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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651220/clozapine-versus-other-antipsychotics-during-the-first-18-weeks-of-treatment-a-retrospective-study-on-risk-factor-increase-of-blood-dyscrasias
#1
Michele Fabrazzo, Vincenzo Prisco, Gaia Sampogna, Francesco Perris, Francesco Catapano, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Mario Maj
Blood dyscrasias excluding agranulocytosis received limited attention in antipsychotic-treated patients during the first 18 weeks of therapy, although severe clinical conditions have been reported in a few cases. We extracted data records of 285 Caucasian patients after 18 weeks of antipsychotic treatments to investigate risk factors of blood dyscrasias. We observed a higher risk to develop both transient and persistent anemia, neutrophilia and eosinophilia in clozapine-treated patients, whereas in those treated with other atypical antipsychotics when compared to a reference group under typical antipsychotics, emerged an increased risk for transient neutrophilia and eosinophilia...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651210/associations-between-perfluorinated-alkyl-acids-in-blood-and-ovarian-follicular-fluid-and-ovarian-function-in-women-undergoing-assisted-reproductive-treatment
#2
Jessica A McCoy, Jacqueline T Bangma, Jessica L Reiner, John A Bowden, John Schnorr, Michael Slowey, Thomas O'Leary, Louis J Guillette, Benjamin B Parrott
Endocrine disrupting contaminants, in combination with other environmental variables, are associated with altered reproductive health. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures offer valuable opportunities to explore the connections between environmental contaminants in the ovarian microenvironment and measures of fertility, including impaired responsiveness to gonadotropins. Here, we investigate an emerging class of environmental contaminants, the perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), to determine whether ovarian contaminant levels are associated with measures of ovarian responsiveness and fertility outcomes in a South Carolina population of women undergoing ART...
June 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651111/the-rise-of-zika-infection-and-microcephaly-what-can-we-learn-from-a-public-health-emergency
#3
REVIEW
B McCloskey, T Endericks
OBJECTIVES: To consider why Zika was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), why it stopped being one and what we can learn from this for the future. STUDY DESIGN: This paper reviews the sequence of events and evidence base for the decision to declare Zika a PHEIC, the global response to this, the challenges in maintaining an evidence-based approach to outbreak response and identifies learning outcomes. METHODS: Evidence review, all published articles in reputable UK and international journals were identified...
June 23, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651057/how-to-identify-plasmons-from-the-optical-response-of-nanostructures
#4
Runmin Zhang, Luca Bursi, Joel D Cox, Yao Cui, Caroline M Krauter, Alessandro Alabastri, Alejandro Manjavacas, Arrigo Calzolari, Stefano Corni, Elisa Molinari, Emily A Carter, F Javier Garcia de Abajo, Hui Zhang, Peter Nordlander
A promising trend in plasmonics involves shrinking the size of plasmon-supporting structures down to a few nanometers, thus enabling control over light-matter interaction at extreme-subwavelength scales. In this limit, quantum-mechanical effects, such as nonlocal screening and size quantization, strongly affect the plasmonic response, rendering it substantially different from classical predictions. For very small clusters and molecules, collective plasmonic modes are hard to distinguish from other excitations such as single-electron transitions...
June 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651047/prioritization-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-wastewater-treatment-plant-discharges-using-chemical-gene-interactions-in-caged-fish
#5
Edward J Perkins, Tanwir Habib, Barbara L Escalon, Jenna E Cavallin, Linnea Thomas, Matthew Weberg, Megan N Hughes, Kathleen M Jensen, Michael D Kahl, Daniel L Villeneuve, Gerald T Ankley, Natalia Garcia-Reyero
We examined whether contaminants present in surface waters could be prioritized for further assessment by linking the presence of specific chemicals to gene expression changes in exposed fish. Fathead minnows were deployed in cages for 2, 4, or 8 days at three locations near two different wastewater treatment plant discharge sites in the Saint Louis Bay, Duluth, MN and one upstream reference site. The biological impact of 51 chemicals detected in the surface water of 133 targeted chemicals was determined using biochemical endpoints, exposure activity ratios for biological and estrogenic responses, known chemical:gene interactions from biological pathways and knowledge bases, and analysis of the co-variance of ovary gene expression with surface water chemistry...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#6
