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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110461/the-emerging-role-of-liquid-biopsies-circulating-tumor-cells-and-circulating-cell-free-tumor-dna-in-lung-cancer-diagnosis-and-identification-of-resistance-mutations
#1
REVIEW
Angela Esposito, Carmen Criscitiello, Dario Trapani, Giuseppe Curigliano
Therapeutic advances in the treatment of lung cancer are in part due to a more complete understanding of its genomic portrait. The serial monitoring of tumor genotypes, which are instable and prone to changes under selective pressure, is becoming increasingly needed. Although tumor biopsies remain the reference standard for the diagnosis and genotyping of lung cancer, they are invasive and not always feasible. The "liquid biopsies" have the potential to overcome many of these hurdles, allowing a rapid and accurate identification of de novo and resistant genetic alterations and a real-time monitoring of treatment responses...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110358/pollution-assessment-of-the-biob%C3%A3-o-river-chile-prioritization-of-substances-of-concern-under-an-ecotoxicological-approach
#2
Álvaro Alonso, Ricardo Figueroa, Pilar Castro-Díez
The water demand for human activities is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Under these circumstances, preserving aquatic ecosystems should be a priority which requires the development of quality criteria. In this study we perform a preliminary prioritization of the risky substances based on reported ecotoxicological studies and guidelines for the Biobío watershed (Central Chile). Our specific aims are (1) reviewing the scientific information on the aquatic pollution of this watershed, (2) determining the presence and concentration of potential toxic substances in water, sediment and effluents, (3) searching for quality criteria developed by other countries for the selected substances and (4) prioritizing the most risky substances by means of deterministic ecotoxicological risk assessment...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110335/personalised-medicine-for-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Liam G Heaney, Lorcan P A McGarvey
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prevalent conditions, and despite recent advances and multiple available therapies and interventions, there remains a significant unmet clinical need. In recent years, it has become clear that there is both significant heterogeneity within each of these conditions and additionally significant overlap in many of the clinical and inflammatory features. In parallel, useful clinical and immunological biomarkers which inform about prognosis and response to therapy have emerged in both asthma and COPD...
January 21, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110218/hydrogen-peroxide-as-a-central-redox-signaling-molecule-in-physiological-oxidative-stress-oxidative-eustress
#4
REVIEW
Helmut Sies
Hydrogen peroxide emerged as major redox metabolite operative in redox sensing, signaling and redox regulation. Generation, transport and capture of H2O2 in biological settings as well as their biological consequences can now be addressed. The present overview focuses on recent progress on metabolic sources and sinks of H2O2 and on the role of H2O2 in redox signaling under physiological conditions (1-10nM), denoted as oxidative eustress. Higher concentrations lead to adaptive stress responses via master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB...
January 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110156/maternal-childhood-trauma-postpartum-depression-and-infant-outcomes-avoidant-affective-processing-as-a-potential-mechanism
#5
Karmel W Choi, Kathleen J Sikkema, Bavi Vythilingum, Lut Geerts, Sheila C Faure, Melissa H Watt, Annerine Roos, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110047/are-cuo-nanoparticles-effects-on-hemocytes-of-the-marine-scallop-chlamys-farreri-caused-by-particles-and-or-corresponding-released-ions
#6
Xuemei Sun, Bijuan Chen, Bin Xia, Qian Han, Lin Zhu, Keming Qu
Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) have become emerging pollutants and attracted extensive concern about their potential effects on the marine environment. However, the contribution of particles and their corresponding released ions to the overall toxicity of CuO NPs is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the toxicological effects of CuO NPs and their corresponding released ions on the hemocytes of Chlamys farreri. Both copper species induced membrane damage, and increased lysosome contents in hemocytes...
January 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110046/response-of-spirodela-polyrhiza-to-cerium-subcellular-distribution-growth-and-biochemical-changes
#7
Qinsong Xu, Yuji Jiang, Weiyue Chu, Chunlei Su, Dan Hu, Qianqian Lu, Tingting Zhang
Rare earth elements are new and emerging contaminants in freshwater systems. Greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.) is a common aquatic plant widely used in phytotoxicity tests for xenobiotic substances. In this study, the cerium (Ce) accumulation potential, the distribution of Ce in bio-molecules, and ensuing biochemical responses were investigated in greater duckweed fronds when they were exposed to Ce (0, 10, 20, 40, and 60μM). There was a concentration dependent increase in Ce accumulation, which reached a maximum of 67mgg(-1) of dry weight (DW) at 60μM Ce after 14 d...
