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psychiatry psychology health philosophy

Jean-François Pelletier, Larry Davidson
OBJECTIVES: Moral treatment is a psychological approach that contrasted sharply with a treatment of constraint, beatings, immersion in cold water, diet, or repeated heavy bleeding. In response to the violent treatment that was common in asylums of late 18th century, Philippe Pinel conceived a 'medical moral treatment'. This paper considers the roots of the recovery paradigm in the pioneering work of Philippe Pinel and Jean-Baptiste Pussin. The aim is to discuss the early 19th century moral treatment to identify some key principles that can also inspire citizenship-oriented mental health care, but we also suggest that a simple equating of citizenship-oriented practice with moral treatment overlooks some of the central aspects of the recovery paradigm...
2015: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Leah Gogel Pope
Based on 11 months of ethnographic fieldwork at a residential treatment center in the United States, this article explores the varied meanings that female youth attribute to behavior and the strategic (mis)use of knowledge about psychiatric diagnosis and medication at a time when the scope of behaviors pathologized in young people continues to expand. Drawing upon psychological and critically applied medical anthropology, as well as contributions from philosophy on how classifications of people come into being and circulate, attention is paid to the multiple contradictions at work in diagnosing young people with mental disorders...
September 2015: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Maria Pantelidou, Andreas K Demetriades
In spite of his contribution to psychiatry in 19th century Britain, Henry Maudsley remains a mysterious figure, a man mostly known for his donation to the London County Council for the building of the Maudsley Hospital and for The Maudsley Annual Lecture created in honour of his benevolence. Besides Sir Aubrey Lewis' article in 1951 and Michael Collie's attempt in 1988 to construct a biographical study on Maudsley, there does not seem to be any current endeavour to tell the story of his life, whereas Trevor Turner's contribution to the 2004 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives a somewhat scathing but unattributed account of Maudsley's personality...
August 2014: Journal of Medical Biography
George Nikolaidis
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The concept of emotions has gone through radical transformations during the last couple of centuries. Despite these severe re-specifications of its content, the concept of emotions (and especially some such as depression or anxiety) has acquired a central role in contemporary clinical Psychology and Psychiatry. This creates an apparent paradox, utilizing more and more concepts for which no clear conceptual understanding has been obtained. This paradox creates a challenge for researchers as well as clinicians, as on a daily basis, millions of people are currently ascribed with 'having' or 'being in' emotional states, which also entails certain interventions to be applied, without much clear insight into what exactly those states might really constitute...
June 2013: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Pieter R Adriaens, Andreas De Block
Essentialism is one of the most pervasive problems in mental health research. Many psychiatrists still hold the view that their nosologies will enable them, sooner or later, to carve nature at its joints and to identify and chart the essence of mental disorders. Moreover, according to recent research in social psychology, some laypeople tend to think along similar essentialist lines. The main aim of this article is to highlight a number of processes that possibly explain the persistent presence and popularity of essentialist conceptions of mental disorders...
April 2013: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Valerie Lander McCarthy, Amanda Bockweg
BACKGROUND: Although successful aging is most often defined by the absence of disease and disability, older adults consistently report aging successfully even in the presence of chronic illness and functional limitations. A more holistic way of looking at old age suggests transcendence may be an important missing criterion for successful aging. AIM: Transcendence, a late life developmental process, appears to have a profound effect within the spiritual domain but is an abstract, complex, and unfamiliar concept...
June 2013: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
Christoph Herrmann-Lingen
THE PROBLEM: The body-mind dualism of somatic medicine is resolved through the concept of psychosomatic medicine. More unspecific descriptions such as "integrative medicine" (which does not clarify what should be integrated) or the "holistic approach" (which comes close to esoterics) suggest the unity of mind, body and soul, although the term "psycho-somatic" still reflects dualistic thinking. PAST APPROACHES: The American Psychosomatic Society has been considering a name change for years, partially to rid itself of the dualistic label, but so far these efforts have not resulted in a viable alternative...
2012: Zeitschrift Für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
Andrea Piazzi, Luana Testa, Giovanni Del Missier, Mariopaolo Dario, Ester Stocco
Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion...
September 2011: History of Psychiatry
Sajid Muzaffar
The rules of admissibility of expert evidence from mental health professionals are not clear. The task of a psychiatrist providing expert opinion to criminal courts is far from clear. Psychiatric experts are trained in a particular set of ethical and philosophical frameworks. They have expertise in the diagnosis and management of behaviours arising from mental disorders. The concept of mental disorder itself is a dimensional one. Such a dimensional view of human behaviour and mental disorders is hard to fit into the categorical view of human behaviour that the law follows...
July 2011: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Ciaran Clarke
Several fields contributing to psychiatric advances, such as psychology, biology, and the humanities, have not yet met to produce a cohesive and integrated picture of human function and dysfunction, strength and vulnerability, etc., despite advances in their own areas. The failure may have its roots in a disagreement on what we mean by the human person and his or her relationship with the world, for which the incommensurate language of these disciplines may be partly to blame. Turns taken by western philosophy over the past 400 years may help to explain this...
