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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674008/applying-systems-ergonomics-methods-in-sport-a-systematic-review
#1
Adam Hulme, Jason Thompson, Katherine L Plant, Gemma J M Read, Scott Mclean, Amanda Clacy, Paul M Salmon
INTRODUCTION: As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management...
April 16, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658807/effect-of-bright-light-therapy-on-delayed-sleep-wake-cycle-and-reaction-time-of-athletes-participating-in-the-rio-2016-olympic-games
#2
João Paulo P Rosa, Andressa Silva, Dayane F Rodrigues, Mário Antônio Simim, Fernanda V Narciso, Sergio Tufik, Jorge J Bichara, Sebastian Rafael D Pereira, Sidney C Da Silva, Marco Tulio de Mello
This study investigated the effect of using an artificial bright light on the entrainment of the sleep/wake cycle as well as the reaction times of athletes before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. A total of 22 athletes from the Brazilian Olympic Swimming Team were evaluated, with the aim of preparing them to compete at a time when they would normally be about to go to bed for the night. During the 8-day acclimatization period, their sleep/wake cycles were assessed by actigraphy, with all the athletes being treated with artificial light therapy for between 30 and 45 min (starting at day 3)...
April 16, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658533/accelerometer-profile-of-motion-of-the-pelvic-girdle-in-butterfly-swimming
#3
Zbigniew Staniak, Krzysztof Buśko, Michał Górski, Anna Pastuszak
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to develop a method to measure and analyse kinematics of movement of the pelvic girdle in butterfly swimming in order to support training of technical skills. METHODS: A device for recording triaxial accelerations and triaxial rotational angular velocities was mounted on the dorsal part of the pelvic girdle of athlete. The measurements were performed in ten elite butterfly swimmers (age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body height: 187.6 ± 4...
2018: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651858/sleep-related-issues-for-recovery-and-performance-in-athletes
#4
Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter, Shona L Halson
The body of research that reports the relevance of sleep in high-performance sports is growing steadily. While the identification of sleep cycles and diagnosis of sleep disorders is limited to lab-based assessment via polysomnography, the development of activity-based devices estimating sleep patterns provides greater insight into the sleep behaviour of athletes in ecological settings. Overall, small sleep quantity and/or poor quality appears to exist in many athletic populations, though this may be related to training and competition context...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619799/low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet-impairs-anaerobic-exercise-performance-in-exercise-trained-women-and-men-a-randomized-sequence-crossover-trial
#5
Kymberly A Wroble, Morgan N Trott, George G Schweitzer, Rabia S Rahman, Patrick V Kelly, Edward P Weiss
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets cause mild, sub-clinical systemic acidosis. Anaerobic exercise performance is limited by acidosis. Therefore, we evaluated the hypothesis that a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet impairs anaerobic exercise performance, as compared to a high-carbohydrate diet. METHODS: Sixteen men and women (BMI, 23±1 kg/m2, age 23±1 yr) participated in a randomized-sequence, counterbalanced crossover study in which they underwent exercise testing after four days of either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LC; <50 g/day and <10% of energy from carbohydrates) or a high-carbohydrate diet (HC; 6-10 g/kg/day carbohydrate)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611324/validation-of-a-novel-wearable-wireless-technology-to-estimate-oxygen-levels-and-lactate-threshold-power-in-the-exercising-muscle
#6
Parisa Farzam, Zack Starkweather, Maria A Franceschini
There is a growing interest in monitoring muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2 ), which is a localized measure of muscle oxidative metabolism and can be acquired continuously and noninvasively using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods. Most NIRS systems are cumbersome, expensive, fiber coupled devices, with use limited to lab settings. A novel, low cost, wireless, wearable has been developed for use in athletic training. In this study, we evaluate the advantages and limitations of this new simple continuous-wave (CW) NIRS device with respect to a benchtop, frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) system...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570580/effects-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-well-trained-cyclists-aerobic-and-anaerobic-performance
#7
Fábio C Karasiak, Luiz Guilherme A Guglielmo
