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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335388/a-combination-of-flaxseed-oil-and-astaxanthin-improves-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#1
Jiqu Xu, Shuang Rong, Hui Gao, Chang Chen, Wei Yang, Qianchun Deng, Qingde Huang, Lingyun Xiao, Fenghong Huang
Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks...
March 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333540/current-state-of-the-art-mri-for-comprehensive-evaluation-of-potential-living-liver-donors
#3
Kartik S Jhaveri, Lijun Guo, Luís Guimarães
OBJECTIVE: This review focuses on the role of state-of-the-art MRI-based techniques for comprehensive evaluation of living donors providing single-visit assessment of the liver vasculature via MR angiography, of the biliary tract via conventional T2-weighted MR cholangiography and T1-weighted gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR cholangiography, and of hepatic steatosis via T2*-corrected multiecho chemical shift-based water-fat separation MRI and high-speed T2-corrected multiecho MR spectroscopy...
March 23, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333073/effects-of-melatonin-on-liver-injuries-and-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Jiao-Jiao Zhang, Xiao Meng, Ya Li, Yue Zhou, Dong-Ping Xu, Sha Li, Hua-Bin Li
Liver injuries and diseases are serious health problems worldwide. Various factors, such as chemical pollutants, drugs, and alcohol, could induce liver injuries. Liver diseases involve a wide range of liver pathologies, including hepatic steatosis, fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma. Despite all the studies performed up to now, therapy choices for liver injuries and diseases are very few. Therefore, the search for a new treatment that could safely and effectively block or reverse liver injuries and diseases remains a priority...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331449/cyclin-d1-in-the-liver-role-of-noncanonical-signaling-in-liver-steatosis-and-hormone-regulation
#5
Kelley G Núñez, Janet Gonzalez-Rosario, Paul T Thevenot, Ari J Cohen
BACKGROUND: Cyclin D1 is an important protein for cell cycle progression; however, functions independent of the cell cycle have been described in the liver. Cyclin D1 is also involved in DNA repair, is overexpressed in many cancers, and functions as a proto-oncogene. The lesser-known roles of Cyclin D1, specifically in hepatocytes, impact liver steatosis and hormone regulation in the liver. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted using the keywords Cyclin D1, steatosis, lipogenesis, and liver transplantation...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331445/negligible-oval-cell-proliferation-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-with-and-without-partial-hepatectomy
#6
Ek Khoon Tan, Maureen Shuh, Heather Francois-Vaughan, Jennifer A Sanders, Ari J Cohen
BACKGROUND: Hepatic oval cells proliferate to replace hepatocytes and restore liver function when hepatocyte proliferation is compromised or inadequate. Exposure to chemical carcinogens, severe liver steatosis, and partial hepatectomy has been used in animal models to demonstrate the role of oval cells in liver regeneration. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) causes hepatocellular damage and death in the absence of confounding chemical toxicity; however, oval cell induction by IRI has not been demonstrated in vivo...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330852/a-controlled-release-mitochondrial-protonophore-reverses-hypertriglyceridemia-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-diabetes-in-lipodystrophic-mice
#7
Abudukadier Abulizi, Rachel J Perry, João Paulo G Camporez, Michael J Jurczak, Kitt Falk Petersen, Patricia Aspichueta, Gerald I Shulman
Lipodystrophy is a rare disorder characterized by complete or partial loss of adipose tissue. Patients with lipodystrophy exhibit hypertriglyceridemia, severe insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Efforts to ameliorate NASH in lipodystrophies with pharmacologic agents have met with limited success. We examined whether a controlled-release mitochondrial protonophore (CRMP) that produces mild liver-targeted mitochondrial uncoupling could decrease hypertriglyceridemia and reverse NASH and diabetes in a mouse model (fatless AZIP/F-1 mice) of severe lipodystrophy and diabetes...