January 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109906/succinate-in-the-cancer-immune-cycle
#8
Shuai Jiang, Wei Yan
Succinate is an important intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In mitochondria, it plays a crucial role in generating adenosine triphosphate. Succinate metabolism is also intertwined with the metabolism of other metabolites and with the "GABA shunt" of the glutamine pathway. Recently, it has become increasingly apparent that the roles of succinate extend into the realms of immunity and cancer. Succinate is a key modulator of the hypoxic response, an important player in tumorigenesis; succinate is also involved in protein succinylation, a novel posttranslational modification pathway...
January 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109867/interactions-between-interleukin-6-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-drive-the-chemoresistant-phenotype-of-hepatocellular-cancer
#9
Min Xu, Zhongwei Zhao, Jingjing Song, Xilin Lan, Siming Lu, Minjiang Chen, Zufei Wang, Weiqian Chen, Xiaoxi Fan, Fazong Wu, Li Chen, Jianfei Tu, Jiansong Ji
Emerging evidence implicates an important role for myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of MDSCs in response to chemotherapies. In this study, we find that drug-resistant hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cells-derived conditioned medium significantly enhances the expansion and immunosuppressive function of MDSCs compared to their parental sensitive cells, which is demonstrated by increased level of arginase, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109824/expanding-the-actions-of-cortisol-and-corticosterone-in-wild-vertebrates-a-necessary-step-to-overcome-the-emerging-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Federico Vera, Roxana Zenuto, C Daniel Antenucci
We conducted a review of scientific articles published between 2000 and 2014 and evaluated how frequently various aspects of cortisol and corticosterone (CORT) actions have been considered in studies on wild vertebrates. Results show that (1) the notion that CORT are stress-responsive hormones is central in our theoretical frameworks and it is reflected by the fact that several articles refer to CORT as "stress hormones". (2) The large majority of studies do not contemplate the possibility of decrease and no change in CORT levels in response to chronic stressors...
January 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109282/does-a-biomedical-research-centre-affect-patient-care-in-local-hospitals
#11
Catherine A Lichten, Grace Marsden, Alexandra Pollitt, Vasiliki Kiparoglou, Keith M Channon, Jon Sussex
BACKGROUND: Biomedical research can have impacts on patient care at research-active hospitals. We qualitatively evaluated the impact of the Oxford Biomedical Research Centre (Oxford BRC), a university-hospital partnership, on the effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare in local hospitals. Effectiveness and efficiency are conceptualised in terms of impacts perceived by clinicians on the quality, quantity and costs of patient care they deliver. METHODS: First, we reviewed documentation from Oxford BRC and literature on the impact of research activity on patient care...
January 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109133/the-prognostic-and-therapeutic-application-of-micrornas-in-breast-cancer-tissue-and-circulating-micrornas
#12
REVIEW
Afsane Bahrami, Seyed Amir Aledavoud, Kazem Anvari, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Mina Maftouh, Ali Yaghobzade, Omid Salarzaee, Soodabeh ShahidSales, Amir Avan
Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy diagnosed in women, supporting the need for identification of novel prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as molecular regulators that can have key roles in pathogenesis and progression of different malignancies, including breast cancer. Micro-RNAs can be circulated in body fluid, suggesting their values as non-invasive marker. There is growing body of evidence showing the aberrant activation of some known circulating miRNAs, e...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109025/immune-regulation-by-t-regulatory-cells-in-hbv-related-inflammation-and-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Nirupama Trehanpati, Ashish Kumar Vyas
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the commonest causes in Asians countries. India has the second largest pool after China for hepatitis B infected subjects. HBV clearance is T cell dependent and one of the reason for T cells hypo responsiveness is due to mass production of Tregs through activation of Notch signaling, which suppressCD4/CD8 T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important to maintain cellular homeostasis; however during viral infection increase of Tregs is inversely proportional to HBV DNA titers...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108460/enhancer-remodeling-during-adaptive-bypass-to-mek-inhibition-is-attenuated-by-pharmacological-targeting-of-the-p-tefb-complex
#14
Jon S Zawistowski, Samantha M Bevill, Daniel R Goulet, Timothy J Stuhlmiller, Adriana S Beltran, Jose F Olivares-Quintero, Darshan Singh, Noah Sciaky, Joel S Parker, Naim U Rashid, Xin Chen, James S Duncan, Martin C Whittle, Steven P Angus, Sara Hanna Velarde, Brian T Golitz, Xiaping He, Charlene Santos, David B Darr, Kristalyn Gallagher, Lee M Graves, Charles M Perou, Lisa A Carey, H Shelton Earp, Gary L Johnson
