Read by QxMD icon Read

exosome and RNA sequence

Cristian De Gregorio, Paula Díaz, Rodrigo López-Leal, Patricio Manque, Felipe A Court
Exosomes are small (30-150 nm) vesicles of endosomal origin secreted by most cell types. Exosomes contain proteins, lipids, and RNA species including microRNA, mRNA, rRNA, and long noncoding RNAs. The mechanisms associated with exosome synthesis and cargo loading are still poorly understood. A role for exosomes in intercellular communication has been reported in physiological and pathological conditions both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have suggested that Schwann cell-derived exosomes regulate neuronal functions, but the mechanisms are still unclear...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Jieli Chen
Stroke is a global health concern and it is imperative that therapeutic strategies with wide treatment time frames be developed to improve neurological outcome in patients. Patients with diabetes mellitus who suffer a stroke have worse neurological outcomes and long-term functional recovery than nondiabetic stroke patients. Diabetes induced vascular damage and enhanced inflammatory milieu likely contributes to worse post stroke outcomes. Diabetic stroke patients have an aggravated pathological cascade, and treatments that benefit nondiabetic stroke patients do not necessarily translate to diabetic stroke patients...
March 2, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Fruzsina Hobor, Andre Dallmann, Neil J Ball, Carla Cicchini, Cecilia Battistelli, Roksana W Ogrodowicz, Evangelos Christodoulou, Stephen R Martin, Alfredo Castello, Marco Tripodi, Ian A Taylor, Andres Ramos
Exosomal miRNA transfer is a mechanism for cell-cell communication that is important in the immune response, in the functioning of the nervous system and in cancer. Syncrip/hnRNPQ is a highly conserved RNA-binding protein that mediates the exosomal partition of a set of miRNAs. Here, we report that Syncrip's amino-terminal domain, which was previously thought to mediate protein-protein interactions, is a cryptic, conserved and sequence-specific RNA-binding domain, designated NURR (N-terminal unit for RNA recognition)...
February 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Elodie Choque, Claudia Schneider, Olivier Gadal, Christophe Dez
Ribosome biogenesis requires more than 200 trans-acting factors to achieve the correct production of the two mature ribosomal subunits. Here, we have identified Efg1 as a novel, nucleolar ribosome biogenesis factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is directly linked to the surveillance of pre-40S particles. Depletion of Efg1 impairs early pre-rRNA processing, leading to a strong decrease in 18S rRNA and 40S subunit levels and an accumulation of the aberrant 23S rRNA. Using Efg1 as bait, we revealed a novel degradation pathway of the 23S rRNA...
February 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Osamu Ichii, Taro Horino
Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs with approximately 18-25 bases, and their sequences are highly conserved among animals. miRNAs act as posttranscriptional regulators by binding mRNAs, and their main function involves the degradation of their target mRNAs. Recent studies revealed altered expression of miRNAs in the kidneys during the progression of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans and experimental rodent models by using high-throughput screening techniques including microarray and small RNA sequencing...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Zhehao Zhao, Siran Yu, Min Li, Xin Gui, Ping Li
In this study, the presence of microRNAs in coconut water was identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the results of high-throughput small RNA sequencing. In addition, the differences in microRNA content between immature and mature coconut water were compared. A total of 47 known microRNAs belonging to 25 families and 14 new microRNAs were identified in coconut endosperm. Through analysis using a target gene prediction software, potential microRNA target genes were identified in the human genome...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Qi Yu, Ping Li, Meilin Weng, Shuang Wu, Yafang Zhang, Xue Chen, Qing Zhang, Guangxia Shen, Xianting Ding, Shen Fu
Exosomes are nano-vesicles that contribute to the effectiveness of many treatments. The aim of this study was to identify profiles of microRNA (miRNA) contained in serum exosomes that are differentially regulated in patients with prostate cancer undergoing carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT). RNA was extracted from serum exosomes of eight patients with localized prostate cancer before and after CIRT, and miRNA was analyzed by the next generation sequencing. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the major signaling pathways associated with the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, such as MAPK, PI3K-AKT, mTOR, and AMPK may be implicated in the mechanism of CIRT action...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Cao Zhen, Xiaoyong Pan, Yang Yang, Yan Huang, Hong-Bin Shen
Motivation: The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) studies have been hot topics in the field of RNA biology. Recent studies have shown that their subcellular localizations carry important information for understanding their complex biological functions. Considering the costly and time-consuming experiments for identifying subcellular localization of lncRNAs, computational methods are urgently desired. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no computational tools for predicting the lncRNA subcellular locations to date...
