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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155136/adipose-tissue-and-reproductive-health
#1
REVIEW
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) NPY neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142191/immune-neuroendocrine-interactions-evolution-ecology-and-susceptibility-to-illness
#2
Johanna M C Blom, Enzo Ottaviani
The integration between immune and neuroendocrine systems is crucial for maintaining homeostasis from invertebrates to humans. In the first, the phagocytic cell, i.e., the immunocyte, is the main actor, while in the latter, the principle player is the lymphocyte. Immunocytes are characterized by the presence of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides, CRH, and other molecules that display a significant similarity to their mammalian counterparts regarding their functions, as both are mainly involved in fundamental functions such as immune (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, etc...
November 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123503/hyperleptinemia-in-neonatally-overfed-female-rats-does-not-dysregulate-feeding-circuitry
#3
Ilvana Ziko, Luba Sominsky, Thai-Xinh Nguyen, Kit-Yi Yam, Simone De Luca, Aniko Korosi, Sarah J Spencer
Neonatal overfeeding during the first weeks of life in male rats is associated with a disruption in the peripheral and central leptin systems. Neonatally overfed male rats have increased circulating leptin in the first 2 weeks of life, which corresponds to an increase in body weight compared to normally fed counterparts. These effects are associated with a short-term disruption in the connectivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the regions of the hypothalamus responsible for control of energy balance and food intake...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069975/the-combination-of-escitalopram-and-aripiprazole-investigation-of-psychomotor-effects-in-rats
#4
Roger Hudson, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggests that the antidepressant efficacy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram can be enhanced by the dopamine and serotonin partial agonist aripiprazole. Given the range of possible neurochemical interactions between these drugs, the current study investigated whether aripiprazole alters the hedonic and psychomotor effects of escitalopram. Male Sprague Dawley rats ( n=116) received 10 mg/kg/day escitalopram (subcutaneous), 2 mg/kg/day aripiprazole (subcutaneous), or combined aripiprazole + escitalopram, and were tested for consumption of incentive nutritional stimuli (high-fructose corn syrup and chow), stereotypy and locomotor activity...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059347/sim1-neurons-are-sufficient-for-mc4r-mediated-sexual-function-in-male-mice
#5
Erin Semple, Jennifer W Hill
Sexual dysfunction is a poorly understood condition that affects up to one-third of men around the world. Existing treatments that target the periphery do not work for all men. Previous studies have shown that central melanocortins, which are released by pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, can lead to male erection and increased libido. Several studies specifically implicate the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in the central control of sexual function, but the specific neural circuitry involved is unknown...
October 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057457/differential-effects-of-selective-agonists-of-neuromedin-u1-and-2-receptors-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#6
Hiroaki Nagai, Tomoko Kaisho, Kotaro Yokoyama, Tomoko Asakawa, Hisashi Fujita, Kouta Matsumiya, Jiro Noguchi, Kazue Tsuchimori, Naoki Nishizawa, Yoko Kanematsu-Yamaki, Katsuko Dote, Hiroshi Inooka, Jun-Ichi Sakamoto, Tetsuya Ohtaki, Taiji Asami, Shiro Takekawa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromedin U (NMU) may be a novel target for obesity treatment owing to its anorectic and energy expenditure enhancing effects. Although two receptors, NMU1 and NMU2, are both responsible for the NMU-mediated anti-obesity effects, the receptor agonist with the most appropriate profiles for treating obesity and diabetes in terms of efficacy and safety is as yet unknown. Thus, we developed and evaluated novel NMU1/2 receptor-selective agonists. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Efficacy and safety were assessed in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and those with leptin-deficient diabetes (ob/ob) through repeated peripheral administration of selective agonists to NMU1 (NMU-6102) and NMU2 (NMU-2084), along with NMU1/2 non-selective agonists (NMU-0002 and NMU-6014)...
October 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040444/re-establishment-of-energy-balance-in-a-male-mouse-model-with-pomc-neuron-deletion-of-bmpr1a
#7
Kristy L Townsend, Christopher Madden, Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Lindsay McDougall, Domenico Tupone, Matthew D Lynes, Yuji Mishina, Paul Yu, Shaun Morrison, Yu-Hua Tseng
The regulation of energy balance involves complex processes in the brain, including coordination by hypothalamic neurons that contain pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). We previously demonstrated that central bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) reduces appetite. Now we show that a type 1 BMP receptor, BMPR1A, is co-localized with POMC neurons and POMC-BMPR1A-KO mice are hyperphagic, revealing physiological involvement of BMP signaling in anorectic POMC neurons in the regulation of appetite. Surprisingly, the hyperphagic POMC-BMPR1A-KO mice exhibit a lack of obesity, even on a 45% high-fat diet...
