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Nutrition genetic engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095718/key-players-associated-with-tuberization-in-potato-potential-candidates-for-genetic-engineering
#1
Som Dutt, Anshul Sharma Manjul, Pinky Raigond, Brajesh Singh, Sundaresha Siddappa, Vinay Bhardwaj, Prashant G Kawar, Virupakshagouda U Patil, Hemant Balasaheb Kardile
Tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a complex biological phenomenon which is affected by several environmental cues, genetic factors and plant nutrition. Understanding the regulation of tuber induction is essential to devise strategies to improve tuber yield and quality. It is well established that short-day photoperiods promote tuberization, whereas long days and high-temperatures inhibit or delay tuberization. Worldwide research on this complex biological process has yielded information on the important bio-molecules (proteins, RNAs, plant growth regulators) associated with the tuberization process in potato...
January 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#2
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076487/technological-information-regarding-prebiotics-and-probiotics-nutrition-versus-the-patent-registers-what-is-new
#3
José Maciel Caldas Dos Reis, Maurício Fortuna Pinheiro, André Takashi Oti, Denilson José Silva Feitosa-Junior, Mauro de Souza Pantoja, Rui Sérgio Monteiro Barros
Introduction: Food is a key factor both in prevention and in promoting human health. Among the functional food are highlighted probiotics and prebiotics. Patent databases are the main source of technological information about innovation worldwide, providing extensive library for research sector. Objective: Perform mapping in the main patent databases about pre and probiotics, seeking relevant information regarding the use of biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering in the production of these foods...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032195/versatility-of-hydrocarbon-production-in-cyanobacteria
#4
REVIEW
Min Xie, Weihua Wang, Weiwen Zhang, Lei Chen, Xuefeng Lu
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon...
February 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989563/preclinical-evidence-for-the-addiction-potential-of-highly-palatable-foods-current-developments-related-to-maternal-influence
#5
David A Wiss, Kristen Criscitelli, Mark Gold, Nicole Avena
It is well established that obesity has reached pandemic proportions. Over the last four decades the prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity have risen substantially in both men and women worldwide. Although there are many causative factors leading to excessive weight gain including genetics and sedentary lifestyle, the transformation of the food environment has undoubtedly contributed to the dangerously high rates of obesity. The current food landscape is inundated with food engineered to contain artificially high levels of sugar and fat...
December 15, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920297/role-of-ribonucleotide-reductase-on-bacillus-subtilis-stress-associated-mutagenesis
#6
Karla Viridiana Castro-Cerritos, Ronald E Yasbin, Eduardo A Robleto, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
: The Gram-positive microorganism Bacillus subtilis relies on a single class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to generate 2' -deoxyribonucleotides (dNDPs) for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we investigated the influence of RNR levels on B. subtilis stationary-phase-associated mutagenesis (SPM). Since RNR is essential in this bacterium, we engineered a conditional mutant in the strain B. subtilis YB955 (hisC952, metB5, leu427) in which expression of the nrdEF operon was modulated by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801985/global-regulatory-framework-for-production-and-marketing-of-crops-biofortified-with-vitamins-and-minerals
#7
Luis A Mejia, Omar Dary, Hala Boukerdenna
Biofortification of crops is being introduced in several countries as a strategy to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortified products, with increased contents of micronutrients, are currently produced by conventional plant breeding, genetic modification, or nutrient-enhanced fertilization. Corn, rice, wheat, beans, pearl millet, sweet potato, and cassava have been biofortified with increased contents of provitamin A carotenoids, iron, or zinc. However, regulatory considerations are rare or nonexistent...
November 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770864/enzymes-from-rare-actinobacterial-strains
#8
J Suriya, S Bharathiraja, P Manivasagan, S-K Kim
Actinobacteria constitute rich sources of novel biocatalysts and novel natural products for medical and industrial utilization. Although actinobacteria are potential source of economically important enzymes, the isolation and culturing are somewhat tough because of its extreme habitats. But now-a-days, the rate of discovery of novel compounds producing actinomycetes from soil, freshwater, and marine ecosystem has increased much through the developed culturing and genetic engineering techniques. Actinobacteria are well-known source of their bioactive compounds and they are the promising source of broad range of industrially important enzymes...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713731/genome-based-genetic-tool-development-for-bacillus-methanolicus-theta-and-rolling-circle-replicating-plasmids-for-inducible-gene-expression-and-application-to-methanol-based-cadaverine-production
#9
Marta Irla, Tonje M B Heggeset, Ingemar Nærdal, Lidia Paul, Tone Haugen, Simone B Le, Trygve Brautaset, Volker F Wendisch
Bacillus methanolicus is a thermophilic methylotroph able to overproduce amino acids from methanol, a substrate not used for human or animal nutrition. Based on our previous RNA-seq analysis a mannitol inducible promoter and a putative mannitol activator gene mtlR were identified. The mannitol inducible promoter was applied for controlled gene expression using fluorescent reporter proteins and a flow cytometry analysis, and improved by changing the -35 promoter region and by co-expression of the mtlR regulator gene...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701897/engineering-biosynthesis-of-high-value-compounds-in-photosynthetic-organisms
#10
Ellis C O'Neill, Steven Kelly
The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules...
