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Nutrition genetic engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746094/an-engineered-device-for-indoleacetic-acid-production-under-quorum-sensing-signals-enables-cupriavidus-pinatubonensis-jmp134-to-stimulate-plant-growth
#1
Ana Zuniga, Francisco De la Fuente, Fernan Federici, Corinne Lionne, Jerome Bonnet, Victor de Lorenzo, Bernardo Gonzalez
The environmental effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides have encouraged the quest for new strategies to increase crop productivity with minimal impacts on the natural medium. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can contribute to this endeavor by improving fitness through better nutrition acquisition and stress tolerance. Using the neutral (non PGPR) rhizobacterium Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134 as the host, we engineered a regulatory forward loop that triggered the synthesis of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in a manner dependent on quorum sensing (QS) signals...
May 10, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728792/carbohydrate-reserves-and-seed-development-an-overview
#2
REVIEW
Manuel Aguirre, Edward Kiegle, Giulia Leo, Ignacio Ezquer
Seeds are one of the most important food sources, providing humans and animals with essential nutrients. These nutrients include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Carbohydrates are one of the main energy sources for both plant and animal cells and play a fundamental role in seed development, human nutrition and the food industry. Many studies have focused on the molecular pathways that control carbohydrate flow during seed development in monocot and dicot species. For this reason, an overview of seed biodiversity focused on the multiple metabolic and physiological mechanisms that govern seed carbohydrate storage function in the plant kingdom is required...
May 4, 2018: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713527/characterization-of-the-catalytic-structure-of-plant-phytase-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-like-phytase-and-histidine-acid-phytases-and-their-biotechnological-applications
#3
REVIEW
Alex Sander Rodrigues Cangussu, Deborah Aires Almeida, Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar, Sidnei Emilio Bordignon-Junior, Kelvinson Fernandes Viana, Luiz Carlos Bertucci Barbosa, Edson Wagner da Silva Cangussu, Igor Viana Brandi, Augustus Caeser Franke Portella, Gil Rodrigues Dos Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho, William James Nogueira Lima
Phytase plays a prominent role in monogastric animal nutrition due to its ability to improve phytic acid digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, releasing phosphorus and other micronutrients that are important for animal development. Moreover, phytase decreases the amounts of phytic acid and phosphate excreted in feces. Bioinformatics approaches can contribute to the understanding of the catalytic structure of phytase. Analysis of the catalytic structure can reveal enzymatic stability and the polarization and hydrophobicity of amino acids...
2018: Enzyme Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666628/you-shall-not-pass-root-vacuoles-as-a-symplastic-checkpoint-for-metal-translocation-to-shoots-and-possible-application-to-grain-nutritional-quality
#4
REVIEW
Felipe K Ricachenevsky, Artur T de Araújo Junior, Janette P Fett, Raul A Sperotto
Plant nutrient uptake is performed mostly by roots, which have to acquire nutrients while avoiding excessive amounts of essential and toxic elements. Apoplastic barriers such as the casparian strip and suberin deposition block free diffusion from the rhizosphere into the xylem, making selective plasma membrane transporters able to control elemental influx into the root symplast, efflux into the xylem and therefore shoot translocation. Additionally, transporters localized to the tonoplast of root cells have been demonstrated to regulate the shoot ionome, and may be important for seed elemental translocation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655410/non-orthodontic-intervention-and-non-nutritive-sucking-behaviours-a-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Liyana Tanny, Boyen Huang, Noel Ye Naung, Geoffrey Currie
Anterior open bite (AOB) is one of the most complex malocclusions to manage. AOB is caused by either by skeletal, genetic or environmental factors. Numerous treatment options are currently utilised to manage AOB. These vary from non-invasive behavioural shaping to orthodontic and surgical interventions. This paper reviews the available orthodontic and non-orthodontic interventions used in the management of AOB. The literature review was carried out using the PubMed search engine from the first of January 2000 to the first of June 2017...
April 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649182/applications-of-microalgal-biotechnology-for-disease-control-in-aquaculture
#6
REVIEW
Patai Charoonnart, Saul Purton, Vanvimon Saksmerprome
Aquaculture industries, and in particular the farming of fish and crustaceans, are major contributors to the economy of many countries and an increasingly important component in global food supply. However, the severe impact of aquatic microbial diseases on production performance remains a challenge to these industries. This article considers the potential applications of microalgal technology in the control of such diseases. At the simplest level, microalgae offer health-promoting benefits as a nutritional supplement in feed meal because of their digestibility and high content of proteins, lipids and essential nutrients...
