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hepatic steatosis

Gordon P Watt, Miryoung Lee, Jen-Jung Pan, Michael B Fallon, Rohit Loomba, Laura Beretta, Joseph B McCormick, Susan P Fisher-Hoch
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic fibrosis is a primary risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which affect a disproportionate number of Hispanics in the United States. We aimed to determine the prevalence of significant fibrosis, measured by point shear-wave elastography (pSWE), and determine characteristics of hepatic fibrosis and simple steatosis in a population-based study of Mexican American Hispanics in south Texas. METHODS: Liver stiffness was measured by pSWE, performed by 2 separate operators, for 406 participants in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort from 2015 through 2017...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Banrida Wahlang, Craig McClain, Shirish Barve, Leila Gobejishvili
Liver disease is a significant health problem worldwide with mortality reaching around 2 million deaths a year. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are the major causes of chronic liver disease. Pathologically, NAFLD and ALD share similar patterns of hepatic disorders ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. It is becoming increasingly important to identify new pharmacological targets, given that there is no FDA-approved therapy yet for either NAFLD or ALD...
June 11, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Daniel Stocker, Mustafa R Bashir, Stephan A R Kannengiesser, Cäcilia S Reiner
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the performance of an automated workflow of volumetric liver proton density fat fraction (PDFFvol) and R2* quantification with automated inline liver volume (LV) segmentation. METHODS: Dual-echo and multiecho Dixon magnetic resonance images were evaluated in 74 consecutive patients (group A, PDFF < 10%; B, PDFF ≥ 10%; C, R2* ≥ 100 s; D, post-hemihepatectomy). The values of PDFFvol and R2*vol measurements across the LV were generated on multiecho images in an automated fashion based on inline liver segmentation on dual-echo images...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Moon Ho Do, Eunjung Lee, Mi-Jin Oh, Yoonsook Kim, Ho-Young Park
High fat diet-induced changes in gut microbiota have been linked to intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia, which is related to metabolic disorders. However, the influence of a high-glucose (HGD) or high-fructose (HFrD) diet on gut microbiota is largely unknown. We performed changes of gut microbiota in HGD- or HFrD-fed C57BL/6J mice by 16S rRNA analysis. Gut microbiota-derived endotoxin-induced metabolic disorders were evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance test, gut permeability, Western blot and histological analysis...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
Annalisa Deodati, Josepmaría Argemí, Daniela Germani, Antonella Puglianiello, Anna Alisi, Cristiano De Stefanis, Roberto Ferrero, Valerio Nobili, Tomás Aragón, Stefano Cianfarani
Early life events are associated with the susceptibility to chronic diseases in adult life. Perturbations of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), which contributes to the development of metabolic alterations. Our aim was to evaluate liver UPR in an animal model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A significantly increased expression of X-box binding protein-1 spliced (XBP1s) mRNA (p<0.01), Endoplasmic Reticulum-localized DnaJ homologue (Erdj4) mRNA (p<0...
2018: PloS One
Toshihiro Umehara
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported to have a negative effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in Asian populations. Whether such an association exists in Western populations is less clear. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis of data from NHANES III, a United States national health survey conducted from 1988 to 1994, included 6089 participants aged 40-75 years, selected after excluding people with hepatitis virus serology, elevated alcohol consumption, decreased renal function, or steroid use, and pregnant females...
