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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#1
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813646/antihelminthic-drug-niclosamide-inhibits-cip2a-and-reactivates-tumor-suppressor-protein-phosphatase-2a-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#2
Myeong-Ok Kim, Min Ho Choe, Yi Na Yoon, Jiyeon Ahn, Minjin Yoo, Kwan-Young Jung, Sungkwan An, Sang-Gu Hwang, Jeong Su Oh, Jae-Sung Kim
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical tumor suppressor complex responsible for the inactivation of various oncogenes. Recently, PP2A reactivation has emerged as an anticancer strategy. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), an endogenous inhibitor of PP2A, is upregulated in many cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We demonstrated that the antihelminthic drug niclosamide inhibited the expression of CIP2A and reactivated the tumor suppressor PP2A in NSCLC cells...
August 13, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813474/binge-like-sucrose-consumption-reduces-the-dendritic-length-and-complexity-of-principal-neurons-in-the-adolescent-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#3
Masroor Shariff, Paul Klenowski, Michael Morgan, Omkar Patkar, Erica Mu, Mark Bellingham, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813419/vaccine-driven-pharmacodynamic-dissection-and-mitigation-of-fenethylline-psychoactivity
#4
Cody J Wenthur, Bin Zhou, Kim D Janda
Fenethylline, also known by the trade name Captagon, is a synthetic psychoactive stimulant that has recently been linked to a substance-use disorder and 'pharmacoterrorism' in the Middle East. Although fenethylline shares a common phenethylamine core with other amphetamine-type stimulants, it also incorporates a covalently linked xanthine moiety into its parent structure. These independently active pharmacophores are liberated during metabolism, resulting in the release of a structurally diverse chemical mixture into the central nervous system...
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813307/the-innate-alarm-system-in-ptsd-conscious-and-subconscious-processing-of-threat
#5
REVIEW
Ruth A Lanius, Daniela Rabellino, Jenna E Boyd, Sherain Harricharan, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon
The innate alarm system (IAS), comprised of functionally connected brain regions including the brainstem, amygdala, pulvinar, and frontotemporal cortex, is a fast subcortical brain network facilitating rapid responses to threat. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) features subconscious and conscious threat detection, together contributing to hyperarousal symptoms. Emerging literature identifies aberrant threat-related neurocircuitry involved in subconscious and conscious threat processing in PTSD. We review this literature, focusing on subconscious threat processing and its relation to the IAS...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812836/understanding-internal-accountability-in-nigeria-s-routine-immunization-system-perspectives-from-government-officials-at-the-national-state-and-local-levels
#6
Daniel J Erchick, Asha S George, Chukwunonso Umeh, Chizoba Wonodi
BACKGROUND: Routine immunization coverage in Nigeria has remained low, and studies have identified a lack of accountability as a barrier to high performance in the immunization system. Accountability lies at the heart of various health systems strengthening efforts recently launched in Nigeria, including those related to immunization. Our aim was to understand the views of health officials on the accountability challenges hindering immunization service delivery at various levels of government...
December 10, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812698/urbanization-erodes-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-and-may-cause-microbial-communities-to-converge
#7
Dietrich J Epp Schmidt, Richard Pouyat, Katalin Szlavecz, Heikki Setälä, D Johan Kotze, Ian Yesilonis, Sarel Cilliers, Erzsébet Hornung, Miklós Dombos, Stephanie A Yarwood
Urbanization alters the physicochemical environment, introduces non-native species and causes ecosystem characteristics to converge. It has been speculated that these alterations contribute to loss of regional and global biodiversity, but so far most urban studies have assessed macro-organisms and reported mixed evidence for biodiversity loss. We studied five cities on three continents to assess the global convergence of urban soil microbial communities. We determined the extent to which communities of bacteria, archaea and fungi are geographically distributed, and to what extent urbanization acts as a filter on species diversity...
April 10, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812677/species-specific-responses-to-ocean-acidification-should-account-for-local-adaptation-and-adaptive-plasticity
#8
Cristian A Vargas, Nelson A Lagos, Marco A Lardies, Cristian Duarte, Patricio H Manríquez, Victor M Aguilera, Bernardo Broitman, Steve Widdicombe, Sam Dupont
Global stressors, such as ocean acidification, constitute a rapidly emerging and significant problem for marine organisms, ecosystem functioning and services. The coastal ecosystems of the Humboldt Current System (HCS) off Chile harbour a broad physical-chemical latitudinal and temporal gradient with considerable patchiness in local oceanographic conditions. This heterogeneity may, in turn, modulate the specific tolerances of organisms to climate stress in species with populations distributed along this environmental gradient...