February 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Tian Gao, Jiang Shu, Juan Cui
BACKGROUND: Sequencing-based large screening of RNA-protein and RNA-RNA interactions has enabled the mechanistic study of post-transcriptional RNA processing and sorting, including exosome-mediated RNA secretion. The downstream analysis of RNA binding sites has encouraged the investigation of novel sequence motifs, which resulted in exceptional new challenges for identifying motifs from very short sequences (e.g., small non-coding RNAs or truncated messenger RNAs), where conventional methods tend to be ineffective...
February 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
Gaofeng Liang, Shu Kan, Yanliang Zhu, Shuying Feng, Wenpo Feng, Shegan Gao
Introduction: Exosomes are closed-membrane nanovesicles that are secreted by a variety of cells and exist in most body fluids. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of exosomes as natural vehicles that target delivery of functional small RNA and chemotherapeutics to diseased cells. Methods: In this study, we introduce a new approach for the targeted delivery of exosomes loaded with functional miR-26a to scavenger receptor class B type 1-expressing liver cancer cells...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R Dyen, Timothy M Rose, Serge Barcy
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx...
2018: PloS One
Giulio Ferrero, Francesca Cordero, Sonia Tarallo, Maddalena Arigoni, Federica Riccardo, Gaetano Gallo, Guglielmo Ronco, Marco Allasia, Neha Kulkarni, Giuseppe Matullo, Paolo Vineis, Raffaele A Calogero, Barbara Pardini, Alessio Naccarati
The role of non-coding RNAs in different biological processes and diseases is continuously expanding. Next-generation sequencing together with the parallel improvement of bioinformatics analyses allows the accurate detection and quantification of an increasing number of RNA species. With the aim of exploring new potential biomarkers for disease classification, a clear overview of the expression levels of common/unique small RNA species among different biospecimens is necessary. However, except for miRNAs in plasma, there are no substantial indications about the pattern of expression of various small RNAs in multiple specimens among healthy humans...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Zhijie Xu, Yuanliang Yan, Shuangshuang Zeng, Shuang Dai, Xi Chen, Jie Wei, Zhicheng Gong
Circular RNAs, as recently discovered new endogenous non-coding RNAs, are important gene modulators with critical roles in tumor initiation and malignant progression. With the development of RNA sequencing and microarray technologies, numerous of functional circRNAs have been identified in cancerous tissues and cell lines. Mechanistically, circRNAs function as miRNA sponges, miRNA reservoirs or parental gene expression regulators. In this review, we discuss the properties and functions of circRNAs and their clinical implication as promising biomarkers for cancer research...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Davide Barbagallo, Angela Caponnetto, Matilde Cirnigliaro, Duilia Brex, Cristina Barbagallo, Floriana D'Angeli, Antonio Morrone, Rosario Caltabiano, Giuseppe Maria Barbagallo, Marco Ragusa, Cinzia Di Pietro, Thomas Birkballe Hansen, Michele Purrello
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have recently emerged as a new class of RNAs, highly enriched in the brain and very stable within cells, exosomes and body fluids. To analyze their involvement in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) pathogenesis, we assayed the expression of twelve circRNAs, physiologically enriched in several regions of the brain, through real-time PCR in a cohort of fifty-six GBM patient biopsies and seven normal brain parenchymas. We focused on hsa_circ_0001445 (circSMARCA5): it was significantly downregulated in GBM biopsies as compared to normal brain tissues ( p -value < 0...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ruiting Zhao, Ju Zhou, Xinlong Dong, Chongwen Bi, Rongcai Jiang, Jingfei Dong, Ye Tian, Hengjie Yuan, Jian-Ning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high morbidity and mortality rates. The mechanisms underlying the TBI are unclear and may include the change in biological material in exosomes. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are enriched and stable in exosomes, which can function as microRNA (miRNA) sponges to regulate gene expression levels. Therefore, we speculated that circRNAs in exosomes might play an important role in regulating gene expression after TBI and then regulate specific signaling pathways, which may protect the brain...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Baixing Wu, Shichen Su, Deepak P Patil, Hehua Liu, Jianhua Gan, Samie R Jaffrey, Jinbiao Ma