October 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031731/evaluation-of-a-melanocortin-4-receptor-mc4r-agonist-setmelanotide-in-mc4r-deficiency
#8
Tinh-Hai Collet, Béatrice Dubern, Jacek Mokrosinski, Hillori Connors, Julia M Keogh, Edson Mendes de Oliveira, Elana Henning, Christine Poitou-Bernert, Jean-Michel Oppert, Patrick Tounian, Florence Marchelli, Rohia Alili, Johanne Le Beyec, Dominique Pépin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Andrew Gottesdiener, Rebecca Bounds, Shubh Sharma, Cathy Folster, Bart Henderson, Stephen O'Rahilly, Elizabeth Stoner, Keith Gottesdiener, Brandon L Panaro, Roger D Cone, Karine Clément, I Sadaf Farooqi, Lex H T Van der Ploeg
OBJECTIVE: Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides act on neurons expressing the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) to reduce body weight. Setmelanotide is a highly potent MC4R agonist that leads to weight loss in diet-induced obese animals and in obese individuals with complete POMC deficiency. While POMC deficiency is very rare, 1-5% of severely obese individuals harbor heterozygous mutations in MC4R. We sought to assess the efficacy of Setmelanotide in human MC4R deficiency. METHODS: We studied the effects of Setmelanotide on mutant MC4Rs in cells and the weight loss response to Setmelanotide administration in rodent studies and a human clinical trial...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031726/reduced-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-contributes-to-elevated-glycosuria-and-improved-glucose-tolerance-in-hypothalamus-specific-pomc-knockout-mice
#9
Kavaljit H Chhabra, Donald A Morgan, Benjamin P Tooke, Jessica M Adams, Kamal Rahmouni, Malcolm J Low
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus-specific pro-opiomelanocortin deficient (ArcPomc(-/-)) mice exhibit improved glucose tolerance despite massive obesity and insulin resistance. We demonstrated previously that their improved glucose tolerance is due to elevated glycosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms that link glucose reabsorption in the kidney with ArcPomc remain unclear. Given the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in controlling sympathetic outflow, we hypothesized that reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in ArcPomc(-/-) mice could explain their elevated glycosuria and consequent enhanced glucose tolerance...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031712/mitochondrial-uncoupling-in-the-melanocortin-system-differentially-regulates-npy-and-pomc-neurons-to-promote-weight-loss
#10
Natalie Jane Michael, Stephanie Elise Simonds, Marco van den Top, Michael Alexander Cowley, David Spanswick
OBJECTIVE: The mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), historically used as a treatment for obesity, is known to cross the blood-brain-barrier, but its effects on central neural circuits controlling body weight are largely unknown. As hypothalamic melanocortin neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein (NPY/AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons represent key central regulators of food intake and energy expenditure we investigated the effects of DNP on these neurons, food intake and energy expenditure...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031711/lorcaserin-improves-glycemic-control-via-a-melanocortin-neurocircuit
#11
Luke K Burke, Emmanuel Ogunnowo-Bada, Teodora Georgescu, Claudia Cristiano, Pablo B Martinez de Morentin, Lourdes Valencia Torres, Giuseppe D'Agostino, Christine Riches, Nicholas Heeley, Yue Ruan, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Martin G Myers, Justin J Rochford, Mark L Evans, Lora K Heisler
OBJECTIVE: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated morbidity and mortality emphasizes the need for a more complete understanding of the mechanisms mediating glucose homeostasis to accelerate the identification of new medications. Recent reports indicate that the obesity medication lorcaserin, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) agonist, improves glycemic control in association with weight loss in obese patients with T2D. Here we evaluate whether lorcaserin has an effect on glycemia without body weight loss and how this effect is achieved...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023418/association-between-stress-and-the-hpa-axis-in-the-atopic-dermatitis
#12
REVIEW
Tzu-Kai Lin, Lily Zhong, Juan Luis Santiago
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the body's neuroendocrine networks that responds to psychological stress (PS). In the skin, there exists a peripheral HPA axis similar to the central axis. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are key effector molecules of the HPA axis and are essential for cutaneous homeostasis. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition typically characterized by a chronic relapsing course that often results in PS. HPA dysfunction is present in AD patients by the decreased response of GCs elevation to stress as compared to those unaffected by AD...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973533/the-prader-willi-syndrome-proteins-magel2-and-necdin-regulate-leptin-receptor-cell-surface-abundance-through-ubiquitination-pathways
#13
Tishani Methsala Wijesuriya, Leentje De Ceuninck, Delphine Masschaele, Matthea R Sanderson, Karin Vanessa Carias, Jan Tavernier, Rachel Wevrick
In Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), obesity is caused by the disruption of appetite-controlling pathways in the brain. Two PWS candidate genes encode MAGEL2 and necdin, related melanoma antigen proteins that assemble into ubiquitination complexes. Mice lacking Magel2 are obese and lack leptin sensitivity in hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin neurons, suggesting dysregulation of leptin receptor (LepR) activity. Hypothalamus from Magel2-null mice had less LepR and altered levels of ubiquitin pathway proteins that regulate LepR processing (Rnf41, Usp8, and Stam1)...