April 12, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601856/light-optimized-growth-of-cyanobacterial-cultures-growth-phases-and-productivity-of-biomass-and-secreted-molecules-in-light-limited-batch-growth
#7
Ryan L Clark, Laura L McGinley, Hugh M Purdy, Travis C Korosh, Jennifer L Reed, Thatcher W Root, Brian F Pfleger
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms whose metabolism can be modified through genetic engineering for production of a wide variety of molecules directly from CO2 , light, and nutrients. Diverse molecules have been produced in small quantities by engineered cyanobacteria to demonstrate the feasibility of photosynthetic biorefineries. Consequently, there is interest in engineering these microorganisms to increase titer and productivity to meet industrial metrics. Unfortunately, differing experimental conditions and cultivation techniques confound comparisons of strains and metabolic engineering strategies...
March 27, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554761/engineered-nanomaterials-for-plant-growth-and-development-a-perspective-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Sandeep Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Das, Manoj Kumar Patel, Ashish Shah, Vinay Kumar, Saikat Gantait
With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467788/toxicological-and-biochemical-analyses-demonstrate-the-absence-of-lethal-or-sublethal-effects-of-cry1c-or-cry2a-expressing-bt-rice-on-the-collembolan-folsomia-candida
#9
Yan Yang, Bing Zhang, Xiang Zhou, Jörg Romeis, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Assessing the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically engineered (GE) plants on collembolans is important because these common soil arthropods may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in GE plants by ingestion of plant residues, crop pollen, or root exudates. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of two Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt )-rice lines expressing Cry1C and Cry2A in pollen and leaves and of their non- Bt conventional isolines on the fitness of the collembolan Folsomia candida and on the activities of its antioxidant-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, and of its detoxification-related enzymes, glutathione reductase and glutathione S -transferase...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449881/a-copper-controlled-rna-interference-system-for-reversible-silencing-of-target-genes-in-trichoderma-reesei
#10
Lei Wang, Fanglin Zheng, Weixin Zhang, Yaohua Zhong, Guanjun Chen, Xiangfeng Meng, Weifeng Liu
Background: Trichoderma reesei is a primary lignocellulosic enzyme producer in industry. However, the mechanisms underlying cellulase synthesis as well as other physiological processes are insufficiently understood partly due to the sophisticated process for its genetic manipulation. Target gene knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for genetic research and biotechnology in eukaryotes including filamentous fungi. Previously reported RNAi system in T. reesei was either uncontrollable or only applicable in certain nutrition state...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382315/genetic-engineering-of-escherichia-coli-to-improve-l-phenylalanine-production
#11
Yongfei Liu, Yiran Xu, Dongqin Ding, Jianping Wen, Beiwei Zhu, Dawei Zhang
BACKGROUND: L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) is an essential amino acid for mammals and applications expand into human health and nutritional products. In this study, a system level engineering was conducted to enhance L-Phe biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. RESULTS: We inactivated the PTS system and recruited glucose uptake via combinatorial modulation of galP and glk to increase PEP supply in the Xllp01 strain. In addition, the HTH domain of the transcription factor TyrR was engineered to decrease the repression on the transcriptional levels of L-Phe pathway enzymes...
January 30, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247672/prospects-and-progress-in-the-production-of-valuable-carotenoids-insights-from-metabolic-engineering-synthetic-biology-and-computational-approaches
#12
REVIEW
Mohan Sankari, Priya Rajendra Rao, Hridya Hemachandran, Phani Kumar Pullela, George Priya Doss C, Iftikhar Aslam Tayubi, Babu Subramanian, K M Gothandam, Pooja Singh, Siva Ramamoorthy
Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments synthesized exclusively by plants and microorganisms and play critical roles in light harvesting, photoprotection, attracting pollinators and phytohormone production. In recent years, carotenoids have been used for their health benefits due to their high antioxidant activity and are extensively utilized in food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis occurs throughout the life cycle of plants, with vibrant changes in composition based on developmental needs and responses to external environmental stimuli...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240755/integrating-transcriptomics-and-metabolomics-to-characterize-the-regulation-of-epa-biosynthesis-in-response-to-cold-stress-in-seaweed-bangia-fuscopurpurea
#13
Min Cao, Dongmei Wang, Yunxiang Mao, Fanna Kong, Guiqi Bi, Qikun Xing, Zhen Weng
Bangia fuscopurpurea is a traditional mariculture crop having high nutritional value, eicosapntemacnioc acid (EPA) production, and protein content. As an intertidal species, it can tolerate drastic changes in abiotic factors such as temperature, hydration, and light radiation; however, genomic information on the evolutionary aspect and mechanism of EPA enrichment in B. fuscopurpurea and the role of EPA in cold tolerance in this species remain elusive. We conducted transcriptome profile analysis in B. fuscopurpurea to investigate the biological functions of genes associated with resistance to various environment factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214457/gut-microbiota-and-host-juvenile-growth
#14
REVIEW
Martin Schwarzer, Maura Strigini, François Leulier
Good genes, good food, good friends. That is what parents hope will sustain and nurture the harmonious growth of their children. The impact of the genetic background and nutrition on postnatal growth has been in the spot light for long, but the good friends have come to the scene only recently. Among the good friends perhaps the most crucial ones are those that we are carrying within ourselves. They comprise the trillions of microbes that collectively constitute each individual's intestinal microbiota. Indeed, recent epidemiological and field studies in humans, supported by extensive experimental data on animal models, demonstrate a clear role of the intestinal microbiota on their host's juvenile growth, especially under suboptimal nutrient conditions...
