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Nutrition genetic engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167680/gene-editing-and-crop-improvement-using-crispr-cas9-system
#1
REVIEW
Leena Arora, Alka Narula
Advancements in Genome editing technologies have revolutionized the fields of functional genomics and crop improvement. CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 is a multipurpose technology for genetic engineering that relies on the complementarity of the guideRNA (gRNA) to a specific sequence and the Cas9 endonuclease activity. It has broadened the agricultural research area, bringing in new opportunities to develop novel plant varieties with deletion of detrimental traits or addition of significant characters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079305/kras-yap-and-obesity-in-pancreatic-cancer-a-signaling-network-with-multiple-loops
#2
REVIEW
Guido Eibl, Enrique Rozengurt
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to be a lethal disease with no efficacious treatment modalities. The incidence of PDAC is expected to increase, at least partially because of the obesity epidemic. Increased efforts to prevent or intercept this disease are clearly needed. Mutations in KRAS are initiating events in pancreatic carcinogenesis supported by genetically engineered mouse models of the disease. However, oncogenic KRAS is not entirely sufficient for the development of fully invasive PDAC...
October 24, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970844/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-engineering-for-improvement-of-horticultural-crops
#3
REVIEW
Suhas G Karkute, Achuit K Singh, Om P Gupta, Prabhakar M Singh, Bijendra Singh
Horticultural crops are an important part of agriculture for food as well as nutritional security. However, several pests and diseases along with adverse abiotic environmental factors pose a severe threat to these crops by affecting their quality and productivity. This warrants the effective and accelerated breeding programs by utilizing innovative biotechnological tools that can tackle aforementioned issues. The recent technique of genome editing by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has greatly advanced the breeding for crop improvement due to its simplicity and high efficiency over other nucleases such as Zinc Finger Nucleases and Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958560/transcriptome-analysis-and-metabolic-profiling-of-green-and-red-kale-brassica-oleracea-var-acephala-seedlings
#4
Jin Jeon, Jae Kwang Kim, HyeRan Kim, Yeon Jeong Kim, Yun Ji Park, Sun Ju Kim, Changsoo Kim, Sang Un Park
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a rich source of numerous health-benefiting compounds, including vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids. However, the genetic resources for exploiting the phyto-nutritional traits of kales are limited. To acquire precise information on secondary metabolites in kales, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of green and red kale seedlings. Kale transcriptome datasets revealed 37,149 annotated genes and several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930528/biotechnological-improvement-of-nutritional-and-therapeutic-value-of-cultivated-potato
#5
Deepak Singh Bagri, Devanshi Chandel Upadhyay, Subodh Kumar Jain, Chandrama Prakash Upadhyay
Genetic engineering is recognized as a powerful tool for altering the genetic characteristic of crop plants. Genetic engineering has tremendous potential in developing improved potato varieties with desired agronomic traits and has been utilized for improvement of several crop plants including potato to enhance essential amino acid, protein and lipids/carbohydrates contents as well to improve stress tolerance. The pathway engineering of amino acid revealed dramatic changes in essential amino acid content and protein quality...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913796/allergenicity-assessment-of-transgenic-wheat-lines-in-silico
#6
Ankita Mishra, Naveen Arora
Agriculture biotechnology is a promising tool for developing varieties with enhanced quality and quantity. Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified (GM) food crops improve crop characteristics like nutritional value, taste, and texture, and endow plants with resistance against fungus, pests, and insects. Despite such potential benefits, there are concerns regarding possible adverse effects of GM crops on human health, animals and the environment. Among the proposed guidelines for GM food safety testing-the weight-of-evidence approach proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 03/34A) is the most recent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885176/applications-of-bioinformatics-to-plant-biotechnology
#7
Diego F Gomez-Casati, María V Busi, Julieta Barchiesi, Diego A Peralta, Nicolás Hedin, Vijai Bhadauria
Bioinformatics encompasses many tools and techniques that today are essential for all areas of research in the biological sciences. New databases with a wealth of information about genomes, proteins, metabolites, and metabolic pathways appear almost daily. Particularly, for scientists who carry out research in plant biology, the amount of information has multiplied exponentially due to the large number of databases available for many individual plant species. In this sense, bioinformatics together with next generation sequencing and 'omics' approaches, can provide tools for plant breeding and the genetic engineering of plants...
