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interleukin 1

Patrick T Walsh, Padraic G Fallon
The recently discovered interleukin (IL)-36 family of cytokines form part of the broader IL-1 family and are emerging as important mediators of inflammatory disease. The IL-36 subfamily consists of three ligands-IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ-and the natural antagonist IL-36Ra. The cytokines exert their effects through a specific IL-36 receptor consisting of IL-36R and IL-1RAcP chains. IL-36 cytokines can direct both innate and adaptive immune responses by acting on parenchymal, stromal, and specific immune cell subsets...
October 26, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Paola Sebastiani, Bharat Thyagarajan, Fangui Sun, Lawrence S Honig, Nicole Schupf, Stephanie Cosentino, Mary F Feitosa, Mary Wojczynski, Anne B Newman, Monty Montano, Thomas T Perls
OBJECTIVES: To determine reference values for laboratory tests in individuals aged 85 and older. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: International. PARTICIPANTS: Long Life Family Study (LLFS) participants (N~5,000, age: range 25-110, median 67, 45% male). MEASUREMENTS: Serum biomarkers were selected based on association with aging-related diseases and included complete blood count, lipids (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3, vitamin D epi-isomer, diabetes mellitus-related biomarkers (adiponectin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproduct), kidney disease-related biomarkers (albumin, creatinine, cystatin), endocrine biomarkers (dehydroepiandrosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin, testosterone), markers of inflammation (interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide), ferritin, and transferrin...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
T A Danilova, G A Danilina, A A Adzhieva, A G Minko, V G Zhukhovitskii
Dynamics of IL-6 level was studied in blood serum of CBA mice receiving intraperitoneal injections of killed and live culture of group A Streptococcus and its supernatants. It was found that administration of killed culture was followed by a significant rise in IL-6 level (by 4.7 times in 1 h and by 9.3 times in 5 h in comparison with the control). By 24 h, cytokine content was below the control. The highest levels of IL-6 were found after treatment with supernatants of Streptococcus cultures (by 10.5 times in 1 h and by 14...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Giulio Mari, Jacopo Crippa, Andrea Costanzi, Michele Mazzola, Michele Rossi, Dario Maggioni
BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program applied to colorectal laparoscopic surgery is well known to reduce hospitalization improving short-terms outcomes. Its goal is to minimize the surgical stress response in order to maintain the physiological homeostasis altered by surgery. However, there is little knowledge about the involved dynamics in the reduction of the surgical stress that these programs allow. The primary aim of this study was to compare the level of immune and nutritional serum investigators across surgery in patients undergoing elective colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS protocol or according to a standard care program...
October 25, 2016: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
Lauren Tracy Daly, David M Tsai, Mansher Singh, Kristo Nuutila, Raquel A Minasian, Cameron C Y Lee, Elizabeth Kiwanuka, Florian Hackl, Andrew B Onderdonk, Johan P E Junker, Elof Eriksson, Edward J Caterson
BACKGROUND: Wound infection can impair postoperative healing. Topical antibiotics have potential to treat wound infection and inflammation and minimize the adverse effects associated with systemic antibiotics. METHODS: Full-thickness porcine wounds were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Using polyurethane wound enclosure devices, wounds were treated with topical 100 μg/ml minocycline, topical 1000 μg/ml minocycline, topical saline control, or 4 mg/kg intravenous minocycline...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Patrick Kellner, Mattia Müller, Tobias Piegeler, Philipp Eugster, Christa Booy, Martin Schläpfer, Beatrice Beck-Schimmer
BACKGROUND: Patients experiencing acute lung injury (ALI) often need mechanical ventilation for which sedation may be required. In such patients, usually the first choice an intravenously administered drug. However, growing evidence suggests that volatile anesthetics such as sevoflurane are a valuable alternative. In this study, we evaluate pulmonary and systemic effects of long-term (24-hour) sedation with sevoflurane compared with propofol in an in vivo animal model of ALI. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to ALI by intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application, mechanically ventilated and sedated for varying intervals up to 24 hours with either sevoflurane or propofol...
