keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

opiomelanocortin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751050/effects-of-hypergravity-on-the-gene-expression-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-related-neuropeptides-in-mice-via-vestibular-inputs
#1
Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yoichi Ueta
The effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in sham-operated (Sham) and vestibular-lesioned (VL) mice were examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus was increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice after 3 days of exposure to a 2 g environment compared with a 1 g environment. Significant decreases in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and significant increases in neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein in the arcuate nucleus and orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area were observed in both Sham and VL mice...
May 8, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742429/diet-induced-growth-is-regulated-via-acquired-leptin-resistance-and-engages-a-pomc-somatostatin-growth-hormone-circuit
#2
Heiko Löhr, Simon Hess, Mafalda M A Pereira, Philip Reinoß, Sandra Leibold, Christel Schenkel, Claudia M Wunderlich, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens C Brüning, Matthias Hammerschmidt
Anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)/alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) neurons of the hypothalamic melanocortin system function as key regulators of energy homeostasis, also controlling somatic growth across different species. However, the mechanisms of melanocortin-dependent growth control still remain ill-defined. Here, we reveal a thus-far-unrecognized structural and functional connection between Pomc neurons and the somatotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Excessive feeding of larval zebrafish causes leptin resistance and reduced levels of the hypothalamic satiety mediator pomca...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734335/pomc-neurons-in-heat-a-link-between-warm-temperatures-and-appetite-suppression
#3
Maria A Vicent, Conor L Mook, Matthew E Carter
When core body temperature increases, appetite and food consumption decline. A higher core body temperature can occur during exercise, during exposure to warm environmental temperatures, or during a fever, yet the mechanisms that link relatively warm temperatures to appetite suppression are unknown. A recent study in PLOS Biology demonstrates that neurons in the mouse hypothalamus that express pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), a neural population well known to suppress food intake, also express a temperature-sensitive ion channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729230/role-of-hypothalamus-in-aging-and-its-underlying-cellular-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Keetae Kim, Han Kyoung Choe
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of several physiological functions that can cause various age-related disorders. Several factors have been identified as causes of aging to elucidate the decline in functions. Various aspects of physiological deterioration are controlled by the hypothalamus, a critical brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to physiological functions. In addition, functional alterations in a set of agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, a set of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SST) neurons, a set of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons, and a set of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons contribute to age-related physiological decline in energy metabolism, hormone regulation, circadian rhythm, and reproduction, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670283/genetic-identification-of-leptin-neural-circuits-in-energy-and-glucose-homeostases
#5
Jie Xu, Christopher L Bartolome, Cho Shing Low, Xinchi Yi, Cheng-Hao Chien, Peng Wang, Dong Kong
Leptin, a hormone produced in white adipose tissue, acts in the brain to communicate fuel status, suppress appetite following a meal, promote energy expenditure and maintain blood glucose stability1,2 . Dysregulation of leptin or its receptors (LEPR) results in severe obesity and diabetes3-5 . Although intensive studies on leptin have transformed obesity and diabetes research2,6 , clinical applications of the molecule are still limited 7 , at least in part owing to the complexity and our incomplete understanding of the underlying neural circuits...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670083/tap63-contributes-to-sexual-dimorphism-in-pomc-neuron-functions-and-energy-homeostasis
#6
Chunmei Wang, Yanlin He, Pingwen Xu, Yongjie Yang, Kenji Saito, Yan Xia, Xiaofeng Yan, Antentor Hinton, Chunling Yan, Hongfang Ding, Likai Yu, Gang Shu, Rajat Gupta, Qi Wu, Qingchun Tong, William R Lagor, Elsa R Flores, Yong Xu
Sexual dimorphism exists in energy balance, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the female mice have more pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus than males, and female POMC neurons display higher neural activities, compared to male counterparts. Strikingly, deletion of the transcription factor, TAp63, in POMC neurons confers "male-like" diet-induced obesity (DIO) in female mice associated with decreased POMC neural activities; but the same deletion does not affect male mice...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669731/involvement-of-activated-brain-stress-responsive-systems-in-excessive-and-relapse-alcohol-drinking-in-rodent-models-implications-for-therapeutics
#7
