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Medical scenario simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626175/characteristics-and-gender-differences-in-the-medical-interview-skills-of-japanese-medical-students
#1
Akiko Sugawara, Kazunobu Ishikawa, Ryo Motoya, Gen Kobayashi, Yoko Moroi, Tetsuhito Fukushima
Objective To examine the characteristics of the communication skills of medical students, we observed their performance during introductory medical interview training with simulated patients (SPs). Methods The subjects of the present study included fifth-year medical students (male, n=180, female, n=99) who were undergoing clinical training in Japan from 2012 to 2014. Each student was assigned to one of four 10-minute clinical scenarios, which was conducted with an SP. Three or four teachers observed and assessed the performance of each of the students...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621586/the-cooler-code-a-novel-analytical-approach-to-calculate-subcellular-energy-deposition-by-internal-electron-emitters
#2
Mattia Siragusa, Giorgio Baiocco, Pil M Fredericia, Werner Friedland, Torsten Groesser, Andrea Ottolenghi, Mikael Jensen
COmputation of Local Electron Release (COOLER), a software program designed for dosimetry assessment at the cellular/subcellular scale, with a given distribution of administered low-energy electron-emitting radionuclides in cellular compartments, which remains a critical step in risk/benefit analysis for advancements in internal radiotherapy. The software is intended to overcome the main limitations of the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) formalism for calculations of cellular S-values (i.e., dose to a target region in the cell per decay in a given source region), namely, the use of the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) and the assumption of a spherical cell geometry...
June 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616430/training-and-validation-of-standardized-patients-for-assessing-communication-and-counseling-skills-of-pharmacy-students-a-pilot-study
#3
Mahboobeh Khabaz Mafinejad, Mansoor Rastegarpanah, Fereshteh Moosavi, Mandana Shirazi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the process of training valid simulated patients (SPs) for assessing communication and counseling skills of pharmacy students' performance. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional and correlational study. Psychometric properties of checklist and SPs' portrayals and their filling of the checklist regarding assessing pharmacy students were assessed. Five SPs who were working in the simulated patient's pool were volunteered to take part in the project, which one of the SPs failed...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600218/systematic-review-of-patient-specific-surgical-simulation-toward-advancing-medical-education-%C3%A2
#4
Won Hyung A Ryu, Navjit Dharampal, Ahmed E Mostafa, Ehud Sharlin, Gail Kopp, William Bradley Jacobs, Robin John Hurlbert, Sonny Chan, Garnette R Sutherland
OBJECTIVE: Simulation-based education has been shown to be an effective tool to teach foundational technical skills in various surgical specialties. However, most of the current simulations are limited to generic scenarios and do not allow continuation of the learning curve beyond basic technical skills to prepare for more advanced expertise, such as patient-specific surgical planning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current medical literature with respect to the utilization and educational value of patient-specific simulations for surgical training...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594889/use-of-the-fda-nozzle-model-to-illustrate-validation-techniques-in-computational-fluid-dynamics-cfd-simulations
#5
Prasanna Hariharan, Gavin A D'Souza, Marc Horner, Tina M Morrison, Richard A Malinauskas, Matthew R Myers
A "credible" computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has the potential to provide a meaningful evaluation of safety in medical devices. One major challenge in establishing "model credibility" is to determine the required degree of similarity between the model and experimental results for the model to be considered sufficiently validated. This study proposes a "threshold-based" validation approach that provides a well-defined acceptance criteria, which is a function of how close the simulation and experimental results are to the safety threshold, for establishing the model validity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594858/factors-associated-with-delayed-defibrillation-in-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-prospective-simulation-study
#6
Christoph Castan, Alexander Münch, Moritz Mahling, Leopold Haffner, Jan Griewatz, Anne Hermann-Werner, Reimer Riessen, Jörg Reutershan, Nora Celebi
INTRODUCTION: Early defibrillation is an important factor of survival in cardiac arrest. However, novice resuscitators often struggle with cardiac arrest patients. We investigated factors leading to delayed defibrillation performed by final-year medical students within a simulated bystander cardiac arrest situation. METHODS: Final-year medical students received a refresher lecture and basic life support training before being confronted with a simulated cardiac arrest situation in a simulation ambulance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586318/modelling-of-induced-electric-fields-based-on-incompletely-known-magnetic-fields
#7
Ilkka Laakso, Valerio De Santis, Silvano Cruciani, Tommaso Campi, Mauro Feliziani
Determining the induced electric fields in the human body is a fundamental problem in bioelectromagnetics that is important for both evaluation of safety of electromagnetic fields and medical applications. However, existing techniques for numerical modelling of induced electric fields require detailed information about the sources of the magnetic field, which may be unknown or difficult to model in realistic scenarios. Here, we show how induced electric fields can accurately be determined in the case that the magnetic fields are known only approximately, e...