2018: PloS One
Moumita Adak, Debajyoti Das, Sougata Niyogi, Challa Nagalakshmi, Dipika Ray, Partha Chakrabarti
Hepatocellular death or ballooning distinguishes the transition of simple steatosis to irreversible nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the molecular mechanism of hepatocellular apoptosis in NASH is largely unclear, and discovery of endogenous mediators that could prevent or inhibit cell death is thereby critical in intercepting NASH progression. Here, we identified pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a secreted, moonlighting hepatokine as 1 hepatoprotective agent in mice with diet-induced NASH...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yu Meng, Lizhuo Wang, Liefeng Ling
The SID1 transmembrane family member 2 (sidt2) deficient mouse model was used to investigate the function of sidt2 in lysosomal membrane permeabilization and lipid metabolism of liver tissue. The mouse model was established by Cre/LoxP technology. Enzymatic methods were used to analyze the sidt2-/- mouse serum lipids, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and serum bilirubin, compared with sidt2+/+ mice. Defective lipid metabolism and damaged liver functions were observed in the sidt2-/- mice. By using hematoxylin and eosin and Oil Red O staining, changes of morphology were observed in sidt2-/- mice with optical microscopy...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Matthew Jung, Arun Rai, Lily Wang, Kathleen Puttmann, Kamlesh Kukreja, Chester J Koh
We report the case of a 17 year old male with Seckel syndrome and horseshoe kidneys which had a 7 mm kidney stone in the lower pole calyx of the right moiety. The patient had a history of rotoscoliosis with 60° dextroconvex curvature and hepatic steatosis. Attempted ureteroscopy was unsuccessful due to stone location and anatomy. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy was ultimately required. This case highlights the difficulties of endoscopic treatments of renal calculi in patients with abnormal renal anatomy and dysmorphia...
June 9, 2018: Urology
Eva Juárez-Hernández, Norberto C Chávez-Tapia, Diana C Brizuela-Alcántara, Misael Uribe, Martha H Ramos-Ostos, Natalia Nuño-Lámbarri
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with overweight and obesity, becoming one of the most prevalent hepatic diseases nowadays. Circulating hemoglobin (Hb) concentration is significantly higher in people with NAFLD, compared to healthy patients. While liver biopsy remains the gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis, it is not the best technique due to adverse events that may occur. Therefore it is important to find less invasive and more sensitive markers...
July 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Amani A Harb, Yasser K Bustanji, Shtaywy S Abdalla
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the cholesterol-lowering potential of β-caryophyllene in a rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding male Wistar rats a high cholesterol and fat diet for 2 weeks. This was followed by oral administration of β-caryophyllene to hypercholesterolemic rats at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg b.w. for 4 weeks. A dose of 30 mg/kg of β-caryophyllene significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and the atherogenic index and significantly increased high density lipoprotein level...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Jianye Dai, Kai Liang, Shan Zhao, Wentong Jia, Yuan Liu, Hongkun Wu, Jia Lv, Chen Cao, Tao Chen, Shentian Zhuang, Xiaomeng Hou, Shijie Zhou, Xiannian Zhang, Xiao-Wei Chen, Yanyi Huang, Rui-Ping Xiao, Yan-Ling Wang, Tuoping Luo, Junyu Xiao, Chu Wang
Obesity and related metabolic diseases are becoming worldwide epidemics that lead to increased death rates and heavy health care costs. Effective treatment options have not been found yet. Here, based on the observation that baicalin, a flavonoid from the herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis , has unique antisteatosis activity, we performed quantitative chemoproteomic profiling and identified carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the controlling enzyme for fatty acid oxidation, as the key target of baicalin...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pratima Dibba, Andrew A Li, George Cholankeril, Umair Iqbal, Chiranjeevi Gadiparthi, Muhammad Ali Khan, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Although the mortality rates of cirrhosis are underestimated, its socioeconomic burden has demonstrated a significant global impact. Cirrhosis is defined by the disruption of normal liver architecture after years of chronic insult by different etiologies. Treatment modalities are recommended primarily in decompensated cirrhosis and specifically tailored to the different manifestations of hepatic decompensation. Antifibrogenic therapies are within an active area of investigation. The endocannabinoid system has been shown to play a role in liver disease, and cirrhosis specifically, with intriguing possible therapeutic benefits...