March 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328941/cynomolgus-monkeys-are-successfully-and-persistently-infected-with-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-hev-3-after-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy
#8
Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Juliana Rodrigues Guimarães, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Yohan Britto Kevorkian, Fernanda de Oliveira Bottino, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Aline Campos de Azevedo da Silva, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Laís Bastos da Fonseca, Leandro Schiavo Vilhena, Edilson Uiechi, Maria Cristina Carlan da Silva, Julio Moran, Renato Sérgio Marchevsky, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano Otonel, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Ana Maria Coimbra Gaspar, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327662/regulation-of-hepatic-lipogenesis-by-the-zinc-finger-protein-zbtb20
#9
Gan Liu, Luting Zhou, Hai Zhang, Rong Chen, Ye Zhang, Ling Li, Jun-Yu Lu, Hui Jiang, Dong Liu, Shasha Qi, Ying-Ming Jiang, Kai Yin, Zhifang Xie, Yuguang Shi, Yong Liu, Xuetao Cao, Yu-Xia Chen, Dajin Zou, Weiping J Zhang
Hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) converts carbohydrates into triglycerides and is known to influence systemic lipid homoeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that the zinc finger protein Zbtb20 is required for DNL. Mice lacking Zbtb20 in the liver exhibit hypolipidemia and reduced levels of liver triglycerides, along with impaired hepatic lipogenesis. The expression of genes involved in glycolysis and DNL, including that of two ChREBP isoforms, is decreased in livers of knockout mice. Zbtb20 binds to and enhances the activity of the ChREBP-α promoter, suggesting that altered metabolic gene expression is mainly driven by ChREBP...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326205/shigella-sonnei-bacteremia-presenting-with-profound-hepatic-dysfunction
#10
Oluwaseun Shogbesan, Andrew Rettew, Bilal Shaikh, Abdullateef Abdulkareem, Anthony Donato
Worldwide, Shigellosis is a significant public health issue, associated with nearly one million deaths annually. About half a million cases of Shigella infection are reported annually in the United States. Shigella bacteremia is uncommon and generally seen in children and immunocompromised adults. We present a case of a Shigella sonnei bacteremia with marked hepatic derangement in a 27-year-old previously healthy homosexual male with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who presented to the emergency room with a 4-day history of loose watery stool, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, and yellow skin of 2-day duration...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325853/deletion-of-macrophage-mineralocorticoid-receptor-protects-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-through-er%C3%AE-hgf-met-pathway
#11
Yu-Yao Zhang, Chao Li, Gao-Feng Yao, Lin-Juan Du, Yuan Liu, Xiao-Jun Zheng, Shuai Yan, Jian-Yong Sun, Yan Liu, Ming-Zhu Liu, Xiaoran Zhang, Gang Wei, Wenxin Tong, Xiaobei Chen, Yong Wu, Shuyang Sun, Suling Liu, Qiurong Ding, Ying Yu, Huiyong Yin, Sheng-Zhong Duan
Although the importance of macrophages in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized, it remains elusive how macrophages impact hepatocytes. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) has been implied to play important roles in NAFLD and T2DM. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we report that myeloid MR knockout (MRKO) improves glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obese mice. Estrogen signaling is sufficient and necessary for such improvements...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325574/decoy-receptor-3-analogous-supplement-protects-steatotic-rat-liver-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#12
Tzu-Hao Li, Chih-Wei Liu, Pei-Chang Lee, Chia-Chang Huang, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Han-Chieh Lin, Chang-Youh Tsai
BACKGROUND: For steatotic livers, pharmacological approaches to minimize the hepatic neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, and cytokine and chemokine release in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are still limited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α superfamily-stimulated pathogenic cascades and M1 macrophage/Kupffer cells (KC) polarization from Th1 cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of IR liver injury with hepatic steatosis (HS). Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages produce Th2 cytokine (interleukin-4), which reciprocally enhances M2 polarization...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325476/erectile-dysfunction-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Ahmad Farooq Alsayed Hasanain, Reem Ezzat Mahdy, Ali Mohamed Abdel-Rahman Mahran, Ahmed Serag Mahmoud Safwat, Asmaa Omar Mohamed, Sherif Mohamed Abdel-Aal
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: There is a lack of studies on erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ED in patients with NAFLD and to determine the independent predictors of ED in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, hospital-based study of 192 consecutive male patients with NAFLD. All patients underwent clinical evaluation; abdominal ultrasonography; test for viral hepatitis markers; and estimation of liver chemistry panel, complete blood count, prothrombin time, serum lipids panel, serum testosterone, and fasting serum levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide...