June 6, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577690/value-of-comprehensive-hcv-treatment-among-vulnerable-high-risk-populations
#8
Gigi A Moreno, Alice Wang, Yuri Sánchez González, Oliver Díaz Espinosa, Diana K Vania, Brian R Edlin, Ronald Brookmeyer
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the trade-offs society and payers make when expanding treatment access to patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in early stages of disease as well as to vulnerable, high-risk populations, such as people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM-HIV). METHODS: A discrete time Markov model simulated HCV progression and treatment over 20 years. Population cohorts were defined by behaviors that influence the risk of HCV exposure: PWID, MSM-HIV, an overlap cohort of individuals who are both PWID and MSM-HIV, and all other adults...
June 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577263/modelling-for-the-proposed-roll-out-of-the-111-service-in-wales-a-case-study
#9
Mark Tuson, Tracey England, Doris Behrens, Richard Bowen, Dorothy Edwards, John Frankish, Jude Kay
NHS Direct Wales provides a single point of access where members of the public can telephone and seek medical support and/or advice. The service is provided for all the Health Boards in Wales by a single virtual call centre run from a main location in Swansea with 2 satellite locations. Patients in Wales can also access a local General Practitioner service during the evenings and at weekends, by phoning their Out of Hours service. The introduction of a '111' service is intended to combine these two operations on a pan-Wales basis using the existing NHS Direct Wales call centre and staff, with the existing Health Board Out of Hours 'hubs'...
June 2, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558697/does-an-electronic-cognitive-aid-have-an-effect-on-the-management-of-severe-gynaecological-turp-syndrome-a-prospective-randomised-simulation-study
#10
Michael St Pierre, Georg Breuer, Dieter Strembski, Christopher Schmitt, Bjoern Luetcke
BACKGROUND: Lack of familiarity with the content of current guidelines is a major factor associated with non-compliance by clinicians. It is conceivable that cognitive aids with regularly updated medical content can guide clinicians' task performance by evidence-based practices, even if they are unfamiliar with the actual guideline. Acute hyponatraemia as a consequence of TURP syndrome is a rare intraoperative event, and current practice guidelines have changed from slow correction to rapid correction of serum sodium levels...
May 30, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555348/-magnetic-resonance-imaging-recent-studies-on-biological-effects-of-static-magnetic-and-high%C3%A2-frequency-electromagnetic-fields
#11
REVIEW
B Pophof, G Brix
PROBLEM: During the last few years, new studies on biological effects of strong static magnetic fields and on thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were published. Many of these studies have not yet been included in the current safety recommendations. METHOD: Scientific publications since 2010 on biological effects of static and electromagnetic fields in MRI were researched and evaluated. RESULTS: New studies confirm older publications that have already described effects of static magnetic fields on sensory organs and the central nervous system, accompanied by sensory perceptions...
May 29, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552680/community-pharmacy-modifications-to-non-prescription-medication-requests-a-simulated-patient-study
#12
Jack C Collins, Carl R Schneider, Frances Wilson, Abilio C de Almeida Neto, Rebekah J Moles
BACKGROUND: Self-care, and hence self-medication, is becoming an increasingly popular practice worldwide. Community pharmacies are an important destination for those seeking non-prescription medicines, and pharmacists and their staff are in a prime position to facilitate appropriate and safe self-medication. PURPOSE: To determine what modifications (for example, a change in brand, change in drug, or non-supply) pharmacy staff make when presented with a request for a non-prescription medicine, and to determine what factors influence whether a modification is made...
May 22, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547013/new-cfd-tools-to-evaluate-nasal-airflow
#13
M A Burgos, E Sanmiguel-Rojas, C Del Pino, M A Sevilla-García, F Esteban-Ortega
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. As currently CFD is not a usual tool for rhinologists, a group of engineers in collaboration with experts in Rhinology have developed a very intuitive CFD software. The program MECOMLAND(®) only required snapshots from the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, being the output those results originated by CFD, such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, temperature, or wall shear stress. This is useful complementary information to cover diagnosis, prognosis, or follow-up of nasal pathologies based on quantitative magnitudes linked to airflow...
May 25, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540142/rapid-cycle-deliberate-practice-in-medical-education-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Jillian Taras, Tobias Everett
Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice (RCDP) is a novel simulation-based education model that is currently attracting interest, implementation, exploration and research in medical education. In RCDP, learners rapidly cycle between deliberate practice and directed feedback within the simulation scenario until mastery is achieved. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the literature and summarize the existing knowledge on RCDP in simulation-based medical education. Fifteen resources met inclusion criteria; they were diverse and heterogeneous, such that we did not perform a quantitative synthesis or meta-analysis but rather a narrative review on RCDP...