June 9, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Valentina Siino, Antonella Amato, Francesca Di Salvo, Gaetano Felice Caldara, Marcello Filogamo, Peter James, Sonya Vasto
Obesity is closely associated to several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hepatic steatosis, airway disease, neurodegeneration, biliary diseases and certain cancers. It is, therefore, of importance to assess the role of nutrition in disease prevention as well as its effect in the course of such pathologies. In the present study, we addressed the impact of the exposure to different obesogenic diets in the mice brains phosphoproteome. To analyze if the obesity could be able to modify the protein pattern expression of brain neurons, obesity was induced in two different groups of mice...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Thaís Gomes de Carvalho, Vinícius Barreto Garcia, Aurigena Antunes de Araújo, Luiz Henrique da Silva Gasparotto, Heloiza Silva, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo Guerra, Emilio de Castro Miguel, Renata Ferreira de Carvalho Leitão, Deiziane Viana da Silva Costa, Luis J Cruz, Alan B Chan, Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo Júnior
This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antifibrotic effects of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in rats subjected to liver injury with ethanol and Methamphetamine (METH).The liver injury was induced by gavage administrations of 30% alcoholic solution (7 g/kg) once a day during 28 days, followed by METH (10 mg/kg) on the 20th and 28th days of treatment. GNPs treatment (724.96 µg/kg) during the ethanol and METH exposure was associated with reduced steatosis, hepatic cord degeneration, fibrosis and necrosis...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Jun Namkung, Ko Eun Shong, Hyeongseok Kim, Chang Myung Oh, Sangkyu Park, Hail Kim
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is caused by metabolic stress associated with a positive lipid balance, such as insulin resistance and obesity. Previously we have shown the anti-obesity effects of inhibiting serotonin synthesis, which eventually improved insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis. However, it is not clear whether serotonin has direct effect on hepatic lipid accumulation. Here, we showed the possibility of direct action of serotonin on hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Mice were treated with para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) or LP-533401 to inhibit serotonin synthesis and fed with high fat diet (HFD) or high carbohydrate diet (HCD) to induce hepatic steatosis...
April 25, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Verónica Botero, Victor H Garcia, Catalina Gomez-Duarte, Ana M Aristizabal, Ana M Arrunategui, Gabriel J Echeverri, Harry Pachajoa
BACKGROUND Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is a rare genetic metabolic lipid storage disease, with a high morbidity, and mortality, in children and adults. It is characterized by a mutation in the LIPA gene that causes an alteration of lipid metabolism, resulting in deposits of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in organs such as the liver, blood vessels, and gastrointestinal tract. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is predominantly caused by the mutation c.894G>A, seen in approximately 50-70% of patients...
June 9, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Annette Bernhard, Josef D Rasinger, Helene Wisløff, Øyvor Kolbjørnsen, Lene Secher Myrmel, Marc H G Berntssen, Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Robin Ørnsrud, Lise Madsen
The use of the synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin (6-Ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline; EQ) in animal feed results in the presence of EQ residues and metabolites, including the EQ dimer (1,8'-Bi(6-ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline); EQDM) in animal food products. To investigate the toxicity and dose-response of dietary exposure to EQDM, male BALB/c mice were exposed to one of six dietary doses of EQDM, ranging from 0.015 to 518 mg/kg body weight/day for 90 days. Doses above 10 mg/kg body weight/day affected whole body lipid metabolism resulting in increased liver weights and decreased adipose tissue mass...
June 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Guenter Haemmerle, Achim Lass
Excessive accumulation of triacylglycerol is the common denominator of a wide range of clinical pathologies of liver diseases, termed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Such excessive triacylglycerol deposition in the liver is also referred to as hepatic steatosis. Although liver steatosis often resolves over time, it eventually progresses to steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, with associated complications, including liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and ultimately death of affected individuals...
June 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Carmen Vinaixa, Nazia Selzner, Marina Berenguer
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a growing indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide, particularly in the western world. Patients with NASH typically combine features of metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular comorbidities, which challenge pre-LT evaluation, surgical approaches, post-LT management and outcomes. Post-LT survival in NASH patients is excellent, similar to that achieved with other indications, particularly in the absence of cardiovascular comorbidities...
June 8, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
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