennifer L J Heaney, Sophie C Killer, Ida S Svendsen, Michael Gleeson, John P Campbell
Periods of short-term intensified training (IT) are often used by athletes during training cycles over the season and undergoing phases of increased physical stress may impact upon the immune system. This study investigated the effects of a period of IT on free light chains (FLCs) in saliva - an emerging immune biomarker of oral inflammation - and matched serum samples in well-trained athletes. It also examined if IT influences basal FLC levels and FLC flux during acute exercise. Highly trained male cyclists (n = 10) underwent a 9-day period of IT; before and after IT participants performed a 1 h time trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer, with blood and saliva samples collected pre- and post-exercise...
February 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425972/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-salivary-testosterone-concentrations-and-competitiveness-in-elite-and-non-elite-women-athletes
#6
Blair T Crewther, Christian J Cook
BACKGROUND: There is evidence linking women's T to competitive behaviours in sport and exercise. To advance this work, we examined the longitudinal relationships between salivary testosterone (sal-T) and competitiveness in athletic women who differ in training status. METHODS: Elite (n = 9) and non-elite (n = 21) women athletes were monitored on days 6-8 (follicular phase), 13-15 (ovulatory phase) and 20-22 (Luteal phase) of a menstrual cycle with two repeats...
February 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401201/relationship-between-reactive-strength-index-variants-in-rugby-league-players
#7
John J McMahon, Timothy J Suchomel, Jason P Lake, Paul Comfort
Two reactive strength index (RSI) variants exist, the RSI and RSI modified (RSImod) which are typically calculated during the drop jump (DJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively. Both RSI variants have been used to monitor athletes' ability to complete stretch-shortening cycle actions quickly, but they have never been compared. The purpose of this study was to determine if they yield relatable information about reactive strength characteristics. Male professional rugby league players (n = 21, age = 20...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395633/the-reproducibility-of-10-and-20km-time-trial-cycling-performance-in-recreational-cyclists-runners-and-team-sport-athletes
#8
David N Borg, John O Osborne, Ian B Stewart, Joseph T Costello, Jesse N L Sims, Geoffrey M Minett
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the reliability of 10 and 20km cycling time trial (TT) performance on the Velotron Pro in recreational cyclists, runners and intermittent-sprint based team sport athletes, with and without a familiarisation. DESIGN: Thirty-one male, recreationally active athletes completed four 10 or 20km cycling TTs on different days. METHODS: During cycling, power output, speed and cadence were recorded at 23Hz, and heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every km...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385006/wingate-anaerobic-test-reliability-on-the-velotron-with-ice-hockey-players
#9
Ryan F Bringhurst, Dale R Wagner, Sarah Schwartz
This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) performed on a Velotron electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer (EE) for power-trained athletes and assessed whether a familiarization trial was necessary to achieve high test-retest reliability. Twenty-one male ice hockey players (age 23.5 ± 4.7 yrs, mass 86.3 ± 16.6 kg, height 180.9 ± 7.4 cm) from a collegiate club team (Club = 10) and a recreational league (Rec = 11) performed three, 30-sec WAnTs within 2 weeks, and with at least 24 hours between visits...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370541/effects-of-lunar-phases-on-short-term-explosive-physical-performance-among-young-trained-athletes
#10
Narimen Yousfi, Mohamed Arbi Mejri, Mehdi Rouissi, Amri Hammami, Montassar Tabben, Anis Chaouachi, Monoem Haddad, Karim Chamari
Beliefs that lunar phases affect human physiology started in ancient times. Research has recently revealed that a physical fitness index increased in sedentary students at the new moon (NM) and full moon (FM) compared to other moon phases. However, the effect of lunar cycle (moon illumination and gravitational pull) on physical performance in athletes was not examined. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether short-term explosive performance can be influenced by the different phases of the lunar cycle...
January 25, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369956/comparison-of-exercise-performance-in-recreationally-active-and-masters-athlete-women
#11
Matthew S Stone, Jordan M Glenn, Jennifer L Vincenzo, Michelle Gray
Stone, MS, Glenn, JM, Vincenzo, JL, and Gray, M. Comparison of exercise performance in recreationally active and masters athlete women. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 565-571, 2018-Master athletes (MA) are an understudied, ever-growing cohort. As such, it is important to examine how age affects muscular power and fatigability. Of particular interest is muscular power maintenance and fatigue mitigation of MA compared with young, healthy adults. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the differences in peak power, average power, total work (WRK), and fatigue index (FI) between recreationally active (RA) younger adults and female MA during anaerobic cycling exercise...
February 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368184/does-cold-water-or-ice-slurry-ingestion-during-exercise-elicit-a-net-body-cooling-effect-in-the-heat
#12
Ollie Jay, Nathan B Morris
Cold water or ice slurry ingestion during exercise seems to be an effective and practical means to improve endurance exercise performance in the heat. However, transient reductions in sweating appear to decrease the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin by a magnitude that at least negates the additional internal heat loss as a cold ingested fluid warms up to equilibrate with body temperature; thus explaining equivalent core temperatures during exercise at a fixed heat production irrespective of the ingested fluid temperature...
January 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368182/administration-of-caffeine-in-alternate-forms
#13
REVIEW
Kate A Wickham, Lawrence L Spriet
There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be important in many sporting situations...