April 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538983/assocation-of-a-surgical-task-during-training-with-team-skill-acquisition-among-surgical-residents-the-missing-piece-in-multidisciplinary-team-training
#15
Jessica L Sparks, Dustin L Crouch, Kathryn Sobba, Douglas Evans, Jing Zhang, James E Johnson, Ian Saunders, John Thomas, Sarah Bodin, Ashley Tonidandel, Jeff Carter, Carl Westcott, R Shayn Martin, Amy Hildreth
Importance: The human patient simulators that are currently used in multidisciplinary operating room team training scenarios cannot simulate surgical tasks because they lack a realistic surgical anatomy. Thus, they eliminate the surgeon's primary task in the operating room. The surgical trainee is presented with a significant barrier when he or she attempts to suspend disbelief and engage in the scenario. Objective: To develop and test a simulation-based operating room team training strategy that challenges the communication abilities and teamwork competencies of surgeons while they are engaged in realistic operative maneuvers...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521380/-clinical-practical-examination-in-orthopaedic-teaching-who-is-the-ideal-examiner
#16
Peter Melcher, Andreas Roth, Mohamed Ghanem, Daisy Rotzoll
Background Medical curricula require an increasing amount of integrated clinical practical skills education. German medical faculties are increasingly implementing the OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) to test students' practical as well as communication skills. Teaching and assessment tools for practical skills include simulators and simulated patient scenarios, where peer-assisted teaching (PAT) is applied. Trained student tutors support this process. This study examines for the first time the use of PAT student tutors as examiners in an orthopaedic OSCE unit and the existence of possible differences in rating between faculty and PAT student tutors...
May 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505240/incidence-of-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-following-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-modeling-study
#17
Samuel M Jenness, Kevin M Weiss, Steven M Goodreau, Thomas Gift, Harrell Chesson, Karen W Hoover, Dawn K Smith, Albert Y Liu, Patrick S Sullivan, Eli S Rosenberg
Background: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for preventing HIV, but risk compensation (RC) in men who have sex with men (MSM) raises concerns about increased sexually transmitted infections (STIs). CDC's PrEP guidelines recommend biannual STI screening, which may reduce incidence by treating STIs that would otherwise remain undiagnosed. We investigated the impact of these two potentially counteracting phenomena. Methods: With a stochastic network-based mathematical model of HIV and rectal/urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) transmission dynamics among MSM in the United States, we simulated PrEP uptake following the prescription indications and HIV/STI screening recommendations in the CDC guidelines...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504564/cinematic-rendering-in-ct-a-novel-lifelike-3d-visualization-technique
#18
Marwen Eid, Carlo N De Cecco, John W Nance, Damiano Caruso, Moritz H Albrecht, Adam J Spandorfer, Domenico De Santis, Akos Varga-Szemes, U Joseph Schoepf
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to present an overview of cinematic rendering, illustrating its potential advantages and applications. CONCLUSION: Volume-rendered reconstruction, obtaining 3D visualization from original CT datasets, is increasingly used by physicians and medical educators in various clinical and educational scenarios. Cinematic rendering is a novel 3D rendering algorithm that simulates the propagation and interaction of light rays as they pass through the volumetric data, showing a more photorealistic representation of 3D images than achieved with standard volume rendering...
May 15, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503225/self-reported-and-actual-involvement-of-community-pharmacists-in-patient-counseling-a-cross-sectional-and-simulated-patient-study-in-gondar-ethiopia
#19
Abdrrahman S Surur, Eyob Getachew, Ebsa Teressa, Bisrat Hailemeskel, Nurahmed S Getaw, Daniel A Erku
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists play a crucial role in reducing medication related health problems and improving the patient's overall wellbeing. Evidence suggests that community pharmacist led counseling services result in a better clinical and self-reported outcome, including a higher level of satisfaction and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to document self-reported and actual levels of community pharmacists' involvement in the provision of patient counseling and barriers that limit their involvement in such services...
January 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503221/management-of-musculoskeletal-pain-in-retail-drug-outlets-within-a-nigerian-community-a-descriptive-study
#20
Samirah N Abdu-Aguye, Aishatu Shehu, Ubaidullah I Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to describe attitudes and practices of both community pharmacies and patent and proprietary medicine vendor (PPMV) outlets towards over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic use for musculoskeletal pain states within Zaria, Nigeria. METHODS: The study was carried out in 2 phases from May to August 2016. Phase one was a cross-sectional survey of 40 retail drug outlets (10 community pharmacies and 30 PPMVs). A simulated patient scenario of a young adult male complaining of acute onset back pain was used to collect data on the type and quality of analgesic recommended, duration of consultation, as well as nature of information provided during the drug dispensing process...
January 2017: Pharmacy Practice
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