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h2ax and irradiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746214/a-two-component-assay-for-hypoxia-incorporating-long-term-nitroreduction-and-short-term-dna-damage-allows-differentiation-of-the-three-hypoxia-sub-types
#1
Cameron J Koch
Hypoxia in tumors has many well-characterized effects that are known to prevent optimal cancer treatment. Despite the existence of a large number of assays that have supported hypoxia as an important diagnostic, there is no routine clinical assay in use, and anti-hypoxia therapies have often not included parallel hypoxia measurements. Even with a functioning hypoxia assay, it is difficult to match the oxygen dependence of treatment resistance to that of the assay, and this mismatch can vary substantially from assay to assay and even from tumor to tumor [e...
May 10, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714683/abdominopelvic-1-5-t-and-3-0-t-mr-imaging-in-healthy-volunteers-relationship-to-formation-of-dna-double-strand-breaks
#2
Saravanabavaan Suntharalingam, Emil Mladenov, Theresia Sarabhai, Axel Wetter, Oliver Kraff, Harald H Quick, Michael Forsting, Georg Iliakis, Kai Nassenstein
Purpose To investigate the relationship between abdominopelvic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes among a cohort of healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods Blood samples were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers (23 women and 17 men; mean age, 27.2 years [range, 21-37 years]) directly before and 5 and 30 minutes after abdominopelvic MR imaging performed at 1.5 T (n = 20) or 3.0 T (n = 20). The number of DNA DSBs in isolated blood lymphocytes was quantified after indirect immunofluorescent staining of a generally accepted DSB marker, γ-H2AX, by means of high-throughput automated microscopy...
May 1, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685705/genistein-sensitizes-glioblastoma-cells-to-carbon-ions-via-inhibiting-dna-pkcs-phosphorylation-and-subsequently-repressing-nhej-and-delaying-hr-repair-pathways
#3
Xiongxiong Liu, Ping Li, Ryoichi Hirayama, Yuzhen Niu, Xinguo Liu, Weiqiang Chen, Xiaodong Jin, Pengcheng Zhang, Fei Ye, Ting Zhao, Bingtao Liu, Qiang Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previously, we found genistein could sensitize cancer cells to low linear energy transfer (LET) X-rays via inhibiting DNA-PKcs activities. Especially, high-LET heavy ion produces more DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) than low-LET radiation. Thus, the study was designed to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms of genistein on sensitizing cancer cells to heavy ions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines with or without genistein pre-treatment were irradiated with high-LET carbon ions...
April 20, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685191/flow-cytometric-detection-of-gamma-h2ax-to-evaluate-dna-damage-by-low-dose-diagnostic-irradiation
#4
Kainat Khan, Shikha Tewari, Namrata Punit Awasthi, Surendra Prasad Mishra, Gaurav Raj Agarwal, Madhup Rastogi, Nuzhat Husain
INTRODUCTION: γH2AX assay has been used for DNA damage assessment at higher doses of radiation exposure. Its expression has not been studied in cases with diagnostic low dose radiation exposure. Concerns have been raised about the after-effects of radiation in diagnostic procedures like Computed Tomography (CT) scan, Angiography etc especially when such scans are repeated within short span of time. The purpose of the present study was to assess immediate DNA damage after exposure to low level of ionizing radiation by the flow cytometric method of gamma-H2AX...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667481/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-telomere-length-and-telomerase-activity-in-cultured-human-lens-epithelium-cells
#5
Savneet Kaur Bains, Kim Chapman, Scott Bright, Anish Senan, Munira Kadhim, Predrag Slijepcevic
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on telomere length and telomerase activity in human lens epithelial cells. There are studies suggesting evidence of telomere length in association with opacity of the lens; however, these studies have been conducted on Canine Lens cells. Our study was designed to understand further the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation on telomere length and telomerase activity in cultured human lens epithelium cells from three Donors...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602275/study-of-the-effects-of-0-15-terahertz-radiation-on-genome-integrity-of-adult-fibroblasts
#6
Valeria Franchini, Stefania De Sanctis, Jessica Marinaccio, Andrea De Amicis, Elisa Coluzzi, Sara Di Cristofaro, Florigio Lista, Elisa Regalbuto, Andrea Doria, Emilio Giovenale, Gian Piero Gallerano, Roberto Bei, Monica Benvenuto, Laura Masuelli, Ion Udroiu, Antonella Sgura
The applications of Terahertz (THz) technologies have significantly developed in recent years, and the complete understanding of the biological effects of exposure to THz radiation is becoming increasingly important. In a previous study, we found that THz radiation induced genomic damage in fetal fibroblasts. Although these cells demonstrated to be a useful model, exposure of human foetuses to THz radiation is highly improbable. Conversely, THz irradiation of adult dermal tissues is cause of possible concern for some professional and nonprofessional categories...
