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hepatic steatosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239698/beneficial-effects-of-apple-peel-polyphenols-on-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-and-liver-injury-in-high-choline-fed-mice
#1
Mengfan Jia, Daoyuan Ren, Yan Nie, Xingbin Yang
This study was designed to investigate the preventive effects of Red Fuji apple peel polyphenolic extract (APP) on vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in mice fed a high choline diet. The mice were fed 3% dietary choline in drinking water for 8 weeks and displayed vascular dysfunction and liver damage (p < 0.01). The administration of APP at 600 and 900 mg per kg bw significantly elevated serum NO, HDL and 6-Keto-PGF1a levels and lowered serum TC, TG, LDL, ET-1 and TXB2 levels in the HC-fed mice...
February 27, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239649/switching-harmful-visceral-fat-to-beneficial-energy-combustion-improves-metabolic-dysfunctions
#2
Xiaoyan Yang, Wenhai Sui, Meng Zhang, Mei Dong, Sharon Lim, Takahiro Seki, Ziheng Guo, Carina Fischer, Huixia Lu, Cheng Zhang, Jianmin Yang, Meng Zhang, Yangang Wang, Caixia Cao, Yanyan Gao, Xingguo Zhao, Meili Sun, Yuping Sun, Rujie Zhuang, Nilesh J Samani, Yun Zhang, Yihai Cao
Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature-dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239648/liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-mediates-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-through-upregulation-of-g0-g1-switch-gene-2-expression
#3
Bradlee L Heckmann, Xiaodong Zhang, Alicia M Saarinen, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Erin E Kershaw, Rudolf Zechner, Jun Liu
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors essential for cholesterol homeostasis and lipogenesis. LXRα has been implicated in regulating hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation upon both influx of adipose-derived fatty acids (FAs) during fasting and stimulation of de novo FA synthesis by chemical agonism of LXR. However, whether or not a convergent mechanism is employed to drive deposition of FAs from these 2 different sources in TGs is undetermined. Here, we report that the G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2), a selective inhibitor of intracellular TG hydrolysis/lipolysis, is a direct target gene of LXRα...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239368/connection-of-nicotine-to-diet-induced-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cellular-and-mechanistic-insights
#4
REVIEW
Amiya P Sinha-Hikim, Indrani Sinha-Hikim, Theodore C Friedman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a serious health hazard affecting 20-40% of adults in the general population in the USA and over 70% of the obese and extremely obese people. In addition to obesity, nicotine is recognized as a risk factor for NAFLD, and it has been reported that nicotine can exaggerate obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. The development of NAFLD has serious clinical complications because of its potential progression from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238261/lipidomic-evaluation-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-mediated-hepatic-steatosis-in-male-and-female-mice-by-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
#5
Rance Nault, Kelly A Fader, Todd A Lydic, Timothy R Zacharewski
The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces hepatic steatosis mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. To further characterize TCDD-elicited hepatic lipid accumulation, mice were gavaged with TCDD every 4 days for 28 days. Liver samples were examined using untargeted lipidomics with structural confirmation of lipid species by targeted high-resolution MS/MS and data were integrated with complementary RNA-Seq analyses. Approximately 936 unique spectral features were detected, of which 379 were confirmed as unique lipid species...
February 27, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236037/ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-antagonists-reverse-the-ameliorative-effects-of-osthole-on-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-and-inflammatory-response-in-steatohepatitic-rats
#6
Xi Zhao, Feng Wang, Ruijun Zhou, Zengyan Zhu, Meilin Xie
Our previous studies have indicated that osthole may ameliorate the hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in nonalcoholic steatohepatitic rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to determine whether the effects of osthole were mediated by the activation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ (PPARα/γ). A rat model with steatohepatitis was induced by orally feeding high-fat and high-sucrose emulsion for 6 weeks. These experimental rats were then treated with osthole (20 mg/kg), PPARα antagonist MK886 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg), PPARγ antagonist GW9662 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg) and MK886 (1 mg/kg) plus GW9662 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg) for 4 weeks...
February 25, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231420/serum-ferritin-concentration-predicts-hepatic-fibrosis-better-than-hepatic-iron-concentration-in-human-hfe-hemochromatosis
#7
Marnie J Wood, Darrell H G Crawford, Leesa F Wockner, Lawrie W Powell, Grant A Ramm
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ferritin is purported to have proinflammatory and profibrogenic effects on hepatic stellate cells. Thus, rather than acting as a passive indicator of hepatic iron concentration (HIC) in hemochromatosis, ferritin may directly influence fibrosis. This study evaluated whether serum ferritin is a better predictor of hepatic fibrosis compared to variables previously associated with increased fibrosis risk in hemochromatosis. METHODS: We identified 291 C282Y HFE-homozygous patients who had undergone liver biopsy for histological fibrosis staging and measurement of HIC...