April 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167680/gene-editing-and-crop-improvement-using-crispr-cas9-system
#15
REVIEW
Leena Arora, Alka Narula
Advancements in Genome editing technologies have revolutionized the fields of functional genomics and crop improvement. CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 is a multipurpose technology for genetic engineering that relies on the complementarity of the guideRNA (gRNA) to a specific sequence and the Cas9 endonuclease activity. It has broadened the agricultural research area, bringing in new opportunities to develop novel plant varieties with deletion of detrimental traits or addition of significant characters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079305/kras-yap-and-obesity-in-pancreatic-cancer-a-signaling-network-with-multiple-loops
#16
REVIEW
Guido Eibl, Enrique Rozengurt
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to be a lethal disease with no efficacious treatment modalities. The incidence of PDAC is expected to increase, at least partially because of the obesity epidemic. Increased efforts to prevent or intercept this disease are clearly needed. Mutations in KRAS are initiating events in pancreatic carcinogenesis supported by genetically engineered mouse models of the disease. However, oncogenic KRAS is not entirely sufficient for the development of fully invasive PDAC...
October 24, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970844/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-engineering-for-improvement-of-horticultural-crops
#17
REVIEW
Suhas G Karkute, Achuit K Singh, Om P Gupta, Prabhakar M Singh, Bijendra Singh
Horticultural crops are an important part of agriculture for food as well as nutritional security. However, several pests and diseases along with adverse abiotic environmental factors pose a severe threat to these crops by affecting their quality and productivity. This warrants the effective and accelerated breeding programs by utilizing innovative biotechnological tools that can tackle aforementioned issues. The recent technique of genome editing by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has greatly advanced the breeding for crop improvement due to its simplicity and high efficiency over other nucleases such as Zinc Finger Nucleases and Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958560/transcriptome-analysis-and-metabolic-profiling-of-green-and-red-kale-brassica-oleracea-var-acephala-seedlings
#18
Jin Jeon, Jae Kwang Kim, HyeRan Kim, Yeon Jeong Kim, Yun Ji Park, Sun Ju Kim, Changsoo Kim, Sang Un Park
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a rich source of numerous health-benefiting compounds, including vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids. However, the genetic resources for exploiting the phyto-nutritional traits of kales are limited. To acquire precise information on secondary metabolites in kales, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of green and red kale seedlings. Kale transcriptome datasets revealed 37,149 annotated genes and several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930528/biotechnological-improvement-of-nutritional-and-therapeutic-value-of-cultivated-potato
#19
Deepak Singh Bagri, Devanshi Chandel Upadhyay, Subodh Kumar Jain, Chandrama Prakash Upadhyay
Genetic engineering is recognized as a powerful tool for altering the genetic characteristic of crop plants. Genetic engineering has tremendous potential in developing improved potato varieties with desired agronomic traits and has been utilized for improvement of several crop plants including potato to enhance essential amino acid, protein and lipids/carbohydrates contents as well to improve stress tolerance. The pathway engineering of amino acid revealed dramatic changes in essential amino acid content and protein quality...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913796/allergenicity-assessment-of-transgenic-wheat-lines-in-silico
#20
Ankita Mishra, Naveen Arora
Agriculture biotechnology is a promising tool for developing varieties with enhanced quality and quantity. Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified (GM) food crops improve crop characteristics like nutritional value, taste, and texture, and endow plants with resistance against fungus, pests, and insects. Despite such potential benefits, there are concerns regarding possible adverse effects of GM crops on human health, animals and the environment. Among the proposed guidelines for GM food safety testing-the weight-of-evidence approach proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 03/34A) is the most recent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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