Human hnRNP A2/B1 is an RNA-binding protein that plays important roles in many biological processes, including maturation, transport, and metabolism of mRNA, and gene regulation of long noncoding RNAs. hnRNP A2/B1 was reported to control the microRNAs sorting to exosomes and promote primary microRNA processing as a potential m6A "reader." hnRNP A2/B1 contains two RNA recognition motifs that provide sequence-specific recognition of RNA substrates. Here, we determine crystal structures of tandem RRM domains of hnRNP A2/B1 in complex with various RNA substrates, elucidating specific recognitions of AGG and UAG motifs by RRM1 and RRM2 domains, respectively...
January 29, 2018: Nature Communications
Fangfang Fu, Weiqin Jiang, Linfu Zhou, Zhi Chen
Exosomes are extracellular membrane vesicles of 50- to 130-nm diameter secreted by most tumor cells. Exosomes can mediate the intercellular transfer of proteins and RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), and promote both tumorigenesis and premetastatic niche formation. In this study, we performed exosomal RNA sequencing to identify candidate exosomal miRNAs that could be associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and its distant metastasis. The expression profiles of exosomal miRNA, as secreted by isogenic human primary CRC cell line SW480 and highly metastatic cell line SW620, were analyzed and the potential targets related to tumorigenesis and metastatic progression were investigated...
January 20, 2018: Translational Oncology
Mengqiang Wang, Mei Liu, Baojie Wang, Keyong Jiang, Zhihao Jia, Lingling Wang, Lei Wang
As marine invertebrates, oysters lack adaptive immunity and employ innate immunity as the front line and almost the solo defense mechanism to protect them against invaders. Accumulating research achievements demonstrated that exosomes could act as innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense mechanism. To better understand the immune functions of exosomes in Crassostrea gigas against bacterial stimulation, RNA-Seq was applied to explore the global expression changes of exosomes in oyster after Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio splendidus stimulation...
January 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Liang Ding, Jing Ren, Dongya Zhang, Yi Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Qingang Hu, Hui Wang, Yuxian Song, Yanhong Ni, Yayi Hou
Stromal carcinoma-related fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main type of non-immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). CAFs interact with cancer cells to promote tumor proliferation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis of cancer cells, but their role in stromal cells is unclear. Using RNA sequencing, we identified a stromal lncRNA signature during the transformation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts (NFs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We uncovered an uncharacterized lncRNA, FLJ22447, which was remarkably up-regulated in CAFs, referred to LncRNA-CAF (Lnc-CAF) hereafter...
January 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Harendra Singh Chahar, Tiziana Corsello, Andrzej S Kudlicki, Narayana Komaravelli, Antonella Casola
Exosomes are microvesicles known to carry biologically active molecules, including RNA, DNA and proteins. Viral infections can induce profound changes in exosome composition, and exosomes have been implicated in viral transmission and pathogenesis. No information is current available regarding exosome composition and function during infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. In this study, we characterized exosomes released from RSV-infected lung carcinoma-derived A549 cells...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"