February 23, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230568/obesity-hepatic-steatosis-and-their-impact-on-fat-infiltration-of-the-trunk-musculature-using-unenhanced-computed-tomography
#8
Ronnie Sebro
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess whether hepatic steatosis predicts muscle fat content independent of body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Regions of interest were drawn over several trunk muscles and over the right lobe of the liver to obtain the computed tomography (CT) density in 100 subjects with unenhanced CT studies of the abdomen and pelvis. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to examine the associations between BMI and hepatic steatosis and between BMI and trunk muscle density...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225569/hepatic-alanine-differentiates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-from-simple-steatosis-in-humans-and-mice-a-proton-mr-spectroscopy-study-with-long-echo-time
#9
Tae-Hoon Kim, Hong Young Jun, Ki-Jong Kim, Young Hwan Lee, Myeung Su Lee, Keum Ha Choi, Ki Jung Yun, Yong Yeon Jeong, Chung Hwan Jun, Eun Young Cho, Kwon-Ha Yoon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the hepatic metabolic alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using (1) H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) with long echo time and to test the reproducibility of human study in an animal model. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD but with practical constraints. (1) H-MRS allows in vivo assessment of hepatocellular metabolism and has shown potential for biochemical differentiation in diffuse liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 32 subjects (11 patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH], 15 with simple steatosis [SS], and six healthy controls) were studied...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225568/liver-histology-and-diffusion-weighted-mri-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-magnet-study
#10
Paul Manning, Paul Murphy, Kang Wang, Jonathan Hooker, Tanya Wolfson, Michael S Middleton, Kimberly P Newton, Cynthia Behling, Hannah I Awai, Janis Durelle, Melissa N Paiz, Jorge E Angeles, Diana De La Pena, J Allen McCutchan, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
PURPOSE: To determine potential associations between histologic features of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and estimated quantitative magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was performed as part of the Magnetic Resonance Assessment Guiding NAFLD Evaluation and Treatment (MAGNET) ancillary study to the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225357/robust-sound-speed-estimation-for-ultrasound-based-hepatic-steatosis-assessment
#11
Imbault Marion, Alex Faccinetto, Bruno-Felix Osmanski, Antoine Tissier, Thomas Deffieux, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Valerie Vilgrain, Mickael Tanter
Hepatic steatosis is a common condition, the prevalence of which is increasing along with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, the most accurate noninvasive imaging method for diagnosing and quantifying hepatic steatosis is MRI, which estimates the Proton-Density Fat Fraction (PDFF) as a measure of fractional fat content. However, MRI suffers several limitations including cost, contra-indications and poor availability. Although conventional ultrasound is widely used by radiologists for hepatic steatosis assessment, it remains qualitative and operator dependent...
February 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223722/to-screen-or-not-to-screen-celiac-antibodies-in-liver-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Janaína Luz Narciso-Schiavon, Leonardo Lucca Schiavon
Celiac disease (CD) is a systemic immune-mediated disorder triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The typical symptoms are anemia, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and abdominal pain. CD has been reported in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, aminotransferase elevations, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. We evaluate recommendations for active screening for CD in patients with liver diseases, and the effect of a gluten-free diet in these different settings...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223721/current-and-future-therapies-for-inherited-cholestatic-liver-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Wendy L van der Woerd, Roderick Hj Houwen, Stan Fj van de Graaf
Familial intrahepatic cholestasis (FIC) comprises a group of rare cholestatic liver diseases associated with canalicular transport defects resulting predominantly from mutations in ATP8B1, ABCB11 and ABCB4. Phenotypes range from benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC), associated with recurrent cholestatic attacks, to progressive FIC (PFIC). Patients often suffer from severe pruritus and eventually progressive cholestasis results in liver failure. Currently, first-line treatment includes ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with ABCB4 deficiency (PFIC3) and partial biliary diversion in patients with ATP8B1 or ABCB11 deficiency (PFIC1 and PFIC2)...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223420/new-connections-new-targets-for-fighting-hepatic-steatosis
#14
Wei Wong
Insight into the signaling pathways that regulate de novo lipogenesis may lead to new treatments for hepatic steatosis.