October 4, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637875/glnr-and-phop-directly-regulate-the-transcription-of-genes-encoding-starch-degrading-amylolytic-enzymes-in-saccharopolyspora-erythraea
#11
Ya Xu, Cheng-Heng Liao, Li-Li Yao, Xu Ye, Bang-Ce Ye
Starch-degrading enzymes hydrolyze starch- and starch-derived oligosaccharides to yield glucose. We investigated the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding starch-degrading enzymes in the industrial actinobacteria Saccharopolyspora erythraea We observed that most genes encoding amylolytic enzymes (one α-amylase, one glucoamylase and four α-glucosidases) were regulated by GlnR and PhoP, which are global regulators of nitrogen and phosphate metabolism, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that GlnR and PhoP directly interact with their promoter regions, and collaboratively or competitively activate their transcription...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527405/the-effect-of-supplementation-of-amino-acids-and-taurine-to-modified-ksom-culture-medium-on-rat-embryo-development
#12
Kazuomi Nakamura, Kayoko Morimoto, Kaoru Shima, Yuki Yoshimura, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Osamu Suzuki, Junichiro Matsuda, Tetsuya Ohbayashi
The rat is widely used as a laboratory animal for research. In particular, genetically engineered rats are essential for production of animal models of several diseases. Although embryo manipulation techniques are needed to produce them, such technology for rat preimplantation embryos is not as advanced as it is for mouse embryos. One reason is that in vitro culture systems for preimplantation embryos are limited in rats. Therefore, we intended to develop a new culture system for rat preimplantation embryos focusing on supplementation of amino acids as nutrition to the culture media...
November 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520812/synthesis-gas-syngas-derived-medium-chain-length-polyhydroxyalkanoate-synthesis-in-engineered-rhodospirillum-rubrum
#13
Daniel Heinrich, Matthias Raberg, Philipp Fricke, Shane T Kenny, Laura Morales-Gamez, Ramesh P Babu, Kevin E O'Connor, Alexander Steinbüchel
: The purple nonsulfur alphaproteobacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 was genetically engineered to synthesize a heteropolymer of mainly 3-hydroxydecanoic acid and 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid [P(3HD-co-3HO)] from CO- and CO2-containing artificial synthesis gas (syngas). For this, genes from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 coding for a 3-hydroxyacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (phaG), a medium-chain-length (MCL) fatty acid coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (PP_0763), and an MCL polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (phaC1) were cloned and expressed under the control of the CO-inducible promoter PcooF from R...
October 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485228/manipulation-of-carotenoid-content-in-plants-to-improve-human-health
#14
Enriqueta Alós, Maria Jesús Rodrigo, Lorenzo Zacarias
Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448990/effect-of-a-genetically-engineered-bacteriophage-on-enterococcus-faecalis-biofilms
#15
Justine Monnerat Tinoco, Bettina Buttaro, Hongming Zhang, Nadia Liss, Luciana Sassone, Roy Stevens
OBJECTIVE: Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is associated with failed endodontic cases and nosocomial infections. E. faecalis can form biofilms, penetrate dentinal tubules and survive in root canals with scarce nutritional supplies. These properties can make E. faecalis resistant to conventional endodontic disinfection therapy. Furthermore, treatment may be complicated by the fact that many E. faecalis strains are resistant to antibiotics...
November 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422434/heavy-metal-accumulation-and-signal-transduction-in-herbaceous-and-woody-plants-paving-the-way-for-enhancing-phytoremediation-efficiency
#16
REVIEW
Zhi-Bin Luo, Jiali He, Andrea Polle, Heinz Rennenberg
Heavy metal (HM)-accumulating herbaceous and woody plants are employed for phytoremediation. To develop improved strategies for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency, knowledge of the microstructural, physiological and molecular responses underlying HM-accumulation is required. Here we review the progress in understanding the structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification, as well as the regulation of these processes by signal transduction in response to HM exposure...
November 1, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381849/genetically-modified-gm-crops-milestones-and-new-advances-in-crop-improvement
#17
REVIEW
Ayushi Kamthan, Abira Chaudhuri, Mohan Kamthan, Asis Datta
New advances in crop genetic engineering can significantly pace up the development of genetically improved varieties with enhanced yield, nutrition and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetically modified (GM) crops can act as powerful complement to the crops produced by laborious and time consuming conventional breeding methods to meet the worldwide demand for quality foods. GM crops can help fight malnutrition due to enhanced yield, nutritional quality and increased resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses...
September 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344593/a-gene-cluster-for-the-biosynthesis-of-moenomycin-family-antibiotics-in-the-genome-of-teicoplanin-producer-actinoplanes-teichomyceticus
#18
Liliya Horbal, Bohdan Ostash, Andriy Luzhetskyy, Suzanne Walker, Jorn Kalinowski, Victor Fedorenko
Moenomycins are phosphoglycolipid antibiotics notable for their extreme potency, unique mode of action, and proven record of use in animal nutrition without selection for resistant microflora. There is a keen interest in manipulation of structures of moenomycins in order to better understand their structure-activity relationships and to generate improved analogs. Only two almost identical moenomycin biosynthetic gene clusters are known, limiting our knowledge of the evolution of moenomycin pathways and our ability to genetically diversify them...
September 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289187/exposure-of-engineered-nanomaterials-to-plants-insights-into-the-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Nubia Zuverza-Mena, Domingo Martínez-Fernández, Wenchao Du, Jose A Hernandez-Viezcas, Nestor Bonilla-Bird, Martha L López-Moreno, Michael Komárek, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
Recent investigations show that carbon-based and metal-based engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), components of consumer goods and agricultural products, have the potential to build up in sediments and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. In addition, reports indicate that both carbon-based and metal-based ENMs affect plants differently at the physiological, biochemical, nutritional, and genetic levels. The toxicity threshold is species-dependent and responses to ENMs are driven by a series of factors including the nanomaterial characteristics and environmental conditions...
January 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252590/vegetable-oil-nutritional-and-industrial-perspective
#20
Aruna Kumar, Aarti Sharma, Kailash C Upadhyaya
Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'...
June 2016: Current Genomics
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