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in alveolar macrophages...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650995/septins-restrict-inflammation-and-protect-zebrafish-larvae-from-shigella-infection
#7
Maria J Mazon-Moya, Alexandra R Willis, Vincenzo Torraca, Laurent Boucontet, Avinash R Shenoy, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Infection by S. flexneri has been well-studied in vitro and is a paradigm for bacterial interactions with the host immune system. Recent work has revealed that components of the cytoskeleton have important functions in innate immunity and inflammation control. Septins, highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins, have emerged as key players in innate immunity to bacterial infection, yet septin function in vivo is poorly understood...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650854/recent-developments-in-deuterium-oxide-tracer-approaches-to-measure-rates-of-substrate-turnover-implications-for-protein-lipid-and-nucleic-acid-research
#8
Matthew S Brook, Daniel J Wilkinson, Philip J Atherton, Ken Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Methods that inform on dynamic metabolism that can be applied to clinical populations to understand disease progression and responses to therapeutic interventions are of great importance. This review perspective will highlight recent advances, development, and applications of the multivalent stable isotope tracer deuterium oxide (D2O) to the study of substrate metabolism with particular reference to protein, lipids, and nucleic acids, and how these methods can be readily applied within clinical and pharmaceutical research...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650401/progressive-brain-atrophy-despite-persistent-viral-suppression-in-hiv-over-age-60
#9
Katherine M Clifford, Vishal Samboju, Yann Cobigo, Benedetta Milanini, Gabriel A Marx, Joanna M Hellmuth, Howard J Rosen, Joel H Kramer, Isabel E Allen, Victor G Valcour
BACKGROUND: Current HIV treatments are successful at suppressing plasma HIV RNA to undetectable levels for most adherent patients. Yet, emerging evidence suggests viral suppression will inadequately control inflammation and mitigate risk for progressive brain injury. We sought to quantify differences in longitudinal brain atrophy rates among older virally suppressed HIV-infected participants compared to that of healthy aging. METHODS: We examined longitudinal structural brain MRI atrophy rates employing region of interest assessments and voxel-wise tensor-based morphometry in HIV-infected participants over age 60 years (n=38) compared to age-matched HIV-uninfected healthy and cognitively normal controls (n=24)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650248/health-services-utilization-among-fee-for-service-medicare-and-medicaid-patients-under-age-65-with-behavioral-health-illness-at-an-urban-safety-net-hospital
#10
Ramon S Cancino, Brian W Jack, John Jarvis, Alice Kate Cummings, Ellie Cooper, Pierre-Yves Cremieux, James F Burgess
BACKGROUND: In 2011, fee-for-service patients with both Medicare and Medicaid (dual eligible) sustained $319.5 billion in health care costs. OBJECTIVE: To describe the emergency department (ED) use and hospital admissions of adult dual eligible patients aged under 65 years who used an urban safety net hospital. METHODS: This was a retrospective database analysis of patients aged between 18 and 65 years with Medicare and Medicaid, who used an urban safety net academic health center between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649958/modeling-mechanical-interactions-in-growing-populations-of-rod-shaped-bacteria
#11
James Winkle, Oleg A Igoshin, Matthew Bennett, Kreso Josic, William Ott
Advances in synthetic biology allow us to engineer bacterial collectives with pre-specified characteristics. However, the behavior of these collectives is difficult to understand, as cellular growth and division as well as extra-cellular fluid flow lead to complex, changing arrangements of cells within the population. To rationally engineer and control the behavior of cell collectives we need theoretical and computational tools to understand their emergent spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we present an agent-based model that allows growing cells to detect and respond to mechanical interactions...
June 26, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649845/multifunctional-nanostructured-conductive-polymer-gels-synthesis-properties-and-applications
#12
Fei Zhao, Ye Shi, Lijia Pan, Guihua Yu
Conductive polymers have attracted significant interest over the past few decades because they synergize the advantageous features of conventional polymeric materials and organic conductors. With rationally designed nanostructures, conductive polymers can further exhibit exceptional mechanical, electrical, and optical properties because of their confined dimensions at the nanoscale level. Among various nanostructured conductive polymers, conductive polymer gels (CPGs) with synthetically tunable hierarchical 3D network structures show great potential for a wide range of applications, such as bioelectronics, and energy storage/conversion devices owing to their structural features...