Yan Zhou, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Addictive diseases, including addiction to alcohol pose massive public health costs. Addiction is a chronic relapsing disease, caused by both the direct effects induced by drugs and persistent neuroadaptations at several (molecular, cellular and behavioral) levels. These drug-type specific neuro-adaptations are brought on largely by the reinforcing effects of drugs on the central nervous system and environment, including stress. Results from animal experiments have demonstrated important interactions between alcohol and the stress responsive systems...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658387/identification-of-avian-vasotocin-receptor-subtype-specific-antagonists-involved-in-the-stress-response-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus
#8
Seong W Kang, Srinivas Jayanthi, Gurueswar Nagarajan, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh Kumar, Wayne J Kuenzel
Vasotocin 1a and 1b receptors (V1aR and V1bR) have been shown to play important roles in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress responses via the anterior pituitary (AP) of birds. To identify effective subtype-specific antagonists for the chicken V1aR (cV1aR) and cV1bR, potential antagonists to the mammalian V1R were screened against the cV1aR and cV1bR 3D structural models by molecular docking analysis with determination of binding pocket / amino acid residues involved in the interaction. The antagonistic effects of the selected ligands were examined by measuring pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) heteronuclear RNA (hnPOMC) levels following the in vitro stress administration to primary chicken AP cells...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562733/astragaloside-iv-prevents-obesity-associated-hypertension-by-improving-pro-inflammatory-reaction-and-leptin-resistance
#9
Ping Jiang, Dufang Ma, Xue Wang, Yongcheng Wang, Yuxin Bi, Jinlong Yang, Xuebing Wang, Xiao Li
Low-grade pro-inflammatory state and leptin resistance are important underlying mechanisms that contribute to obesityassociated hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that Astragaloside IV (As IV), known to counteract obesity and hypertension, could prevent obesity-associated hypertension by inhibiting pro-inflammatory reaction and leptin resistance. High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the HFD control group (HF con group), As IV group, and the As IV + α-bungaratoxin (α-BGT) group (As IV+α-BGT group)...
March 20, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534973/lateral-but-not-medial-hypothalamic-ampk-activation-occurs-at-the-hypoglycemic-nadir-in-insulin-injected-male-rats-impact-of-caudal-dorsomedial-hindbrain-catecholamine-signaling
#10
Hussain N Alhamami, Md Main Uddin, A S M Hasan Mahmood, Karen P Briski
The hypothalamic energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, responds to pharmacological manipulation of hindbrain AMPK activity. Dorsomedial hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons express hypoglycemia-sensitive metabolo-sensory biomarkers, including AMPK. Here, adult male rats were pretreated by intra-caudal fourth ventricular administration of the selective neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to determine if catecholamine signaling from the aforesaid site governs hypothalamic AMPK activation during insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH)...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528284/pomc-neurons-expressing-leptin-receptors-coordinate-metabolic-responses-to-fasting-via-suppression-of-leptin-levels
#11
Alexandre Caron, Heather M Dungan Lemko, Carlos M Castorena, Teppei Fujikawa, Syann Lee, Caleb C Lord, Newaz Ahmed, Charlotte E Lee, William L Holland, Chen Liu, Joel K Elmquist
Leptin is critical for energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and for metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to starvation. A prevalent model predicts that leptin's actions are mediated through pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons that express leptin receptors (LEPRs). However, previous studies have used prenatal genetic manipulations, which may be subject to developmental compensation. Here, we tested the direct contribution of POMC neurons expressing LEPRs in regulating energy balance, glucose homeostasis and leptin secretion during fasting using a spatiotemporally controlled Lepr expression mouse model...
March 12, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526104/valine-supplementation-in-a-reduced-protein-diet-regulates-growth-performance-partially-through-modulation-of-plasma-amino-acids-profile-metabolic-responses-endocrine-and-neural-factors-in-piglets
#12
Xiaoya Zhang, Xutong Liu, Hongmin Jia, Pingli He, Xiangbing Mao, Shiyan Qiao, Xiangfang Zeng
The objective of this study was to investigate whether valine (Val) supplementation in a reduced protein (RP) diet regulates growth performance associated with the changes in plasma amino acids (AAs) profile, metabolism, endocrine, and neural system in piglets. Piglets or piglets with a catheter in the precaval vein were randomly assigned to two treatments, including two RP diets with standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val:Lysine (Lys) ratio of 0.45 and 0.65, respectively. The results indicated that piglets in the higher Val:Lys ratio treatment had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) ( P < 0...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525935/selective-vagotomy-worsens-glucose-control-after-ileal-transposition
#13
Weijie Chen, Zenan Xia, Wei Liu, Xiaodong He, Weimin Zhang
PURPOSES: Our aim was to investigate the effects of selective celiac branch vagotomy on food intake and glycemic control after ileal transposition (IT) and the possible roles of the vagus on the improvement of diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty non-obese rats with diabetes underwent either IT, IT + celiac branch vagotomy (ITV), sham IT (SI), or sham IT + celiac branch vagotomy (SIV). They were pair fed, and the food intake, body weight, fasting plasma glucose, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) level were monitored...