March 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#9
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812274/oxytocin-and-anxiety-disorders
#10
Michael G Gottschalk, Katharina Domschke
In the present chapter, we review the literature focusing on oxytocin (OT)-centered research in anxiety spectrum conditions, comprising separation anxiety disorder, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and anxiety-related endophenotypes (e.g., trust behavior, behavioral inhibition, neuroticism, and state/trait anxiety). OT receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms have been implicated in gene-environment interactions with attachment style and childhood maltreatment and to influence clinical outcomes, including SAD intensity and limbic responsiveness...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812265/oxytocin-and-olfaction
#11
Lars-Lennart Oettl, Wolfgang Kelsch
Social signals are identified through processing in sensory systems to trigger appropriate behavioral responses. Social signals are received primarily in most mammals through the olfactory system. Individuals are recognized based on their unique blend of odorants. Such individual recognition is critical to distinguish familiar conspecifics from intruders and to recognize offspring. Social signals can also trigger stereotyped responses like mating behaviors. Specific sensory pathways for individual recognition and eliciting stereotyped responses have been identified both in the early olfactory system and its connected cortices...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812214/the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-on-the-prognosis-and-treatment-of-oropharyngeal-carcinoma
#12
Nicholas Fung, Farhoud Faraji, Hyunseok Kang, Carole Fakhry
Human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-positive OPC) is a distinct subtype of head and neck carcinoma (HNC) distinguished from HPV-negative HNC by its risk factor profile, clinical behavior, and molecular biology. Compared to HPV-negative HNC, HPV-positive OPC exhibits significantly better prognosis and an enhanced response to treatment. Recognition of the survival benefit of HPV-positive tumors has led to therapeutic de-intensification strategies aiming to mitigate treatment-related toxicities while maintaining high response rates...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812119/attention-holding-elicited-by-direct-gaze-faces-is-reflected-in-saccadic-peak-velocity
#13
Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, Giovanni Galfano
Manual response times to peripherally presented targets have been reported to be greater in the presence of task-irrelevant pictorial faces at fixation which establish an eye contact with the observer. This effect is interpreted as evidence that direct-gaze faces hold attention. In three experiments, we investigated whether this attention-holding effect is also reflected in saccadic response times. Participants were asked to make a saccade towards a symbolic target that could appear rightwards or leftwards, in the presence of a task-irrelevant centrally placed face with either direct gaze or closed eyes...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812089/large-scale-all-polycrystalline-diamond-structures-transferred-onto-flexible-parylene-c-films-for-neurotransmitter-sensing
#14
Bin Fan, Yan Zhu, Robert Rechenberg, Cory A Rusinek, Michael F Becker, Wen Li
Boron-doped diamond (BDD) has superior electrochemical properties for bioelectronic systems. However, due to its high synthesis temperature, traditional microfabrication methods have limits to integrating BDD with emerging classes of flexible, polymer-based bioelectronic systems. This paper introduces a novel fabrication solution to this challenge, which features (i) a wafer-scale substrate transfer process with all diamond structures transferred onto a flexible Parylene-C substrate and (ii) Parylene anchors introduced to strengthen the bonding between BDD and Parylene substrates, as demonstrated by a peeling test...
August 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812060/reolysin-and-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Alena C Jaime-Ramirez, Jun-Ge Yu, Enrico Caserta, Ji Young Yoo, Jianying Zhang, Tae Jin Lee, Craig Hofmeister, John H Lee, Bhavna Kumar, Quintin Pan, Pawan Kumar, Robert Baiocchi, Theodoros Teknos, Flavia Pichiorri, Balveen Kaur, Matthew Old
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are emerging as powerful anti-cancer agents and are currently being tested for their safety and efficacy in patients. Reovirus (Reolysin), a naturally occurring non-pathogenic, double-stranded RNA virus, has natural oncolytic activity and is being tested in phase I-III clinical trials in a variety of tumor types. With its recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) orphan drug designation for several tumor types, Reolysin is a potential therapeutic agent for various cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), which have a 5-year survival of ∼55%...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812053/emergency-medical-service-personnel-recognize-pediatric-concussions
#16
Joshua N Speirs, Matthew I Lyons, Bert E Johansson
Concussions are a major cause of morbidity in pediatrics. Many concussions occur during activities with emergency medical service (EMS) providers present to determine if a higher level of care is needed. Data are limited on how capable these providers are. We assessed the ability of EMS providers to recognize pediatric concussions. Fifty-six total responses were included, 38 from EMS and 18 from our MD/RN (medical doctor/registered nurse) group. No statistical differences were found between the 2 groups when adjusted for age, gender, number of years in practice, and number of pediatric concussions managed...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812000/diagnostic-imaging-features-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-narrative-review
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Esposito, Rosanna Mamone, Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Valerio Vitale, Gianfranco Vallone, Patrizia Oresta
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory process, characterized by intestinal necrosis of variable extension, leading to perforation, generalized peritonitis and death. The classical pathogenetic theory focuses on mucosal damage related to a stress induced intestinal ischemia leading to mucosal injury and bacterial colonization of the wall. A more recent hypothesis emphasizes the role of immaturity of gastrointestinal and immune system, particularly of the premature, responsible of bowel wall vulnerability and suffering...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811802/clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-migraine-patients
#18
Chunlin Li, Shengyuan Yu, Huiying Li, Jin Zhou, Jieqiong Liu, Wenjing Tang, Lei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Clinical and basic research increasingly suggests a correlation between migraine and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study, we aimed to explore the clinical features and risk factors for IBS in migraine patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,112 consecutive patients from the internal medicine and emergency departments of three hospitals from June 2014 through 2016. A comprehensive interviewer-administered questionnaire was designed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version)...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811394/overview-and-current-management-of-computerized-adaptive-testing-in-licensing-certification-examinations
#19
Dong Gi Seo
Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has been implemented in the high stakes examinations such as National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) in the United States since 1994. After that, The National Registry Emergency Medical Technician (NREMT) in the United States adopted a CAT to certify an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) in 2007. It aimed at introducing CAT for the implementation in the medical health licensing examinations. Most CATs are based on the item response theory (IRT) which hypothesizes that both examinee and item has own characteristics that does not change...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811338/emerging-functions-of-the-fanconi-anemia-pathway-at-a-glance
#20
REVIEW
Rhea Sumpter, Beth Levine
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disease, in which homozygous or compound heterozygous inactivating mutations in any of 21 genes lead to genomic instability, early-onset bone marrow failure and increased cancer risk. The FA pathway is essential for DNA damage response (DDR) to DNA interstrand crosslinks. However, proteins of the FA pathway have additional cytoprotective functions that may be independent of DDR. We have shown that many FA proteins participate in the selective autophagy pathway that is required for the destruction of unwanted intracellular constituents...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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