March 30, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594222/the-impact-of-the-igf-1-system-of-cancer-cells-on-radiation-response-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Senthiladipan Venkatachalam, Esther Mettler, Christian Fottner, Matthias Miederer, Bernd Kaina, Matthias M Weber
Background: Overexpression of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is associated with increased cell proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and tumorigenicity. Additionally, signaling involved in the resistance of cancer cells to radiotherapy originates from IGF-1R. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the IGF-1 system in the radiation response and further evaluate its effect on the expression of DNA repair pathway genes. Methods: To inhibit the IGF-1 system, we stably transfected the Caco-2 cell line to express a kinase-deficient IGF-1R mutant...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556331/niclosamide-sensitizes-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-to-radiation-by-downregulating-ku70-80-expression
#8
Jingjing Li, Haiwen Li, Dechao Zhan, Mei Xiang, Jun Yang, Yufang Zuo, Yin Yu, Hechao Zhou, Danxian Jiang, Haiqing Luo, Zihong Chen, Zhonghua Yu, Zumin Xu
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niclosamide could sensitize the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells to radiation and further explore the underlying mechanisms. CCK-8 assay was used to determine the effect of niclosamide on the proliferation of NPC cells. Colony formation assay was used to evaluate the radiosensitizing effect of niclosamide on NPC cells. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the apoptosis of NPC cells induced by niclosamide. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the formation of γ-H2AX foci and the localization of Ku70/80 proteins in NPC cells...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545967/egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-hs-10182-increases-radiation-sensitivity-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-with-egfr-t790m-mutation
#9
Yang Chen, Youyou Wang, Lujun Zhao, Ping Wang, Jifeng Sun, Rudi Bao, Chenghai Li, Ningbo Liu
Objective: To investigate the potential of HS-10182, a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), as a radiosensitizer in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Two cell lines of NSCLCs, A549 that possesses wild-type (WT) EGFRs and H1975 that possesses EGFR L858R/T790M double mutations, were treated with HS-10182 at various concentrations, and cell viabilities were determined using the MTS assay. The cells were tested by clonogenic survival assays to identify the radiosensitivity of both groups...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522917/dna-damage-response-following-x-irradiation-in-oral-cancer-cell-lines-hsc3-and-hsc4
#10
Sirimanas Jiaranuchart, Atsushi Kaida, Yusuke Onozato, Hiroyuki Harada, Masahiko Miura
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the DNA damage response in two human oral cancer cell lines following X-irradiation. DESIGN: To visualize radiation-induced cell cycle alterations, two human oral cancer cell lines, HSC3 and HSC4, expressing fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) were established in this study. G2 arrest kinetics following irradiation were obtained from two-color flow cytometric analysis and pedigrees of Fucci fluorescence...