June 26, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649431/meta-analysis-of-host-response-networks-identifies-a-common-core-in-tuberculosis
#13
Awanti Sambarey, Abhinandan Devaprasad, Priyanka Baloni, Madhulika Mishra, Abhilash Mohan, Priyanka Tyagi, Amit Singh, J S Akshata, Razia Sultana, Shashidhar Buggi, Nagasuma Chandra
Tuberculosis remains a major global health challenge worldwide, causing more than a million deaths annually. To determine newer methods for detecting and combating the disease, it is necessary to characterise global host responses to infection. Several high throughput omics studies have provided a rich resource including a list of several genes differentially regulated in tuberculosis. An integrated analysis of these studies is necessary to identify a unified response to the infection. Such data integration is met with several challenges owing to platform dependency, patient heterogeneity, and variability in the extent of infection, resulting in little overlap among different datasets...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649354/the-role-of-landscape-characteristics-for-forage-maturation-and-nutritional-benefits-of-migration-in-red-deer
#14
Atle Mysterud, Brit Karen Vike, Erling L Meisingset, Inger Maren Rivrud
Large herbivores gain nutritional benefits from following the sequential flush of newly emergent, high-quality forage along environmental gradients in the landscape, termed green wave surfing. Which landscape characteristics underlie the environmental gradient causing the green wave and to what extent landscape characteristics alone explain individual variation in nutritional benefits remain unresolved questions. Here, we combine GPS data from 346 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from four partially migratory populations in Norway with the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), an index of plant phenology...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649242/an-approach-for-a-synthetic-ctl-vaccine-design-against-zika-flavivirus-using-class-i-and-class-ii-epitopes-identified-by-computer-modeling
#15
Edecio Cunha-Neto, Daniela S Rosa, Paul E Harris, Tim Olson, Alex Morrow, Serban Ciotlos, Charles V Herst, Reid Martin Rubsamen
The threat posed by severe congenital abnormalities related to Zika virus (ZKV) infection during pregnancy has turned development of a ZKV vaccine into an emergency. Recent work suggests that the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to infection is an important defense mechanism in response to ZKV. Here, we develop the rationale and strategy for a new approach to developing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) vaccines for ZKV flavivirus infection. The proposed approach is based on recent studies using a protein structure computer model for HIV epitope selection designed to select epitopes for CTL attack optimized for viruses that exhibit antigenic drift...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649237/outer-membrane-vesicles-omvs-of-gram-negative-bacteria-a-perspective-update
#16
REVIEW
Arif Tasleem Jan
Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria are spherical membrane-enclosed entities of endocytic origin. Reported in the consortia of different bacterial species, production of OMVs into extracellular milieu seems essential for their survival. Enriched with bioactive proteins, toxins, and virulence factors, OMVs play a critical role in the bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Emergence of OMVs as distinct cellular entities helps bacteria in adaptating to diverse niches, in competing with other bacteria to protect members of producer species and more importantly play a crucial role in host-pathogen interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648826/attentional-modulation-of-neuronal-activity-depends-on-neuronal-feature-selectivity
#17
Jacqueline R Hembrook-Short, Vanessa L Mock, Farran Briggs
Attention exerts a powerful influence on visual perception. The impact of attention on neuronal activity manifests at early visual information processing stages and progressively increases throughout the visual cortical hierarchy. However, the neuronal mechanisms of attention are unresolved. In particular, the rules governing attentional modulation of individual neurons, whether they are facilitated by or suppressed by attention, are not known. To obtain a more granular or neuron- and circuit-level understanding of the mechanisms of attention and to directly test the feature similarity gain model in V1, we compared attentional modulation with neuronal feature selectivity across a large population of V1 neurons in alert and behaving macaque monkeys trained on an attention-demanding contrast-change detection task...
June 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648732/-adoptive-transfer-of-t-lymphocytes
#18
H Vié, B Clémenceau
Within a few years, the success of treatments based on the use of T-cells armed with a chimeric T-receptor for the CD19 molecule (CAR-T CD19) has revolutionized the perception of adoptive transfer approaches. The levels of responses observed in acute leukemias, of the order of 70-90 % are indeed unprecedented. The medical and financial enthusiasm aroused by these results has led to the current situation where more than 300 clinical trials are under way, against some thirty different antigens. This enthusiasm, well justified by the first successes, must however be tempered by the difficulties associated with the use of these cells...
June 22, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648682/a-qualitative-investigation-of-exercise-perceptions-and-experiences-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-before-during-and-after-participation-in-a-personally-tailored-exercise-program
#19
Helen Crank, Anouska Carter, Liam Humphreys, Nicky Snowdon, Amanda Daley, Nicola Woodroofe, Basil Sharrack, Jane Petty, John M Saxton
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a qualitative investigation of exercise perceptions and experiences in people with MS (PwMS) before, during and after participation in a personally-tailored program designed to promote long-term maintenance of self-directed exercise. DESIGN: Focus groups and semi-structured telephone interviews. SETTING: University Exercise Science Department close to the recruiting hospital. PARTICIPANTS: PwMS (N=33; aged 47...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648661/de-novo-epigenetic-programs-inhibit-pd-1-blockade-mediated-t-cell-rejuvenation
#20
Hazem E Ghoneim, Yiping Fan, Ardiana Moustaki, Hossam A Abdelsamed, Pradyot Dash, Pranay Dogra, Robert Carter, Walid Awad, Geoff Neale, Paul G Thomas, Ben Youngblood
Immune-checkpoint-blockade (ICB)-mediated rejuvenation of exhausted T cells has emerged as a promising approach for treating various cancers and chronic infections. However, T cells that become fully exhausted during prolonged antigen exposure remain refractory to ICB-mediated rejuvenation. We report that blocking de novo DNA methylation in activated CD8 T cells allows them to retain their effector functions despite chronic stimulation during a persistent viral infection. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of antigen-specific murine CD8 T cells at the effector and exhaustion stages of an immune response identified progressively acquired heritable de novo methylation programs that restrict T cell expansion and clonal diversity during PD-1 blockade treatment...
June 21, 2017: Cell
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