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Post traumatic stress

Elisabeth M Weiss, Walther Parson, Harald Niederstätter, Josef Marksteiner, Astrid Lampe
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder following a severe traumatic experience and is characterized by high rates of comorbidity with related psychiatric disorders. However, even for individuals experiencing the same trauma, there is considerable inter-individual variability in the risk of PTSD, and this is largely thought to be determined by biological processes, such as genetic predisposition and epigenetic mechanism. In this review we will summarize recent research on genetics of PTSD, primarily focusing on candidate gene-association studies, targeting on functional genetic variants in the monoaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
July 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Seung Suk Kang, Christopher R Erbes, Greg J Lamberty, Paul Thuras, Scott R Sponheim, Melissa A Polusny, Amy C Moran, Abraham C Van Voorhis, Kelvin O Lim
OBJECTIVE: Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a mental technique using a mantra to facilitate meditation. TM has a potential for treating symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its clinical efficacy remains to be clarified. This pilot study evaluated the acceptability, preliminary effectiveness, and neurophysiology of TM for veterans with PTSD. METHOD: Twenty-nine veterans (20.7% female) were recruited from a major medical center and enrolled in the study...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Ju-Yeon Shin, Jung-Won Shin, Sang-Kyu Ha, Yoorim Kim, Kelley M Swanberg, Suck Lee, Tae-Woo Kim, Sungho Maeng
Radix Polygalae (RP) has been used to relieve psychological stress in traditional oriental medicine. Recently, cell protective, antiamnestic and antidepressant-like effects were disclosed but the possible application of RP to post-traumatic stress disorder, in which exaggerated fear memory persists, has not yet been explored. For this purpose, the effects of RP on fear behavior was examined in a mouse model of single prolonged stress and conditioned fear (SPS-CF), previously shown to mimic key symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Kasi M Chu, Shawn M S Garcia, Hela Koka, Gary H Wynn, Tzu-Cheg Kao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate race disparities in the US Military among Asian, White, Black, Native American and Other, seeking mental health care in the context of stigma defined by perceived damage to career. DESIGN: Using 2008 survey data taken from US military personnel, mental disorders including depression, generalized anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt and post-traumatic stress disorder serious psychological distress (as defined in Kessler - 6), as well as seeking mental health care in past 12 months and stigma were dichotomized and weighted logistic regression models were used...
July 19, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
Luke John Ney, Allison Matthews, Raimondo Bruno, Kim Louise Felmingham
The endocannabinoid system is an increasingly recognised pharmacological target for treating stress and anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent preclinical developments have implicated the endocannabinoid system in stress responses, emotional memories and fear extinction, all critical to PTSD aetiology. However, preclinical research in endocannabinoid biology has neglected the influential role of sex hormone differences on PTSD symptomology, which is particularly important given that PTSD is twice as common in women as in men...
July 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Matteo Malgaroli, Fiona Maccallum, George A Bonanno
BACKGROUND: Complicated and persistent grief reactions afflict approximately 10% of bereaved individuals and are associated with severe disruptions of functioning. These maladaptive patterns were defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), but its criteria remain debated. The condition has been studied using network analysis, showing potential for an improved understanding of PCBD. However, previous studies were limited to self-report and primarily originated from a single archival dataset...
July 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Marco Cavicchioli, Mariagrazia Movalli, Cesare Maffei
INTRODUCTION: The current study aims to evaluate if and to what extent mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) could promote an incremental effectiveness compared to interventions usually provided in clinical practice to treat Alcohol and Drugs Use Disorders. In line with this aim, we accomplished a meta-analytic review of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, considering primary and secondary outcomes that comprehensively operationalize treatment efficacy. METHODS: We conducted the online research up to August 31st 2017...
July 17, 2018: European Addiction Research
Sharon Y Lee, Lucy Finkelstein-Fox, Crystal L Park, Carolyn M Mazure, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Rani Hoff
Objective: Pain and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are strongly correlated in veteran populations. Arguments for which one condition predicts or worsens the other condition have gone in both directions. However, research addressing this issue has been primarily limited to cross-sectional studies rather than examinations of a potential bidirectional relationship between pain interference and PTSD symptoms over time. In addition, no studies have examined deployment injury status as potentially moderating this bidirectional effect in veterans...