This study purpose was to analyze the effect of EIMD in gross efficiency and in aerobic and anaerobic cycling performance. Nine well-trained cyclists (30.8 ± 6.4 years, cycling experience 8.4 ± 5.6 years) visited the laboratory 5 times. During the first visit, they performed a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer, to identify VO2max (55.2 ± 4.9 mL.kg.min) and maximum aerobic power (Pmax; 327.0 ± 28.5 watts). During the second visit (control), they cycled 5 minutes at 60% of Pmax, 5 minutes at 70% of Pmax, 5 minutes time-trial, and Wingate test...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568244/herbal-medicine-for-sports-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Maha Sellami, Olfa Slimeni, Andrzej Pokrywka, Goran Kuvačić, Lawrence D Hayes, Mirjana Milic, Johnny Padulo
The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased during last decades. At present, some herbs are used to enhance muscle strength and body mass. Emergent evidence suggests that the health benefits from plants are attributed to their bioactive compounds such as Polyphenols, Terpenoids, and Alkaloids which have several physiological effects on the human body. At times, manufacturers launch numerous products with banned ingredient inside with inappropriate amounts or fake supplement inducing harmful side effect...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562613/effects-of-low-versus-moderate-glycemic-index-diets-on-aerobic-capacity-in-endurance-runners-three-week-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#9
Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Emilia E Zawieja, Bogna E Zawieja, Dominika Jurkowska, Maciej S Buchowski, Jan Jeszka
The glycemic index (GI) of ingested carbohydrates may influence substrate oxidation during exercise and athletic performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- and moderate-GI three-week diets on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in runners. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding study of matched diets differing only in GI (low vs. moderate) in 21 endurance-trained runners. Each participant consumed both, low- (LGI) and moderate-GI (MGI) high-carbohydrate (~60%) and nutrient-balanced diets for three weeks each...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561245/the-efficacy-of-downhill-running-as-a-method-to-enhance-running-economy-in-trained-distance-runners
#10
Andrew J Shaw, Stephen A Ingham, Jonathan P Folland
Running downhill, in comparison to running on the flat, appears to involve an exaggerated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) due to greater impact loads and higher vertical velocity on landing, whilst also incurring a lower metabolic cost. Therefore, downhill running could facilitate higher volumes of training at higher speeds whilst performing an exaggerated SSC, potentially inducing favourable adaptations in running mechanics and running economy (RE). This investigation assessed the efficacy of a supplementary 8-week programme of downhill running as a means of enhancing RE in well-trained distance runners...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552503/sprint-cycling-training-improves-intermittent-run-performance
#11
Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan, Weeraya Ka-Yan Ho, Patrick Shu-Hang Yung
Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sprint cycling training on the intermittent run performance, sprinting speed, and change of direction (COD) ability of recreational intermittent sports athletes. Methods: Sixteen participants participated in the study. The experimental group (EG, n = 8) received a total of 12 sessions of sprint cycling training in a 4-week period and the control group (CG, n = 8) received no training. Both EG and CG were instructed to maintain their daily activity during the 4-week period...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544062/ingestion-of-carbohydrate-or-carbohydrate-plus-protein-does-not-enhance-performance-during-endurance-exercise-a-randomized-cross-over-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
Débora Finger, Fábio Juner Lanferdini, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Clarissa Müller Brusco, Lucas Helal, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Ronei Silveira Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Protein (PRO) combined with a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage may have an ergogenic effect on endurance performance. However, evidence regarding its efficacy on similar conditions to athletes' race day is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of three different nutritional supplementation strategies on performance and muscle recovery in a duathlon protocol. METHODS: , 13 male athletes (29.7 ± 7.7 years) participated in three simulated Olympic-distance duathlons under three different, randomly assigned, supplementation regimens: carbohydrate drink (CHO, 75 g); isocaloric CHO plus protein drink (CHO+PRO, 60...
