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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212444/sumo-modification-of-a-heterochromatin-histone-demethylase-jmjd2a-enables-viral-gene-transactivation-and-viral-replication
#1
Wan-Shan Yang, Mel Campbell, Pei-Ching Chang
Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of chromatin has profound effects on transcription regulation. By using Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) as a model, we recently demonstrated that epigenetic modification of viral chromatin by SUMO-2/3 is involved in regulating gene expression and viral reactivation. However, how this modification orchestrates transcription reprogramming through targeting histone modifying enzymes remains largely unknown. Here we show that JMJD2A, the first identified Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylase, is the histone demethylase responsible for SUMO-2/3 enrichment on the KSHV genome during viral reactivation...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212411/lack-of-impact-of-pre-existing-t97a-hiv-1-integrase-mutation-on-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor-resistance-and-treatment-outcome
#2
Michael E Abram, Renee R Ram, Nicolas A Margot, Tiffany L Barnes, Kirsten L White, Christian Callebaut, Michael D Miller
T97A is an HIV-1 integrase polymorphism associated with integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) resistance. Using pooled data from 16 clinical studies, we investigated the prevalence of T97A (pre-existing and emergent) and its impact on INSTI susceptibility and treatment response in INSTI-naive patients who enrolled on elvitegravir (EVG)- or raltegravir (RAL)-based regimens. Prior to INSTI-based therapy, primary INSTI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were absent and T97A pre-existed infrequently (1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212305/epigenetic-landscape-during-coronavirus-infection
#3
Alexandra Schäfer, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoV) comprise a large group of emerging human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. The molecular mechanisms regulating emerging coronavirus pathogenesis are complex and include virus-host interactions associated with entry, replication, egress and innate immune control. Epigenetics research investigates the genetic and non-genetic factors that regulate phenotypic variation, usually caused by external and environmental factors that alter host expression patterns and performance without any change in the underlying genotype...
February 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212210/in-response-definitions-of-emergency-urgent-and-elective-scheduled-surgery
#4
Franklin Dexter, Richard H Epstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212161/hearing-impairment-and-the-amelioration-of-avoidable-medical-error-a-cross-sectional-survey
#5
Patrick Henn, Colm OʼTuathaigh, Darrelle Keegan, Simon Smith
OBJECTIVES: Hearing loss contributes to suboptimal medical treatment. We investigated the nature and magnitude of potential health-care harm of hearing loss alone on a patient's understanding of medical consultations, investigations, and treatments of health conditions unrelated to their hearing loss. METHODS: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based design of a convenience sample of students with hearing loss, registered with the institutional disability support service in 8 Irish and 15 UK third-level institutions...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212103/simulation-of-healing-threshold-in-strain-induced-inflammation-through-a-discrete-informatics-model
#6
Israr Ibrahim, Sanjay Venkata Oruganti, Ramana Pidaparti
Respiratory diseases such as asthma and acute respiratory distress syndrome as well as acute lung injury involve inflammation at the cellular level. The inflammation process is very complex and is characterized by the emergence of cytokines along with other changes in cellular processes. Due to the complexity of the various constituents that makes up the inflammation dynamics, it is necessary to develop models that can complement experiments to fully understand inflammatory diseases. In this study, we developed a discrete informatics model based on cellular automata (CA) approach to investigate the influence of elastic field (stretch/strain) on the dynamics of inflammation and account for probabilistic adaptation based on statistical interpretation of existing experimental data...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212076/selecting-power-efficient-signal-features-for-a-low-power-fall-detector
#7
Changhong Wang, Stephen Redmond, Wei Lu, Michael Stevens, Stephen Lord, Nigel Lovell
Falls are a serious threat to the health of older people. A wearable fall detector can automatically detect the occurrence of a fall and alert a caregiver or an emergency response service so they may deliver immediate assistance, improving the chances of recovering from fall-related injuries. One constraint of such a wearable technology is its limited battery life. Thus, minimization of power consumption is an important design concern, all the while maintaining satisfactory accuracy of the fall detection algorithms implemented on the wearable device...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211720/dynamical-response-near-quantum-critical-points
#8
Andrew Lucas, Snir Gazit, Daniel Podolsky, William Witczak-Krempa