February 2012: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
B Verhoeff
Normal or pathological? - The distinction between normality and pathology is discussed on the basis of the views expressed in the work of the medical doctor and philosopher, Georges Canguilhem (1904-1995). Canguilhem shows that the distinction cannot be made at a biological or statistical level. In essence, pathology seems to be irreducibly qualitative. Personal suffering, dysfunction and limitations play a central role in pathology and are clearly linked to an inability to change and adapt in a flexible and creative way...
2010: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Amelie Perron, Trudy Rudge, Dave Holmes
The concept of citizenship is becoming more and more prominent in specific fields, such as psychiatry/mental health, where it is constituted as a solution to the issues of exclusion, discrimination, and poverty often endured by the mentally ill. We argue that such discourse of citizenship represents a break in the history of psychiatry and constitutes a powerful strategy to counter the effects of equally powerful psychiatric labelling. However, we call into question the emancipatory promise of a citizenship agenda...
April 2010: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
Jerome C Wakefield
Current symptom-based DSM and ICD diagnostic criteria for mental disorders are prone to yielding false positives because they ignore the context of symptoms. This is often seen as a benign flaw because problems of living and emotional suffering, even if not true disorders, may benefit from support and treatment. However, diagnosis of a disorder in our society has many ramifications not only for treatment choice but for broader social reactions to the diagnosed individual. In particular, mental disorders impose a sick role on individuals and place a burden upon them to change; thus, disorders decrease the level of respect and acceptance generally accorded to those with even annoying normal variations in traits and features...
February 2010: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Austyn Snowden
The classification of schizophrenia is currently under review in a coordinated worldwide consultation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM V) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 11)--the standard manuals for psychiatric classification. Classification can seem remote from nurses by appearing to be the antithesis of person-centred approaches to recovery. This should not be the case. Nurses need to critically engage with methods of classification in order to better understand the biological, psychological, social and political assumptions underpinning them...
November 12, 2009: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Wyona M Freysteinson
The mirror is an object that shows one a reflected image of body areas. There appears to be limited nursing literature about the role of a nurse in the use of a mirror. There is, however, literature of the therapeutic use of mirrors in medicine, neurology, psychiatry, psychology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and rheumatology. The objective of this article is to review the basic elements and the underlying theoretical framework of mirror interventions. In 2007 to 2008, a keyword, abstract, and title search was conducted for therapeutic mirror studies between the years 1998 and 2008...
December 2009: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
Guido Cimino
In Italy, the emergence of a psychology that can be considered "scientific" is not an event that can be easily ascribed to a precise date. It involves instead a general shift of ideas, gradual initiatives of a cultural and institutional nature, and new approaches to research, all of which together, in the course of the last thirty years of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century, form a "critical mass" that identifies psychology as an autonomous science, distinct from both philosophy and from neurophysiology and psychiatry...
2006: Physis; Rivista Internazionale di Storia Della Scienza
Marilyn Baetz, John Toews
The relation between religion and (or) spirituality (RS), and mental health has shown generally positive associations; however, it is a complex and often emotion-laden field of study. We attempt to examine potential mechanisms that have been proposed as mediators for the RS and mental health relation. We also examine more philosophical areas including patient and physician opinions about inclusion of RS in patient care, and ethical issues that may arise. We review suggested guidelines for sensitive patient inquiry, and opportunities and challenges for education of psychiatrists and trainees...
May 2009: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
David Healy, Derelie Mangin
Psychiatry's traditional strengths have lain in an appreciation of the philosophy and psychology of treatment rather than in an ability to advance the public health through the mass delivery of treatment programs. Given how insecurely established treatment effects are for current interventions, and the capacity for developments in neuroscience to create markets rather than to advance understanding, it seems important to maintain traditional strengths. To have a clinical evidence base, consistent with a wider public health mission, psychiatry would need to track more rigorously the effects of the treatments it now administers before advocating for an even wider distribution of even more interventions with physical treatments than happens at present...
April 2009: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Giap Kian Ang, Saxby Pridmore
OBJECTIVE: 'Theory of mind' (ToM) arose from the study of primates and their social organization, and scholars in many fields - philosophy, anthropology, psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience - have contributed to this expanding topic. In this paper, we provide an overview of aspects of ToM of relevance to psychiatry. We briefly describe the origins of ToM in primates and humans and some relevant neurobiology, and then touch on possible contributions to psychopathology. METHOD: We searched for articles on PubMed and Medline, using the terms 'theory of mind', 'mirror neuron system' and 'psychiatry'...
April 2009: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Jeanette Hewitt
Suicide prevention is a National Health Service priority in the United Kingdom. People with mental illness are seen to represent one of the most vulnerable groups for suicide and recent British Government policy has focused on prevention and management of perceived risk. This approach to suicide prevention is constructed under a biomedical model of psychiatry, which maintains that suicidal persons suffer from some form of disease or irrational drive towards self-destruction. Many react to the idea of self-inflicted death with instinctive revulsion, which has prevented serious discussion of the concept of rational suicide, particularly in relation to those with schizophrenia...
February 2010: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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