March 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543135/one-week-cf-intake-increases-prefrontal-cortex-oxygenation-at-rest-and-during-moderate-intensity-exercise-in-normoxia-and-hypoxia
#13
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541332/association-between-different-non-invasively-derived-thresholds-with-lactate-threshold-during-graded-incremental-exercise
#14
Conor Raleigh, Bernard Donne, Neil Fleming
We compared lactate threshold (TLac ) with non-invasive markers of an aerobic-anaerobic transition; namely, ventilatory (VT) and tissue saturation index (TSIT ) thresholds. While identification of a breakpoint in blood lactate concentration ([BLa]) is common for determination of an aerobic-anaerobic transition, non-invasive measures, VT and NIRS, have also received attention as a means of determining this critical exercise intensity. We hypothesised that one or other of these non-invasive measures would have a strong association with TLac ...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540626/correlation-between-mechanical-properties-of-the-ankle-muscles-and-postural-sway-during-the-menstrual-cycle
#15
JongEun Yim, Jerrold Petrofsky, Haneul Lee
Ankle and foot injuries are common among athletes and physically active individuals. The most common residual disability, ankle sprain, is characterized by instability along with postural sway. If the supporting structures around a joint become lax, posture stability and balance are also affected. Previous studies have examined muscle stiffness and elasticity and postural sway separately; however, the relationship between these factors is yet unknown. It is well known that the levels of sex hormones, especially estrogen, change in women over the phase of the menstrual cycle...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535575/citrus-flavonoid-supplementation-improves-exercise-performance-in-trained-athletes
#16
Elvera Overdevest, Jeroen A Wouters, Kevin H M Wolfs, Job J M van Leeuwen, Sam Possemiers
Previous studies have shown that polyphenol supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve exercise performance, due to their antioxidant character and ability to stimulate NO production. These properties may contribute to exercise performance, yet no conclusive research has been performed in exploring the direct effects of citrus flavonoids on human exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether supplementation of a customized citrus flavonoid (CF) extract for 4 weeks improves cycling time-trial performance in trained male athletes...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523053/the-evaluation-of-changes-of-angles-in-selected-joints-during-topspin-forehand-in-table-tennis
#17
Ziemowit Bańkosz, Sławomir Winiarski
The aims of this study were to evaluate movement patterns of topspin forehand, to define the main principles of performing this shot, and to determine the essential differences in individual types of topspin forehand. In total, 10 female high-level athletes participated in this study. The BTS analysis system was used with a novel model for the range-of-motion measurement. An acoustic sensor was attached to the racket for identification of a ball-racket contact. Players, performing topspin forehand, attempt to achieve maximal racket velocity based on the principles of proximal-to-distal sequences and summation of speed with a stretch-shortening character of cycle...
March 9, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509641/caffeine-cyp1a2-genotype-and-endurance-performance-in-athletes
#18
Nanci Guest, Paul Corey, Jason Vescovi, Ahmed El-Sohemy
PURPOSE: Many studies have examined the effect of caffeine on exercise performance, but findings have not always been consistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether variation in the CYP1A2 gene, which affects caffeine metabolism, modifies the ergogenic effects of caffeine in a 10-km cycling time trial. METHODS: Competitive male athletes (n=101; age: 25 ± 4 years) completed the time trial under three conditions: 0, 2 or 4 mg of caffeine per kg body mass, using a split-plot randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design...
March 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507831/bilateral-asymmetry-of-skin-temperature-is-not-related-to-bilateral-asymmetry-of-crank-torque-during-an-incremental-cycling-exercise-to-exhaustion
#19
Athos Trecroci, Damiano Formenti, Nicola Ludwig, Marco Gargano, Andrea Bosio, Ermanno Rampinini, Giampietro Alberti
Although moderate relationships (| r | ∼ 0.5) were reported between skin temperature and performance-related variables (e.g., kinetic), it remains unclear whether skin temperature asymmetry reflects muscle force imbalance in cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether a relationship exists between kinetic and thermal asymmetry during a fatiguing exercise. Ten elite cyclists were enrolled and tested on a maximal incremental cycling test. Peak crank torques of both legs were obtained at the initial and final workload...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496007/the-effect-of-ice-slurry-ingestion-on-body-temperature-and-cycling-performance-in-competitive-athletes
#20
Gaizka Mejuto, Samuel Chalmers, Stephanie Gilbert, David Bentley
The effects of pre cooling on endurance performance are widely known. In contrast, the approach of cooling during endurance exercise in combination with pre-exercise cooling has been poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effects of precooling and cooling during exercise enhance exercise performance compared to the ingestion of a thermo-neutral beverage (20 °C) or precooling alone in cycling performance. This was an experimental study using a randomised crossover design in which 7 cyclists underwent three trials comprising of 45 min steady state cycling (SS) at 70% VO2 max and a subsequent 10 km time trial (TT) in hot conditions (32 °C, 50% relative humidity)...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
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