We study high-frequency response functions, notably the optical conductivity, in the vicinity of quantum critical points (QCPs) by allowing for both detuning from the critical coupling and finite temperature. We consider general dimensions and dynamical exponents. This leads to a unified understanding of sum rules. In systems with emergent Lorentz invariance, powerful methods from quantum field theory allow us to fix the high-frequency response in terms of universal coefficients. We test our predictions analytically in the large-N O(N) model and using the gauge-gravity duality and numerically via quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a lattice model hosting the interacting superfluid-insulator QCP...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211218/the-integration-of-mri-in-radiation-therapy-collaboration-of-radiographers-and-radiation-therapists
#9
Robba Rai, Shivani Kumar, Vikneswary Batumalai, Doaa Elwadia, Lucy Ohanessian, Ewa Juresic, Lynette Cassapi, Shalini K Vinod, Lois Holloway, Paul J Keall, Gary P Liney
The increased utilisation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation therapy (RT) has led to the implementation of MRI simulators for RT treatment planning and influenced the development of MRI-guided treatment systems. There is extensive literature on the advantages of MRI for tumour volume and organ-at-risk delineation compared to computed tomography. MRI provides both anatomical and functional information for RT treatment planning (RTP) as well as quantitative information to assess tumour response for adaptive treatment...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211115/pharmacy-students-in-private-institutions-of-higher-education-motivating-factors-when-studying-pharmacy-and-influences-on-university-choice
#10
Jason S E Loo, Shiao Wei Lim, Yew Keong Ng, John J L Tiong
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors influencing the decisions of Malaysian first-year pharmacy undergraduate students in private higher education when choosing to pursue a degree in pharmacy as well as their choice of private university. METHODS: This cross-sectional study employed a validated, self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 543 first-year pharmacy students from nine different private universities. Factor analysis was utilised to extract key factors from the responses...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210958/does-global-astrocytic-calcium-signaling-participate-in-awake-brain-state-transitions-and-neuronal-circuit-function
#11
Celia Kjaerby, Rune Rasmussen, Mie Andersen, Maiken Nedergaard
We continuously need to adapt to changing conditions within our surrounding environment, and our brain needs to quickly shift between resting and working activity states in order to allow appropriate behaviors. These global state shifts are intimately linked to the brain-wide release of the neuromodulators, noradrenaline and acetylcholine. Astrocytes have emerged as a new player participating in the regulation of brain activity, and have recently been implicated in brain state shifts. Astrocytes display global Ca(2+) signaling in response to activation of the noradrenergic system, but whether astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling is causative or correlative for shifts in brain state and neural activity patterns is not known...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210863/healthcare-professionals-response-to-intrapartum-death-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Karen McNamara, S Meaney, O O'Connell, M McCarthy, R A Greene, K O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Exposure to adverse perinatal events can impact on the way healthcare professionals (HCPs) provide patient care. The aim of this study was to document the experiences of HCPs following exposure to intrapartum death (IPD), to identify opinions surrounding education and suitable support strategies, and to ascertain if involvement with an IPD had any impact on clinical practice. METHODS: A questionnaire study, with open and closed questions, was developed and set in a tertiary maternity hospital...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210860/a-heat-vulnerability-index-to-improve-urban-public-health-management-in-san-juan-puerto-rico
#13
Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J McCarthy, Ernesto Rodríguez
Increased frequency and length of high heat episodes are leading to more cardiovascular issues and asthmatic responses among the population of San Juan, the capital of the island of Puerto Rico, USA. An urban heat island effect, which leads to foci of higher temperatures in some urban areas, can raise heat-related mortality. The objective of this research is to map the risk of high temperature in particular locations by creating heat maps of the city of San Juan. The heat vulnerability index (HVI) maps were developed using images collected by satellite-based remote sensing combined with census data...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210788/surgical-management-of-degenerative-meniscus-lesions-the-2016-esska-meniscus-consensus
#14
Ph Beaufils, R Becker, S Kopf, M Englund, R Verdonk, M Ollivier, R Seil
PURPOSE: A degenerative meniscus lesion is a slowly developing process typically involving a horizontal cleavage in a middle-aged or older person. When the knee is symptomatic, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy has been practised for a long time with many case series reporting improved patient outcomes. Since 2002, several randomised clinical trials demonstrated no additional benefit of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy compared to non-operative treatment, sham surgery or sham arthroscopic partial meniscectomy...