January 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364948/mri-reveals-menstrually-related-muscle-edema-that-negatively-affects-athletic-agility-in-young-women
#14
Akemi Sawai, Yuriko Tochigi, Nadzeya Kavaliova, Alexander Zaboronok, Yuki Warashina, Bryan J Mathis, Noboru Mesaki, Hitoshi Shiraki, Koichi Watanabe
CONTEXT: About 10% of Japanese female athletes are afflicted by menstrually-related edema, mainly in the lower limbs, and, with few studies on this problem, the effect on performance remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate fluid retention in the calf in female students over their menstrual cycle using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine the relationship of MRI changes and athletic performance. DESIGN: The menstrual cycle was divided into 5 phases: menstrual, follicular, ovulatory, early luteal, and late luteal with sampling done in either morning (AM) or afternoon (PM) sessions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364083/effectiveness-of-hand-cooling-and-a-cooling-jacket-on-post-exercise-cooling-rates-in-hyperthermic-athletes
#15
Tessa Maroni, Brian Dawson, Kimberley Barnett, Kym Guelfi, Carly Brade, Louise Naylor, Chris Brydges, Karen Wallman
This study compared the effects of a hand cooling glove (∼16°C water temperature; subatmospheric pressure of -40 mmHg) and a cooling jacket (CJ) on post-exercise cooling rates (gastrointestinal core temperature, Tc; skin temperature, Tsk) and cognitive performance (the Stroop Colour-Word test). Twelve male athletes performed four trials (within subjects, counterbalanced design) involving cycling at a workload equivalent to 75% ⩒O2max in heat (35.7 ± 0.2°C, 49.2 ± 2.6% RH) until a Tc of 39°C or exhaustion occurred...
January 24, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356101/eryptosis-and-hemorheological-responses-to-maximal-exercise-in-athletes-comparison-between-running-and-cycling
#16
Elie Nader, Nicolas Guillot, Louis Lavorel, Ivan Hancco, Romain Fort, Emeric Stauffer, Céline Renoux, Philippe Joly, Michèle Germain, Philippe Connes
We compared the effects of cycling and running exercise on hemorheological and hematological properties, as well as eryptosis markers. Seven endurance-trained subjects randomly performed a progressive and maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. Blood was sampled at rest and at the end of the exercise to analyze hematological and blood rheological parameters including hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell (RBC) deformability, aggregation and blood viscosity. Hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), blood lactate and glucose levels were also monitored...
January 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351161/effects-of-contrast-strength-vs-plyometric-training-on-lower-limb-explosive-performance-ability-to-change-direction-and-neuromuscular-adaptation-in-soccer-players
#17
Mehrez Hammami, Nawel Gaamouri, Roy J Shephard, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly
The aim was to compare the effects of two differing 8-week in-season strength training programs (contrast strength training [CST] vs. plyometric training [PT]) on selected performance tests (5 and 40m sprints, S 4 X 5 m change of direction test, squat (SJ) and countermovement (CMJ) jumps , leg peak power on a cycle ergometer force-velocity test, 1-repetition maximal (1-RM) half squat, and electromyographic [EMG] activity of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles during vertical jump tests)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343237/subtypes-in-clinical-burnout-patients-enrolled-in-an-employee-rehabilitation-program-differences-in-burnout-profiles-depression-and-recovery-resources-stress-balance
#18
Kathrin Bauernhofer, Daniela Bassa, Markus Canazei, Paulino Jiménez, Manuela Paechter, Ilona Papousek, Andreas Fink, Elisabeth M Weiss
BACKGROUND: Burnout is generally perceived a unified disorder with homogeneous symptomatology across people (exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy). However, increasing evidence points to intra-individual patterns of burnout symptoms in non-clinical samples such as students, athletes, healthy, and burned-out employees. Different burnout subtypes might therefore exist. Yet, burnout subtypes based on burnout profiles have hardly been explored in clinical patients, and the samples investigated in previous studies were rather heterogeneous including patients with various physical, psychological, and social limitations, symptoms, and disabilities...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342097/time-domain-near-infrared-spectroscopy-device-for-monitoring-muscle-oxidative-metabolism-custom-probe-and-in-vivo-applications
#19
Rebecca Re, Ileana Pirovano, Davide Contini, Lorenzo Spinelli, Alessandro Torricelli
Measurement of muscle oxidative metabolism is of interest for monitoring the training status in athletes and the rehabilitation process in patients. Time domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD NIRS) is an optical technique that allows the non-invasive measurement of the hemodynamic parameters in muscular tissue: concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, total hemoglobin content, and tissue oxygen saturation. In this paper, we present a novel TD NIRS medical device for muscle oxidative metabolism. A custom-printed 3D probe, able to host optical elements for signal acquisition from muscle, was develop for TD NIRS in vivo measurements...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340002/performance-changes-of-elite-paralympic-judo-athletes-during-a-paralympic-games-cycle-a-case-study-with-the-brazilian-national-team
#20
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Jaime R Bragança, Roger A da Fonseca, Ronaldo Kobal, Cesar C Cal Abad, Katia Kitamura, Fabio Y Nakamura, Emerson Franchini
The aim of this study was to describe the variations in power performance of elite Paralympic judo athletes across three consecutive training cycles of preparation for the ParaPan American Games, the World Championship and the Paralympic Games. Eleven Paralympic judokas from the Brazilian National team participated in this study. They were repeatedly assessed using squat and countermovement jumps, mean propulsive power (MPP) in the jump-squat (JS), the bench press and prone bench pull at several moments of the preparation...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
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