June 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484821/the-g-quadruplex-stabilizing-ligand-rhps4-enhances-sensitivity-of-u251mg-glioblastoma-cells-to-clinical-carbon-ion-beams
#11
EDITORIAL
Francesco Berardinelli, Antonella Sgura, Angelica Facoetti, Stefano Leone, Barbara Vischioni, Mario Ciocca, Antonio Antoccia
The pentacyclic acridine RHPS4 is a highly potent and specific G-quadruplex (G4) ligand, which binds and stabilizes telomeric G4 leading to the block of the replication forks at telomeres and consequently to telomere dysfunctionalization. In turn, the cell recognizes unprotected telomeres as DNA double-strand breaks with consequent activation of DNA repair response at telomeres, cellular growth impairment, and death. Data from the literature showed the capability of this compound to sensitize U251MG glioblastoma radioresistant cell line to X-rays sparsely ionizing radiations...
April 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466367/differentiated-embryo-chondrocyte-plays-a-crucial-role-in-dna-damage-response-via-transcriptional-regulation-under-hypoxic-conditions
#12
Hideaki Nakamura, Hidemasa Bono, Keiko Hiyama, Takeshi Kawamoto, Yukio Kato, Takeshi Nakanishi, Masahiko Nishiyama, Eiso Hiyama, Nobuyuki Hirohashi, Eisaburo Sueoka, Lorenz Poellinger, Keiji Tanimoto
Tumor hypoxia contributes to a biologically aggressive phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Recent studies have revealed that hypoxia reduces expression of several DNA damage recognition and repair (DRR) genes via both hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-independent and -dependent pathways, and this induced genomic instability in cancer cells. We show here that one of the HIF-target genes-differentiated embryo chondrocyte (DEC)-plays a role in DNA damage response via transcriptional repression. Comprehensive gene expression and database analyses have revealed systemic repression of DNA-DRR genes in cancer and non-cancer cells under hypoxic conditions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447119/pharmacological-approach-to-increasing-the-retention-of-radiation-induced-%C3%AE-h2ax-foci-using-phosphatase-inhibitors-significance-in-radiation-biodosimetry
#13
Akshaykumar A Nayak, Kamalesh Dattaram Mumbrekar, B S Satish Rao
In a scenario of accidental mass radiation exposure transportation and analysis of samples may take some time, resulting in loss of biomarker information over this period. The present study aims to use phosphatase inhibitors for longer retention of focal signals to adopt γ-H2AX as a biodosimetric biomarker for the management of early triage. Peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from healthy individuals were irradiated in vitro with x-rays and γ-H2AX foci were analysed using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometric methods...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443341/super-resolution-localization-microscopy-of-radiation-induced-histone-h2ax-phosphorylation-in-relation-to-h3k9-trimethylation-in-hela-cells
#14
Michael Hausmann, Emma Wagner, Jin-Ho Lee, Gerrit Schrock, Wladimir Schaufler, Matthias Krufczik, Franziska Papenfuß, Matthias Port, Felix Bestvater, Harry Scherthan
Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced damage confers functional and conformational changes to nuclear chromatin associated with DNA single and double strand breaks. This leads to the activation of complex DNA repair machineries that aim to preserve the integrity of the DNA molecule. Since hetero- and euchromatin are differentially accessible to DNA repair pathways, local chromatin re-arrangements and structural changes are among the consequences of an activated DNA damage response. Using super-resolution localization microscopy (SRLM), we investigated the X-ray-induced repositioning of γ-H2AX and histone H3K9me3 heterochromatin marks in the nuclei of HeLa cells...