February 16, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210505/nanotechnology-based-approach-in-tuberculosis-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Mohammad Nasiruddin, Md Kausar Neyaz, Shilpi Das
Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210380/emerging-issues-in-adult-female-acne
#16
REVIEW
Joshua A Zeichner, Hillary E Baldwin, Fran E Cook-Bolden, Lawrence F Eichenfield, Sheila Fallon-Friedlander, David A Rodriguez
Acne vulgaris (acne) is a common affliction in adolescence and is a growing problem in adult women. Despite an increasing awareness of acne in the adult female population, there is a lack of good prospective studies assessing the severity, distribution, and differential response to treatment in this group. The long-held dogma that acne in adult women develops on the lower one-third of the face has been recently challenged, and here the authors critically review data from available literature. Moreover, while adult female acne has traditionally been defined as disease in women over age 25, it is the authors' experience that this group is subdivided into women ages 25 to 44 years, separate from perimenopausal patients, ages 45 years and up...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210353/prevalence-of-horizontal-violence-among-emergency-attending-physicians-residents-and-physician-assistants
#17
Nico B Volz, Ryan Fringer, Bradford Walters, Terry Kowalenko
INTRODUCTION: Horizontal violence (HV) is malicious behavior perpetrated by healthcare workers against each other. These include bullying, verbal or physical threats, purposeful disruptive behavior, and other malicious behaviors. This pilot study investigates the prevalence of HV among emergency department (ED) attending physicians, residents, and mid-level providers (MLPs). METHODS: We sent an electronic survey to emergency medicine attending physicians (n=67), residents (n=25), and MLPs (n=24) in three unique EDs within a single multi-hospital medical system...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209713/mir-718-represses-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-through-targeting-pten
#18
Parisa Kalantari, Omid F Harandi, Sarika Agarwal, Florentina Rus, Evelyn A Kurt-Jones, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Daniel R Caffrey, Douglas T Golenbock
Bacterial sepsis involves a complex interaction between the host immune response and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS binds Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, which leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are essential for a potent innate immune response against pathogens. The innate immune system is tightly regulated as excessive inflammation can lead to organ failure and death. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as important regulators of the innate immune system. Here, we determined the function of miR-718, which is conserved across mammals and overlaps with the 5 UTR of the Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase (IRAK1) gene...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209557/formative-evaluation-of-participant-experience-with-mobile-econsent-in-the-app-mediated-parkinson-mpower-study-a-mixed-methods-study
#19
Megan Doerr, Amy Maguire Truong, Brian M Bot, John Wilbanks, Christine Suver, Lara M Mangravite
BACKGROUND: To fully capitalize on the promise of mobile technology to enable scalable, participant-centered research, we must develop companion self-administered electronic informed consent (eConsent) processes. As we do so, we have an ethical obligation to ensure that core tenants of informed consent-informedness, comprehension, and voluntariness-are upheld. Furthermore, we should be wary of recapitulating the pitfalls of "traditional" informed consent processes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe the essential qualities of participant experience, including delineation of common and novel themes relating to informed consent, with a self-administered, smartphone-based eConsent process...
February 16, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209430/working-together-critical-care-nurses-experiences-of-temporary-staffing-within-swedish-health-care-a-qualitative-study
#20
Anna Berg Jansson, Åsa Engström
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe critical care nurses (CCN's) experiences of working with or as temporary agency staff. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: This explorative qualitative study is based on interviews with five agency CCNs and five regular CCNs, a total of ten interviews, focusing on the interviewees' experiences of daily work and temporary agency staffing. The interviews were analysed manually and thematically following an inductive approach. FINDINGS: Four themes that illustrate both similarities and differences between regular and temporary agency CCNs emerged: "working close to patients versus being responsible for everything", "teamwork versus independence", "both groups needed" and "opportunities and challenges"...
February 13, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
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