November 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960463/mc1r-genotype-and-psoriasis-is-there-a-link-revealing-a-phenotypic-difference-a-pilot-study
#14
Stefania Guida, Caterina Foti, Michele Manganelli, Nicola Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellacani, Domenico Bonamonte, Raffaele Filotico, Gabriella Guida
Psychological stress is known to trigger inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. Recently, levels of hormones derived from pre-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were related with different types of psoriasis. (1) In particular, α -MSH, a POMC derivative, is known for its role in pigmentation and for its anti-inflammatory activity. Accordingly, it has been recently suggested for the treatment of imiquimod-induced psoriasis.(2,3) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 28, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945354/integration-of-ion-mobility-ms-e-after-fully-automated-online-high-resolution-liquid-extraction-surface-analysis-micro-liquid-chromatography
#15
Lieke Lamont, Mark Baumert, Nina Ogrinc Potočnik, Mark Allen, Rob Vreeken, Ron M A Heeren, Tiffany Porta
Direct analysis by mass spectrometry (imaging) has become increasingly deployed in preclinical and clinical research due to its rapid and accurate readouts. However, when it comes to biomarker discovery or histopathological diagnostics, more sensitive and in-depth profiling from localized areas is required. We developed a comprehensive, fully automated online platform for high-resolution liquid extraction surface analysis (HR-LESA) followed by micro-liquid chromatography (LC) separation and a data-independent acquisition strategy for untargeted and low abundant analyte identification directly from tissue sections...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929258/inhibitory-neurotransmitter-serotonin-and-excitatory-neurotransmitter-dopamine-both-decrease-food-intake-in-chinese-perch-siniperca-chuatsi
#16
Yu-Hui He, Ling Li, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Luo Zhao, Yan-Peng Zhang
Aminergic neurotransmitters play important roles in the regulation of food intake. However, their effects on feeding in fish have been less explored and still unclear. In the present study, the effects of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) on food intake were evaluated through intraventricular (ICV) administration in Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) and the mRNA expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were detected. At 1 h post-injection, 5-HT significantly decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner...
September 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928661/ginkgo-biloba-extract-gbe-stimulates-the-hypothalamic-serotonergic-system-and-attenuates-obesity-in-ovariectomized-rats
#17
Renata M Banin, Iracema S de Andrade, Suzete M Cerutti, Lila M Oyama, Mônica M Telles, Eliane B Ribeiro
Menopause is associated with increased risk to develop obesity but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We have shown that Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) improved diet-induced obesity. Since GbE might be effective in the treatment of obesity related to menopause, avoiding the side effects of hormone replacement therapy, we investigated the effect of GbE on hypothalamic systems controlling energy homeostasis. Wistar rats were either ovariectomized (OVX) or Sham-operated. After 2 months, either 500 mg...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911267/the-behavioral-and-molecular-evaluation-of-effects-of-social-instability-stress-as-a-model-of-stress-related-disorders-in-adult-female-rats
#18
Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Ewa Obuchowicz, Andrzej Małecki
The study aimed to test the hypotheses that chronic social instability stress (CSIS) alters behavioral and physiological parameters and expression of selected genes important for stress response and social behaviors. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the 4-week CSIS procedure, which involves unpredictable rotation between phases of isolation and overcrowding. Behavioral analyses (Experiment 1) were performed on the same rats before and after CSIS (n = 16) and physiological and biochemical measurements (Experiment 2) were made on further control (CON; n = 7) and stressed groups (CSIS; n = 8)...
September 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904020/gtrap3-18-regulates-food-intake-and-body-weight-by-interacting-with-pro-opiomelanocortin
#19
Koji Aoyama, Wattanaporn Bhadhprasit, Masahiko Watabe, Fan Wang, Nobuko Matsumura, Toshio Nakaki
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons provide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which stimulates melanocortin 4 receptor to induce hypophagia by AMPK inhibition in the hypothalamus. α-MSH is produced by POMC cleavage in secretory granules and released. However, it is not known yet whether any posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism of POMC signaling exists upstream of the secretory granules in neurons. Here we show that glutamate transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18), an anchor protein that retains interacting proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, is a critical regulator of food intake and body weight by interacting with POMC...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883210/developmental-changes-in-hypothalamic-sf-1-pomc-and-er%C3%AE-mrna-expression-and-their-sensitivity-to-fasting-in-male-and-female-rats
#20
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Yiliyasi Mayila, Kiyohito Yano, Minoru Irahara
Estrogen plays pivotal roles in body weight regulation through its effects on central estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression. ERα is found on neurons that express the hypothalamic anorexigenic factors steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mediate these effects of estrogen. As the gonadal hormonal milieu is drastically altered during the developmental period, the expression levels of SF-1 and POMC might also change during this period. In this study, we showed that hypothalamic SF-1 and ERα mRNA expression did not change during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period (from postnatal day 10 to 30), and there were no significant differences in the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of these molecules between males and females at any examined age...
September 6, 2017: Endocrine Journal
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