March 1, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414878/histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-induced-radiation-sensitization-effects-on-human-cancer-cells-after-photon-and-hadron-radiation-exposure
#15
Ariungerel Gerelchuluun, Junko Maeda, Eri Manabe, Colleen A Brents, Takeji Sakae, Akira Fujimori, David J Chen, Koji Tsuboi, Takamitsu A Kato
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, which has been widely utilized throughout the cancer research field. SAHA-induced radiosensitization in normal human fibroblasts AG1522 and lung carcinoma cells A549 were evaluated with a combination of γ-rays, proton, and carbon ion exposure. Growth delay was observed in both cell lines during SAHA treatment; 2 μM SAHA treatment decreased clonogenicity and induced cell cycle block in G1 phase but 0.2 μM SAHA treatment did not show either of them...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397781/ionizing-radiation-deregulates-the-microrna-expression-profile-in-differentiated-thyroid-cells
#16
Ricardo Cortez Cardoso Penha, Simona Pellecchia, Roberto Pacelli, Luis Felipe Ribeiro Pinto, Alfredo Fusco
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known risk factor for papillary thyroid cancer, and it has been reported to deregulate microRNA expression, which is important to thyroid carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of IR on microRNA expression profile of the normal thyroid cell line (FRTL-5 CL2), as well as its effect on radiosensitivity of thyroid cancer cell lines, especially the human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line (8505c). METHODS: The global microRNA expression profile of irradiated FRTL-5 CL2 cells (5 Gy X-ray) was characterized, and data were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluating the expression of rno-miR-10b-5p, rno-miR-33-5p, rno-miR-128-1-5p, rno-miR-199a-3p, rno-miR-296-5p, rno-miR-328a-3p, and rno-miR-541-5p in irradiated cells...
March 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396412/dna-damage-in-leukocytes-after-internal-ex-vivo-irradiation-of-blood-with-the-%C3%AE-emitter-ra-223
#17
Sarah Schumann, Uta Eberlein, Razan Muhtadi, Michael Lassmann, Harry Scherthan
Irradiation with high linear energy transfer α-emitters, like the clinically used Ra-223 dichloride, severely damages cells and induces complex DNA damage including closely spaced double-strand breaks (DSBs). As the hematopoietic system is an organ-at-risk for the treatment, knowledge about Ra-223-induced DNA damage in blood leukocytes is highly desirable. Therefore, 36 blood samples from six healthy volunteers were exposed ex-vivo (in solution) to different concentrations of Ra-223. Absorbed doses to the blood were calculated assuming local energy deposition of all α- and β-particles of the decay, ranging from 0 to 142 mGy...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361783/localization-microscopy-analyses-of-mre11-clusters-in-3d-conserved-cell-nuclei-of-different-cell-lines
#18
Marion Eryilmaz, Eberhard Schmitt, Matthias Krufczik, Franziska Theda, Jin-Ho Lee, Christoph Cremer, Felix Bestvater, Wladimir Schaufler, Michael Hausmann, Georg Hildenbrand
In radiation biophysics, it is a subject of nowadays research to investigate DNA strand break repair in detail after damage induction by ionizing radiation. It is a subject of debate as to what makes up the cell's decision to use a certain repair pathway and how the repair machinery recruited in repair foci is spatially and temporarily organized. Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) allows super-resolution analysis by precise localization of single fluorescent molecule tags, resulting in nuclear structure analysis with a spatial resolution in the 10 nm regime...
January 22, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357787/knockdown-of-annexin-a1-enhances-radioresistance-and-inhibits-apoptosis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#19
Li Liao, Wen-Jing Yan, Chun-Mei Tian, Mao-Yu Li, Yong-Quan Tian, Gu-Qing Zeng
Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma while radioresistance can hinder efficient treatment. To explore the role of annexin A1 and its potential mechanisms in radioresistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2-sh annexin A1 (knockdown of annexin A1) and the control cell line CNE2-pLKO.1 were constituted and CNE2-sh annexin A1 xenograft mouse model was generated. The effect of annexin A1 knockdown on the growth of xenograft tumor after irradiation and radiation-induced DNA damage and repair was analyzed...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353813/pharmacological-approach-to-increase-the-retention-of-radiation-induced-gamma-h2ax-foci-using-phosphatase-inhibitors-significance-in-radiation-biodosimetry
#20
Akshaykumar A Nayak, Kamalesh Dattaram Mumbrekar, Satish Rao
In a scenario of accidental mass radiation exposure, transportation and analyzing samples may take its time resulting in loss of biomarker information over this period. The present study aims to use phosphatases inhibitors for longer retention of foci signals to adopt γ-H2AX as a biodosimetric biomarker for the management of early triage. Peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from healthy individuals irradiated in vitro with X-rays, and γ-H2AX analysed using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometric methods...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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