March 16, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324238/kinetics-of-expression-of-genes-involved-in-glucose-metabolism-after-the-last-meal-in-overfed-mule-ducks
#14
Tavernier Annabelle, Ricaud Karine, Bernadet Marie-Dominique, Davail Stéphane, Gontier Karine
In waterfowls, overfeeding leads to a hepatic steatosis, also called "foie gras." We decided to investigate the role of glucose metabolism in steatosis emergence. For this, we measured the expression of genes during the 12 h following the last meal of the overfeeding period. As expected, it showed that the expression of glucose transporter is more precocious in jejunal mucosa, especially for SGLT1, known to be the major transporter at the apical surface. In the liver, GLUT2 and HK1 are upregulated at the same time and seem to work together to import glucose...
March 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323124/cd44-is-a-key-player-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#15
Stéphanie Patouraux, Déborah Rousseau, Stéphanie Bonnafous, Cynthia Lebeaupin, Carmelo Luci, Clémence M Canivet, Anne-Sophie Schneck, Adeline Bertola, Marie-Christine Saint-Paul, Antonio Iannelli, Jean Gugenheim, Rodolphe Anty, Albert Tran, Béatrice Bailly-Maitre, Philippe Gual
BACKGROUND: CD44 is expressed on many immune cells that contribute to inflammation. It has been shown, mainly through animal data, that CD44 regulates adipose tissue inflammation in obesity and hepatic leukocyte recruitment in a lithogenic context. However, its role in hepatic inflammation in a mouse model of steatohepatitis and its relevance in humans have not yet been investigated. METHODS: The role of CD44 was evaluated in CD44-/- mice and after injections of an αCD44 antibody in Wild-type mice challenged with a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322946/characterizations-and-hepatoprotective-effect-of-polysaccharides-from-mori-fructus-in-rats-with-alcoholic-induced-liver-injury
#16
Xin Zhou, Qingfang Deng, Huaguo Chen, Enming Hu, Chao Zhao, Xiaojian Gong
Crude polysaccharides of Mori Fructus (MFPs) are found to have anti-inflammatory antioxidant, and immuno-enhancing activities. However, the structure of the polysaccharides was ambiguous and its holistic hepatic protection evaluation was defective. This study was conducted to illustrate the characterization of MFPs, and evaluate its hepatoprotective activities. The results found that MFPs contained 67.93±1.18% carbohydrates, 31.03±0.54% uronic acid, and little protein and sulfate. The average molecular weight was ranging from 112...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322544/graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-as-novel-nanozymes-for-alcohol-intoxication
#17
Anqi Sun, Li Mu, Xiangang Hu
Alcohol overconsumption as a worldwide issue results in alcoholic liver disease (ALD), such as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. The treatment of ALD has been widely investigated but remains challenging. In this work, the protective effects of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) as novel nanozymes against alcohol overconsumption are discovered, and the specific mechanisms underlying these effects are elucidated via omics analysis. GOQDs dramatically alleviate the reduction of cell viability induced by ethanol and can act as nanozymes to accelerate ethanol metabolism and avoid the accumulation of toxic intermediates in cells...
March 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319895/impact-of-high-cholesterol-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-metabolic-diseases-an-updated-mini-review
#18
REVIEW
Erdi Sozen, Nesrin Kartal Ozer
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site of protein folding and calcium storage. Beside the role of ER in protein homeostasis, it controls the cholesterol production and lipid-membrane biosynthesis as well as surviving and cell death signaling mechanisms in the cell. It is well-documented that elevated plasma cholesterol induces adverse effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis (NASH), and metabolic diseases which are associated with oxidative and ER stress...
March 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319602/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315617/dietary-fructose-augments-ethanol-induced-liver-pathology
#20
Paul G Thomes, Jennifer H Benbow, Elizabeth Brandon-Warner, Kyle J Thompson, Carl Jacobs, Terrence M Donohue, Laura W Schrum
Certain dietary components when combined with alcohol exacerbate alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI). Here, we tested whether fructose, a major ingredient of the western diet, enhances the severity of ALI. We fed mice ethanol for 8 weeks in the following Lieber-DeCarli diets: (a) Regular (contains olive oil); (b) corn oil (contains corn oil); (c) fructose (contains fructose and olive oil) and (d) corn+fructose (contains fructose and corn oil). We compared indices of metabolic function and liver pathology among the different groups...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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