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Paola Triggianese, Paola Conigliaro, Maria Sole Chimenti, Livia Biancone, Giovanni Monteleone, Roberto Perricone, Ivan Monteleone
OBJECTIVES: Both the innate and the adaptive immune responses contribute to the onset of chronic inflammation in spondyloarthritis (SpA). The association between SpA and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, enteropathic SpA-ESpA) has been largely established and suggests a shared pathophysiology. There is evidence that innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are involved in the pathogenesis of both SpA and IBD while no evidence has been reported to date on ESpA. We aimed to analyse for the first time the frequency and cytokine expression of ILC in peripheral blood from ESpA patients compared with both IBD and healthy subjects...
October 21, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Christian Brinkmann, Benedikt Schulte-Körne, Marijke Grau, Sinja Obels, Roman Kemmerling, Thorsten Schiffer, Wilhelm Bloch, Klara Brixius
BACKGROUND: Increases in the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and abnormal production of nitric oxide (NO) in skeletal muscle have been suggested to be associated with peripheral insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This pilot study analyzed whether a 3-month endurance training can affect iNOS protein and NO metabolite levels in the vastus lateralis muscle of insulin-independent T2DM men, thereby affecting the patients` glycemic control...
October 26, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Paolo Lissoni
Despite its apparent failure in cancer therapy, IL-2 still remains fundamental in the activation of antitumor immunity. Areas covered: The aim of this review is the reinterpretation of the role of IL-2 in anticancer immunity, according to knowledge gained of the cytokine network, by highlighting its importance in inducing T helper-1 (TH1) cell proliferation, natural killer (NK) actHivation and IL-12 secretion. However, its main negative effect is the stimulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which in contrast suppresses anticancer immunity...
October 26, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
D Lackeyram, D Young, C J Kim, C Yang, T L Archbold, Y Mine, M Z Fan
Intestinal inflammation induced with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is used to study acute or chronic ulcerative colitis in animal models. Decreased gut tissue anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 concentration and mRNA abundance are associated with the development of chronic bowel inflammation. Twelve piglets of 3 days old were fitted with an intragastric catheter and randomly allocated into control and DSS groups by administrating either sterile saline or 1.25 g of DSS/kg body weight (BW) in saline per day, respectively, for 10 days...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Ryan Pekson, Vladimir Poltoratsky, Samir Gorasiya, Sruthi Sundaram, Charles R Ashby, Ivana Vancurova, Sandra E Reznik
Previously, we have shown that N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) prevents inflammation-induced preterm birth in a murine model, inhibits LPS-induced increases in placental pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulates the anti-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-10 (IL-10). However, DMA's mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. In the current study we investigate how DMA produces its anti-inflammatory effect. Using in vitro and ex vivo models, we show that DMA suppresses secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264...
October 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Anna Pérez-Bosque, Lluïsa Miró, Concepció Amat, Javier Polo, Miquel Moretó
Spray-dried preparations from porcine and bovine plasma can alleviate mucosal inflammation in experimental models and improve symptoms in patients with enteropathy. In rodents, dietary supplementation with porcine spray-dried plasma (SDP) attenuates intestinal inflammation and improves the epithelial barrier function during intestinal inflammation induced by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB). The aim of this study was to discern the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of SDP...
October 22, 2016: Nutrients
Xing He, Rui Tang, Yue Sun, Yan-Ge Wang, Kui-Yang Zhen, Dong-Mei Zhang, Wei-Qing Pan
Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by the parasite of the Schistosoma genus and is characterized by egg-induced hepatic granulomas and fibrosis. Macrophages play a central role in schistosomiasis with several studies highlighting their differentiation into M2 cells involved in the survival of infected mice through limitation of immunopathology. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms of regulating macrophage differentiation. Here, we showed that the early stage of infection by Schistosoma japonicum induced expression of type 1T-helper-cell (Th1) cytokine, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), leading to increase in M1 cells...