February 21, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222857/liver-fibrosis-assessed-with-transient-elastography-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-ischemic-stroke
#15
Seung Up Kim, Dongbeom Song, Ji Hoe Heo, Joonsang Yoo, Beom Kyung Kim, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang Joon Kim, Kwang-Hyub Han, Young Dae Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The relationship between liver fibrosis and the occurrence of ischemic stroke is unknown. We investigated the correlation between liver fibrosis assessed with transient elastography (TE) and the risk of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Between April 2013 and August 2014, patients with acute ischemic stroke and subjects who underwent a health check-up were included in the study. Liver fibrotic burden was assessed with TE in all participants. The degree of liver fibrosis was compared between groups by using various multiple logistic regression models and propensity-score matched analyses...
February 12, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220523/inflammation-is-independent-of-steatosis-in-a-murine-model-of-steatohepatitis
#16
Wei Wang, Ming-Jiang Xu, Yan Cai, Zhou Zhou, Haixia Cao, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Pal Pacher, Shusen Zheng, Frank J Gonzalez, Bin Gao
Obesity and alcohol consumption synergistically promote steatohepatitis, and neutrophil infiltration is believed to be associated with steatosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) plays a complex role in lipid metabolism and inflammation, therefore, the purpose of this study was to dissect its role in regulating steatosis and neutrophil infiltration in a clinically relevant mouse steatohepatitis model of 3-month high-fat diet (HFD) feeding plus a binge of ethanol (HFD -plus-binge ethanol)...
February 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220039/hormone-signaling-and-fatty-liver-in-females-analysis-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-mutant-mice
#17
S Hart-Unger, Y Arao, K J Hamilton, S L Lierz, D E Malarkey, S C Hewitt, M Freemark, K S Korach
BACKGROUND: Treatment with estrogen in early menopausal women protects against development of hepatic steatosis and NAFLD but estrogen has undesirable side effects which negate its beneficial effects in pre- and post-menopausal women. Targeted therapies require better understanding of the target sites and mechanisms by which estrogen signaling exerts its protective effects in women. ERα is thought to be the primary mediator for estrogen signaling to protect against hepatic steatosis...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219837/chronic-maternal-calcium-and-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-deficiency-in-wistar-rats-programs-abnormal-hepatic-gene-expression-leading-to-hepatic-steatosis-in-female-offspring
#18
Sona S Sharma, Nivedita M Jangale, Abhay M Harsulkar, Medha K Gokhale, Bimba N Joshi
Importance of calcium and vitamin D deficiency is well established in adult dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency could alter offspring's lipid metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the effect of maternal dietary calcium and vitamin D deficiency on lipid metabolism and liver function of the F1 generation offspring. intergenerational calcium-deficient (CaD) and vitamin D-deficient (VDD) models were developed by mating normal male rats with deficient females and continuing maternal-deficient diets through pregnancy and lactation...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215615/factors-associated-with-persistent-increase-in-level-of-alanine-aminotransferase-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-receiving-oral-antiviral-therapy
#19
Ira M Jacobson, Mary K Washington, Maria Buti, Alexander Thompson, Nezam Afdhal, Robert Flisiak, Ulus Salih Akarca, Konstantin G Tchernev, John F Flaherty, Raul Aguilar Schall, Robert P Myers, G Mani Subramanian, John G McHutchison, Zobair Younossi, Patrick Marcellin, Keyur Patel
BACKGROUND & AIM: Despite complete suppression of viral DNA with antiviral agents, in some patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) do not normalize. We investigated factors associated with persistent increases in level of ALT in patients with CHB given long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: We analyzed data from 471 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients with CHB participating in 2 phase 3 trials...
February 12, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215317/docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-as-phospholipids-did-not-improve-the-incorporation-of-this-fatty-acid-into-rat-fetal-brain-compared-with-the-triglyceride-form
#20
Antonio Gázquez, Inmaculada Hernández-Albaladejo, Elvira Larqué
Prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supply is important to ensure an adequate infant neurodevelopment. Several fat supplements with DHA under different chemical structures are available. There is an increased placental phospholipase activity at the end of pregnancy. The hypothesis of this study was to discern whether DHA consumption during pregnancy as phospholipids (PLs) could be more available for placental DHA uptake and fetal accretion than triglycerides (TGs) form. We aimed to evaluate maternofetal DHA status in pregnant rats fed with DHA as PL from egg yolk or TG from algae oil to determine which source might be most effective during pregnancy...
January 2017: Nutrition Research
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