March 10, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525472/weaning-stage-hyperglycemia-induces-glucose-insensitivity-in-arcuate-pomc-neurons-and-hyperphagia-in-type-2-diabetic-gk-rats
#14
A Ando, D Gantulga, M Nakata, F Maekawa, K Dezaki, S Ishibashi, T Yada
Hyperphagia triggers and accelerates diabetes, and prevents proper dietary control of glycemia. Inversely, the impact of hyperglycemia on hyperphagia and possible mechanistic cause common for these two metabolic disorders in type 2 diabetes are less defined. The present study examined the precise developmental process of hyperglycemia and hyperphagia and explored the alterations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), the primary feeding and metabolic center, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes and nearly normal body weight...
April 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510398/epigenetic-effects-of-intravenous-diacetylmorphine-on-the-methylation-of-pomc-and-nr3c1
#15
Adrian Groh, Mathias Rhein, Vanessa Buchholz, Alexandra Burkert, Christian G Huber, Undine E Lang, Stefan J Borgwardt, Annemarie Heberlein, Marc A N Muschler, Thomas Hillemacher, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Marc Walter
The administration of diacetylmorphine (DAM) reduces the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in opioid-maintained patients. However, the epigenetic effects of DAM on addiction-related genes have not been investigated yet. In a randomized controlled study, we examined the immediate effects of intravenous DAM versus placebo on the promoter methylation of the POMC (pro- opiomelanocortin) and NR3C1 (glucocorticoid receptor 1) genes. Twenty-eight heroin-dependent patients on DAM-assisted treatment received either DAM or saline in a randomized crossover design and 17 healthy participants received saline only...
2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483626/vasopressin-secreting-neurons-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-through-specific-induction-of-dorsal-hypothalamic-progenitors
#16
Koichiro Ogawa, Hidetaka Suga, Chikafumi Ozone, Mayu Sakakibara, Tomiko Yamada, Mayuko Kano, Kazuki Mitsumoto, Takatoshi Kasai, Yu Kodani, Hiroshi Nagasaki, Naoki Yamamoto, Daisuke Hagiwara, Motomitsu Goto, Ryoichi Banno, Yoshihisa Sugimura, Hiroshi Arima
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) neurons exist in the hypothalamus, a major region of the diencephalon, and play an essential role in water balance. Here, we established the differentiation method for AVP-secreting neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) by recapitulating in vitro the in vivo embryonic developmental processes of AVP neurons. At first, the differentiation efficiency was improved. That was achieved through the optimization of the culture condition for obtaining dorsal hypothalamic progenitors...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457782/hypothalamic-er-associated-degradation-regulates-pomc-maturation-feeding-and-age-associated-obesity
#17
Geun Hyang Kim, Guojun Shi, Diane Rm Somlo, Leena Haataja, Soobin Song, Qiaoming Long, Eduardo A Nillni, Malcolm J Low, Peter Arvan, Martin G Myers, Ling Qi
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons function as key regulators of metabolism and physiology by releasing prohormone-derived neuropeptides with distinct biological activities. However, our understanding of early events in prohormone maturation in the ER remains incomplete. Highlighting the significance of this gap in knowledge, a single POMC cysteine-to-phenylalanine mutation at position 28 (POMC-C28F) is defective for ER processing and causes early onset obesity in a dominant-negative manner in humans through an unclear mechanism...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454967/sarm1-deletion-restrains-nafld-induced-by-high-fat-diet-hfd-through-reducing-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-lipid-accumulation
#18
Zhen-Guo Pan, Xu-Sheng An
SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice...
April 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434769/protective-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-activated-carbon-release-microcapsule-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#19
Zhaobin Cai, Tingting Shi, Rangxiao Zhuang, Hongying Fang, Xiaojie Jiang, Yidan Shao, Hongping Zhou
With the development of science and technology, and development of artery bypass, methods such as cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation have been practiced in recent years. Despite this, some methods fail to promote or recover the function of tissues and organs, and in some cases, may aggravate dysfunction and structural damage to tissues. The latter is typical of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is an important process of myocardial IR injury. Myocardial IR has been demonstrated to induce the formation of large numbers of free radicals in rats, which promotes the peroxidation of lipids within unsaturated fatty acids in the myocardial cell membrane...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412826/integrated-insights-into-the-role-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulatory-hormone-in-the-control-of-food-intake-and-glycaemia
#20
Werd Al-Najim, Carel W le Roux, Neil G Docherty
Identifying peptide hormones with multipotent actions on both weight and glycaemia can have a significant impact on therapeutic options in the treatment of obesity and diabetes. This has been exemplified by recent advances involving pharmacological exploitation of glucagon-like peptide 1 biology. Herein, we summarise evidence supporting the potential candidacy in this light of alpha-melanocyte stimulatory hormone, an endogenous peptide hormone and a breakdown product of the neuropeptide pro-opiomelanocortin...
February 2018: Peptides
keyword
keyword
56069
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"