October 19, 2016: EBioMedicine
Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Stella Liong, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, Stephen Tong, Tu'uhevaha Kaitu'u-Lino, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Infection and inflammation stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which play a central role in myometrial contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. In human and mouse immune cells, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a negative regulator of inflammation. No studies have examined the role of ATF3 in human labour. METHODS: Primary amnion cells were used to determine the effect of interleukin (IL)-1β and the bacterial product fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide (fsl-1) on ATF3 expression, and the effect of ATF3 siRNA on pro-labour mediators...
November 2016: Placenta
Julie Bergeron, Noha Gerges, Clémence Guiraut, Djordje Grbic, Marie-Julie Allard, Louis-Charles Fortier, Cathy Vaillancourt, Guillaume Sébire
Infection or inflammation during pregnancy is known to lead to maternal immune activation triggering a fetal inflammatory response syndrome associated with deleterious effects, such as brain injury and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) - one of the most common bacterium colonizing pregnant women - can be responsible for chorioamnionitis. Given that interleukin (IL)-1β has a major role in anti-GBS host defense, we hypothesized that IL-1β-driven innate immune response is implicated in GBS-induced chorioamnionitis...
November 2016: Placenta
Jihye Han, Joonbeom Bae, Chang-Yong Choi, Sang-Pil Choi, Hyung-Sik Kang, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Jongsun Park, Young Sik Lee, Hyun-Seuk Moon, Chung-Gyu Park, Myung-Shik Lee, Taehoon Chun
Severe hepatic inflammation is a common cause of acute or chronic liver disease. Macrophages are one of the key mediators which regulate the progress of hepatic inflammation. Increasing evidence shows that the TAM (TYRO3, AXL and MERTK) family of RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases), which is expressed in macrophages, alleviates inflammatory responses through a negative feedback loop. However, the functional contribution of each TAM family member to the progression of hepatic inflammation remains elusive. In this study, we explore the role of individual TAM family proteins during autophagy induction and evaluate their contribution to hepatic inflammation...
October 26, 2016: Autophagy
Petra D Cravens, Rehana Z Hussain, William A Miller-Little, Li-Hong Ben, Benjamin M Segal, Emily Herndon, Olaf Stüve
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are heterodimers that share the p40 subunit, and both cytokines are critical in the differentiation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Th1 and Th17 effector cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), an animal model of the human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). However, ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against p40 failed to show efficacy over placebo in a phase II clinical trial in patients with MS...
2016: PloS One
Johnathan Ho, Christin Pelzel, Andreas Begitt, Maureen Mee, Hany M Elsheikha, David J Scott, Uwe Vinkemeier
STAT2 is the quintessential transcription factor for type 1 interferons (IFNs), where it functions as a heterodimer with STAT1. However, the human and murine STAT2-deficient phenotypes suggest important additional and currently unidentified type 1 IFN-independent activities. Here, we show that STAT2 constitutively bound to STAT1, but not STAT3, via a conserved interface. While this interaction was irrelevant for type 1 interferon signaling and STAT1 activation, it precluded the nuclear translocation specifically of STAT1 in response to IFN-γ, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-27...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Marcelo Dib Bechara, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Karina Quesada, Rodrigo Galhardi Gasparini, Antonely de Cássio Alves de Carvalho, Adriana Maria Ragassi Fiorini
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are two major forms of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Vitamin A (VA) and vitamin D (VD) may be associated with reduction in inflammation in these disorders. The aim of this review was to show the current evidence that may associate VA and VD with IBDs. Data linking VA, VD, and IBDs were studied. Both VA and VD may be related to the immune system in different manners. The active form of VA, retinoic acid, may be related to the growth factor-β and release of interleukin-10 (IL-10), thus involved with the resolution of the inflammation...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Na-Shun Mengke, Bei Hu, Qian-Peng Han, Yi-Yu Deng, Ming Fang, Di Xie, Ang Li, Hong-Ke Zeng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and is responsible for the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Inflammation occurs in the brains of patients with AD, and is critical for disease progression. In the present study, the effects of rapamycin (RAPA) on neuroinflammation lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced were investigated. SH‑SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with 20 µg/ml LPS and 0.1, 1 or 10 nmol/l RAPA, and were analyzed at various time points (6, 12 and 24 h)...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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