September 8, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828714/genetic-engineering-a-possible-strategy-for-protein-energy-malnutrition-regulation
#8
REVIEW
Praveen Guleria, Vineet Kumar, Shiwani Guleria
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has adversely affected the generations of developing countries. It is a syndrome that in severity causes death. PEM generally affects infants of 1-5 age group. This manifestation is maintained till adulthood in the form of poor brain and body development. The developing nations are continuously making an effort to curb PEM. However, it is still a prime concern as it was in its early years of occurrence. Transgenic crops with high protein and enhanced nutrient content have been successfully developed...
December 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733388/improving-plant-nitrogen-use-efficiency-through-alteration-of-amino-acid-transport-processes
#9
Molly Perchlik, Mechthild Tegeder
Improving the efficiency of nitrogen (N) uptake and utilization in plants could potentially increase crop yields while reducing N fertilization and, subsequently, environmental pollution. Within most plants, N is transported primarily as amino acids. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum) plants overexpressing AMINO ACID PERMEASE1 (AAP1) were used to determine if and how genetic manipulation of amino acid transport from source to sink affects plant N use efficiency. The modified plants were grown under low, moderate, or high N fertilization regimes...
September 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721583/microbial-and-genetically-engineered-oils-as-replacements-for-fish-oil-in-aquaculture-feeds
#10
REVIEW
M Sprague, M B Betancor, D R Tocher
As the global population grows more of our fish and seafood are being farmed. Fish are the main dietary source of the omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, but these cannot be produced in sufficient quantities as are now required for human health. Farmed fish have traditionally been fed a diet consisting of fishmeal and fish oil, rich in n-3 LC-PUFA. However, the increase in global aquaculture production has resulted in these finite and limited marine ingredients being replaced with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin that are devoid of n-3 LC-PUFA...
November 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718097/regulatory-genes-and-their-roles-for-improvement-of-antibiotic-biosynthesis-in-streptomyces
#11
REVIEW
Fengjuan Lu, Yanyan Hou, Heming Zhang, Yiwen Chu, Haiyang Xia, Yongqiang Tian
The numerous secondary metabolites in Streptomyces spp. are crucial for various applications. For example, cephamycin C is used as an antibiotic, and avermectin is used as an insecticide. Specifically, antibiotic yield is closely related to many factors, such as the external environment, nutrition (including nitrogen and carbon sources), biosynthetic efficiency and the regulatory mechanisms in producing strains. There are various types of regulatory genes that work in different ways, such as pleiotropic (or global) regulatory genes, cluster-situated regulators, which are also called pathway-specific regulatory genes, and many other regulators...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696049/increased-nutritional-value-in-food-crops
#12
Nieves Goicoechea, M Carmen Antolín
Modern agriculture and horticulture must combine two objectives that seem to be almost mutually exclusive: to satisfy the nutritional needs of an increasing human population and to minimize the negative impact on the environment. These two objectives are included in the Goal 2 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations: 'End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture'. Enhancing the nutritional levels of vegetables would improve nutrient intake without requiring an increase in consumption...
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679744/coordinated-changes-in-mutation-and-growth-rates-induced-by-genome-reduction
#13
Issei Nishimura, Masaomi Kurokawa, Liu Liu, Bei-Wen Ying
Genome size is determined during evolution, but it can also be altered by genetic engineering in laboratories. The systematic characterization of reduced genomes provides valuable insights into the cellular properties that are quantitatively described by the global parameters related to the dynamics of growth and mutation. In the present study, we analyzed a small collection of W3110 Escherichia coli derivatives containing either the wild-type genome or reduced genomes of various lengths to examine whether the mutation rate, a global parameter representing genomic plasticity, was affected by genome reduction...