July 16, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
C Van Woudenberg, E M Voorendonk, H Bongaerts, H A Zoet, M Verhagen, C W Lee, A van Minnen, A De Jongh
Background: There is room for improvement regarding the treatment of severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Intensifying treatment to increase patient retention is a promising development. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an intensive trauma-focused treatment programme over 8 days for individuals suffering from severe PTSD. Method: Treatment was provided for 347 PTSD patients (70% women; mean age = 38.32 years, SD  = 11.69) and consisted of daily sessions of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy (16 sessions in total), physical activity, and psycho-education...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Christine Frank, Mark A Zamorski, Jennifer E C Lee, Ian Colman
Objective: Military research has attempted to identify whether women have an increased vulnerability to mental health issues following deployment-related trauma, but findings have been mixed. Most studies have controlled for childhood abuse, but not other non-deployment trauma (e.g. life-threatening illness), which may partly explain previous mixed results. This study assessed gender differences in the association between deployment-related trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while controlling for non-deployment trauma...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Daisuke Ishii, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Shingo Matsuda, Haruna Tomizawa-Shinohara, Chihiro Sutoh, Eiji Shimizu
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for developing anxiety-related mental disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which requires a long-term course of therapy when a traumatic event has been experienced during childhood. However, the biological mechanism underlying these age-dependent characteristics remains unclear. In the present study, we used early adolescent, late adolescent and adult (4-, 8-, and 15- week-old) male mice to examine age differences in fear memory, fear extinction, and spontaneous recovery of fear...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Akhtar Bibi, Sundas Kalim, Muhammad Adnan Khalid
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the major psychological disorders developed after burn injuries, though this subject of burn injuries and their destructive chronic psychological impact are not considered as thoughtfully in developing countries like Pakistan. Hence, the current study investigated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and resilience among burn patients in Pakistan, exploring the variance occurrence of the two variables concerning male burn patients and female burn patients...
2018: Burns and trauma
Abdalla Z Mohamed, Paul Cumming, Hussein Srour, Tamara Gunasena, Aya Uchida, Courtney Nicole Haller, Fatima Nasrallah
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are risk factors for early onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may accelerate the progression rate of AD pathology. As amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques are a hallmark of AD pathology, we hypothesized that TBI and PTSD might increase Aβ accumulation in the brain. Methods: We examined PET and neuropsychological data from Vietnam War veterans compiled by the US Department of Defense Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, to examine the spatial distribution of Aβ in male veterans' who had experienced a TBI and/or developed PTSD...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rachel A Wortman, Theresa Vallone, Michele Karnes, Christine Walawander, Dion Daly, Bonnie Fox-Garrity
The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a pinniped (grey and harbor seals) facilitated human-animal interaction pilot program on the self-reported PTSD-like symptoms of a veteran. This study analyzed preexisting, deidentified data that represented the participant's scores on the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5). The PCL-5 was completed as part of a pilot program operated in partnership between the Veteran and Military Affiliated Research Center (VMARC) and a local aquarium. Scores on the PCL-5 were collected prior to (T1), midway (T2), and immediately after (T3) completion of the Project Seal to Heal program...
2018: Occupational Therapy International
Christie Jackson, Brandon J Weiss, Marylene Cloitre
Introduction: Group Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR) is an evidence-based, manualized treatment for individuals with post-traumatic stress symptoms, that focuses on improving functioning through mood management (e.g., emotion regulation) and relationship skills development. To date, no study has evaluated the potential benefit of group STAIR among Veterans. Feasibility of delivering STAIR in a mixed-gender group format and the potential impact of gender on outcome were examined...
July 11, 2018: Military Medicine
Arthur H Friedlander, Susan C Rosenbluth, Urie K Lee, Tina I Chang, Barry H Guze, Michelle R Zeidler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Atoosa Azarang, Murat Pakyurek, Caroline Giroux, Thomas E Nordahl, Peter Yellowlees
This review article presents existing research describing how information technologies can be used to improve mental health services for trauma survivors, either by enhancing existing treatment approaches or as a stand-alone means of delivering trauma-relevant interventions. The potential ways in which technology aids in overcoming barriers to care are first addressed in terms of providing mental health treatment. The use of technologies enables shifting the locus of care from the traditional provider's office to mobile, online, and virtual environments which are less threatening for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), helping to overcome the core nature of the illness which includes avoidance and increased personal isolation...
July 13, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Brandt A Smith
Previous research has demonstrated that jurors show a bias towards treatment for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present research examines this bias when jurors are faced with cases of potential malingering, in which the defendant's claim of PTSD is a perceived attempt to escape legal punishments. Trial vignettes, in which veteran status and PTSD diagnosis timing were manipulated, were used to explore this phenomenon. It was found that veterans who received their diagnosis after being arrested were found guilty more often, and were diverted to treatment less often, than those who were diagnosed before an arrest...
July 12, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Apryl E Pooley, Rebecca C Benjamin, Susheela Sreedhar, Andrew L Eagle, Alfred J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison, S Marc Breedlove, Cynthia L Jordan
BACKGROUND: Our previous study revealed that adult female rats respond differently to trauma than adult males, recapitulating sex differences in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibited by women and men. Here, we asked two questions: does the female phenotype depend on (1) social housing condition and/or (2) circulating gonadal hormones? METHODS: For the first study, the effects of single prolonged stress (SPS) were compared for females singly or pair-housed...
July 13, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Hirotaka Shoji, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is the suppression of a startle reflex response to a startle stimulus that occurs when a weak prepulse stimulus precedes the startle stimulus. PPI is measured to assess sensorimotor gating across species, including humans and rodents. Reduced PPI, which is thought to reflect dysfunction of sensorimotor gating, is reported in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and in animal models of these disorders...
July 13, 2018: Molecular Brain
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