Targeting the dysregulated BRaf-MEK-ERK pathway in cancer has increasingly emerged in clinical trial design. Despite clinical responses in specific cancers using inhibitors targeting BRaf and MEK, resistance develops often involving non-genomic adaptive bypass mechanisms. Inhibition of MEK1/2 by trametinib in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients induced dramatic transcriptional responses, including upregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) comparing tumor samples before and after one week of treatment...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107952/lanthanide-coordination-polymer-probe-for-time-gated-luminescence-sensing-of-ph-in-undiluted-human-serum
#15
Yankai Huang, Baoxia Liu, Qi Shen, Xu Zhu, Yuanqiang Hao, Zhu Chang, Fang Xu, Peng Qu, Maotian Xu
Lanthanide coordination polymers (LCPs) have emerged as fascinating materials because of their specific structure and properties. In this work, utilizing hydrosoluble biomolecule of guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP) as bridging linker, lanthanide terbium ions (Tb(3+)) as metal nodes, and silver ions (Ag(+)) as sensitizers, we synthesized a pH responsive luminescent lanthanide CP probe of Tb/GMP/Ag. The probe possesses high luminescence due to the sensitization of Ag(+); While in alkaline solutions, Ag(+) in Tb/GMP/Ag immediately binds to OH(-), forming Ag2O precipitation and resulting in a distinct fluorescence quenching of Tb/GMP/Ag...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107703/how-universal-is-coverage-and-access-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-chagas-disease-in-colombia-a-health-systems-analysis
#16
Zulma M Cucunubá, Jennifer M Manne-Goehler, Diana Díaz, Pierre Nouvellet, Oscar Bernal, Andrea Marchiol, María-Gloria Basáñez, Lesong Conteh
Limited access to Chagas disease diagnosis and treatment is a major obstacle to reaching the 2020 World Health Organization milestones of delivering care to all infected and ill patients. Colombia has been identified as a health system in transition, reporting one of the highest levels of health insurance coverage in Latin America. We explore if and how this high level of coverage extends to those with Chagas disease, a traditionally marginalised population. Using a mixed methods approach, we calculate coverage for screening, diagnosis and treatment of Chagas...
January 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107502/rnai-based-functional-genomics-identifies-new-virulence-determinants-in-mucormycosis
#17
Trung Anh Trieu, María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Marta Sanchis, Javier Capilla, Patricia Navarro-Rodriguez, Loida Lopez-Fernandez, Santiago Torres-Martínez, Victoriano Garre, Rosa María Ruiz-Vázquez, Francisco E Nicolás
Mucorales are an emerging group of human pathogens that are responsible for the lethal disease mucormycosis. Unfortunately, functional studies on the genetic factors behind the virulence of these organisms are hampered by their limited genetic tractability, since they are reluctant to classical genetic tools like transposable elements or gene mapping. Here, we describe an RNAi-based functional genomic platform that allows the identification of new virulence factors through a forward genetic approach firstly described in Mucorales...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107495/germination-response-of-four-alien-congeneric-amaranthus-species-to-environmental-factors
#18
Jian-Hua Hao, Shuang-Shuang Lv, Saurav Bhattacharya, Jian-Guo Fu
Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107153/human-trafficking-mental-illness-and-addiction-avoiding-diagnostic-overshadowing
#19
Hanni Stoklosa, Marti MacGibbon, Joseph Stoklosa
This article reviews an emergency department-based clinical vignette of a trafficked patient with co-occurring pregnancy-related, mental health, and substance use disorder issues. The authors, including a survivor of human trafficking, draw on their backgrounds in addiction care, human trafficking, emergency medicine, and psychiatry to review the literature on relevant general health and mental health consequences of trafficking and propose an approach to the clinical complexities this case presents. In their discussion, the authors explicate the deleterious role of implicit bias and diagnostic overshadowing in trafficked patients with co-occurring addiction and mental illness...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106879/bacterial-community-segmentation-facilitates-the-prediction-of-ecosystem-function-along-the-coast-of-the-western-antarctic-peninsula
#20
Jeff S Bowman, Linda A Amaral-Zettler, Jeremy J Rich, Catherine M Luria, Hugh W Ducklow
Bacterial community structure can be combined with observations of ecophysiological data to build predictive models of microbial ecosystem function. These models are useful for understanding how function might change in response to a changing environment. Here we use five spring-summer seasons of bacterial community structure and flow cytometry data from a productive coastal site along the western Antarctic Peninsula to construct models of bacterial production (BP), an ecosystem function that heterotrophic bacteria provide...
January 20, 2017: ISME Journal
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