July 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670897/polyphenols-physicochemical-and-biological-properties-and-perspectives-of-their-use-in-a-zero-waste-society
#14
Véronique Cheynier, Heidi Halbwirth
The 28th International Conference on Polyphenols, held in Vienna (Austria) in July 2016, offered a venue for global exchanges on the active research on polyphenols and for the presentation and discussion of the latest advances. The multidisciplinary event attracted 280 scientists from four continents working in different fields, from analytical and biosynthetic chemistry through genetic and metabolic engineering, plant physiology, and ecology to food nutrition and health sciences as well as industrial applications...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667635/genetically-modified-phytase-crops-role-in-sustainable-plant-and-animal-nutrition-and-ecological-development-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Seong-Cheol Kim, Tanushri Kaul
Globally, plant-derivatives especially cereals and legumes are the major staple food sources for animals. The seeds of these crops comprise of phytic acid, the major repository form of the phosphorus, which is not digestible by simple-stomached animals. However, it is the most important factor responsible for impeding the absorption of minerals by plants that eventually results in less use of fertilizers that ultimately cause eutrophication in water bodies. Although abundant phosphorus (P) exists in the soils, plants cannot absorb most of the P due to its conversion to unavailable forms...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629176/fortifying-horticultural-crops-with-essential-amino-acids-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Guoping Wang, Mengyun Xu, Wenyi Wang, Gad Galili
To feed the world's growing population, increasing the yield of crops is not the only important factor, improving crop quality is also important, and it presents a significant challenge. Among the important crops, horticultural crops (particularly fruits and vegetables) provide numerous health compounds, such as vitamins, antioxidants, and amino acids. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be produced by the organism and, therefore, must be obtained from diet, particularly from meat, eggs, and milk, as well as a variety of plants...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553296/use-of-natural-diversity-and-biotechnology-to-increase-the-quality-and-nutritional-content-of-tomato-and-grape
#17
REVIEW
Quentin Gascuel, Gianfranco Diretto, Antonio J Monforte, Ana M Fortes, Antonio Granell
Improving fruit quality has become a major goal in plant breeding. Direct approaches to tackling fruit quality traits specifically linked to consumer preferences and environmental friendliness, such as improved flavor, nutraceutical compounds, and sustainability, have slowly been added to a breeder priority list that already includes traits like productivity, efficiency, and, especially, pest and disease control. Breeders already use molecular genetic tools to improve fruit quality although most advances have been made in producer and industrial quality standards...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549814/microbial-phytase-impact-of-advances-in-genetic-engineering-in-revolutionizing-its-properties-and-applications
#18
REVIEW
Mrudula Vasudevan Ushasree, Krishna Shyam, Jalaja Vidya, Ashok Pandey
Phytases are enzymes that increase the availability of phosphorous in monogastric diet and reduces the anti-nutrition effect of phytate. This review highlights contributions of recombinant technology to phytase research during the last decade with specific emphasis on new generation phytases. Application of modern molecular tools and genetic engineering have aided the discovery of novel phytase genes, facilitated its commercial production and expanded its applications. In future, by adopting most recent gene improvement techniques, more efficient next generation phytases can be developed for specific applications...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548831/folate-biofortification-in-hydroponically-cultivated-spinach-by-the-addition-of-phenylalanine
#19
Sho Watanabe, Yuta Ohtani, Yohei Tatsukami, Wataru Aoki, Takashi Amemiya, Yasunori Sukekiyo, Seiichi Kubokawa, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Folate is an important vitamin mainly ingested from vegetables, and folate deficiency causes various health problems. Recently, several studies demonstrated folate biofortification in plants or food crops by metabolic engineering through genetic modifications. However, the production and sales of genetically modified foods are under strict regulation. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve folate biofortification in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) without genetic modification. We hydroponically cultivated spinach with the addition of three candidate compounds expected to fortify folate...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500672/telomere-length-and-fetal-programming-a-review-of-recent-scientific-advances
#20
Valerie E Whiteman, Anjali Goswami, Hamisu M Salihu
We sought to synthesize a comprehensive literature review comprising recent research linking fetal programming to fetal telomere length. We also explored the potential effects fetal telomere length shortening has on fetal phenotypes. Utilizing the PubMed database as our primary search engine, we retrieved and reviewed 165 articles of published research. The inclusion criteria limited the articles to those that appeared within the last ten years, were pertinent to humans, and without restriction to language of publication...
May 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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