keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pro-opiomelanocortin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670283/genetic-identification-of-leptin-neural-circuits-in-energy-and-glucose-homeostases
#1
Jie Xu, Christopher L Bartolome, Cho Shing Low, Xinchi Yi, Cheng-Hao Chien, Peng Wang, Dong Kong
Leptin, a hormone produced in white adipose tissue, acts in the brain to communicate fuel status, suppress appetite following a meal, promote energy expenditure and maintain blood glucose stability1,2 . Dysregulation of leptin or its receptors (LEPR) results in severe obesity and diabetes3-5 . Although intensive studies on leptin have transformed obesity and diabetes research2,6 , clinical applications of the molecule are still limited 7 , at least in part owing to the complexity and our incomplete understanding of the underlying neural circuits...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670083/tap63-contributes-to-sexual-dimorphism-in-pomc-neuron-functions-and-energy-homeostasis
#2
Chunmei Wang, Yanlin He, Pingwen Xu, Yongjie Yang, Kenji Saito, Yan Xia, Xiaofeng Yan, Antentor Hinton, Chunling Yan, Hongfang Ding, Likai Yu, Gang Shu, Rajat Gupta, Qi Wu, Qingchun Tong, William R Lagor, Elsa R Flores, Yong Xu
Sexual dimorphism exists in energy balance, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the female mice have more pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus than males, and female POMC neurons display higher neural activities, compared to male counterparts. Strikingly, deletion of the transcription factor, TAp63, in POMC neurons confers "male-like" diet-induced obesity (DIO) in female mice associated with decreased POMC neural activities; but the same deletion does not affect male mice...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669731/involvement-of-activated-brain-stress-responsive-systems-in-excessive-and-relapse-alcohol-drinking-in-rodent-models-implications-for-therapeutics
#3
Yan Zhou, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Addictive diseases, including addiction to alcohol pose massive public health costs. Addiction is a chronic relapsing disease, caused by both the direct effects induced by drugs and persistent neuroadaptations at several (molecular, cellular and behavioral) levels. These drug-type specific neuro-adaptations are brought on largely by the reinforcing effects of drugs on the central nervous system and environment, including stress. Results from animal experiments have demonstrated important interactions between alcohol and the stress responsive systems...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658387/identification-of-avian-vasotocin-receptor-subtype-specific-antagonists-involved-in-the-stress-response-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus
#4
Seong W Kang, Srinivas Jayanthi, Gurueswar Nagarajan, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh Kumar, Wayne J Kuenzel
Vasotocin 1a and 1b receptors (V1aR and V1bR) have been shown to play important roles in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress responses via the anterior pituitary (AP) of birds. To identify effective subtype-specific antagonists for the chicken V1aR (cV1aR) and cV1bR, potential antagonists to the mammalian V1R were screened against the cV1aR and cV1bR 3D structural models by molecular docking analysis with determination of binding pocket / amino acid residues involved in the interaction. The antagonistic effects of the selected ligands were examined by measuring pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) heteronuclear RNA (hnPOMC) levels following the in vitro stress administration to primary chicken AP cells...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562733/astragaloside-iv-prevents-obesity-associated-hypertension-by-improving-pro-inflammatory-reaction-and-leptin-resistance
#5
Ping Jiang, Dufang Ma, Xue Wang, Yongcheng Wang, Yuxin Bi, Jinlong Yang, Xuebing Wang, Xiao Li
Low-grade pro-inflammatory state and leptin resistance are important underlying mechanisms that contribute to obesityassociated hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that Astragaloside IV (As IV), known to counteract obesity and hypertension, could prevent obesity-associated hypertension by inhibiting pro-inflammatory reaction and leptin resistance. High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the HFD control group (HF con group), As IV group, and the As IV + α-bungaratoxin (α-BGT) group (As IV+α-BGT group)...
March 20, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534973/lateral-but-not-medial-hypothalamic-ampk-activation-occurs-at-the-hypoglycemic-nadir-in-insulin-injected-male-rats-impact-of-caudal-dorsomedial-hindbrain-catecholamine-signaling
#6
Hussain N Alhamami, Md Main Uddin, A S M Hasan Mahmood, Karen P Briski
The hypothalamic energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, responds to pharmacological manipulation of hindbrain AMPK activity. Dorsomedial hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons express hypoglycemia-sensitive metabolo-sensory biomarkers, including AMPK. Here, adult male rats were pretreated by intra-caudal fourth ventricular administration of the selective neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to determine if catecholamine signaling from the aforesaid site governs hypothalamic AMPK activation during insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH)...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528284/pomc-neurons-expressing-leptin-receptors-coordinate-metabolic-responses-to-fasting-via-suppression-of-leptin-levels
#7
Alexandre Caron, Heather M Dungan Lemko, Carlos M Castorena, Teppei Fujikawa, Syann Lee, Caleb C Lord, Newaz Ahmed, Charlotte E Lee, William L Holland, Chen Liu, Joel K Elmquist
Leptin is critical for energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and for metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to starvation. A prevalent model predicts that leptin's actions are mediated through pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons that express leptin receptors (LEPRs). However, previous studies have used prenatal genetic manipulations, which may be subject to developmental compensation. Here, we tested the direct contribution of POMC neurons expressing LEPRs in regulating energy balance, glucose homeostasis and leptin secretion during fasting using a spatiotemporally controlled Lepr expression mouse model...
March 12, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526104/valine-supplementation-in-a-reduced-protein-diet-regulates-growth-performance-partially-through-modulation-of-plasma-amino-acids-profile-metabolic-responses-endocrine-and-neural-factors-in-piglets
#8
Xiao Ya Zhang, Xiangfang Zeng, Xutong Liu, Hongmin Jia, Pingli He, Shiyan Qiao, Xiangbing Mao
The objective of this study was to investigate whether valine (Val) supplementation in a reduced protein (RP) diet regulates growth performance associated with the changes in plasma amino acids (AAs) profile, metabolism, endocrine and neural system in piglets. Piglets or piglets with a catheter in the precaval vein were randomly assigned to two treatments, including two RP diets with standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val: Lysine (Lys) ratio of 0.45 and 0.65, respectively. The results indicated that piglets in the higher Val:Lys ratio treatment had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P < 0...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525935/selective-vagotomy-worsens-glucose-control-after-ileal-transposition
#9
Weijie Chen, Zenan Xia, Wei Liu, Xiaodong He, Weimin Zhang
PURPOSES: Our aim was to investigate the effects of selective celiac branch vagotomy on food intake and glycemic control after ileal transposition (IT) and the possible roles of the vagus on the improvement of diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty non-obese rats with diabetes underwent either IT, IT + celiac branch vagotomy (ITV), sham IT (SI), or sham IT + celiac branch vagotomy (SIV). They were pair fed, and the food intake, body weight, fasting plasma glucose, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) level were monitored...
March 10, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525472/weaning-stage-hyperglycemia-induces-glucose-insensitivity-in-arcuate-pomc-neurons-and-hyperphagia-in-type-2-diabetic-gk-rats
#10
A Ando, D Gantulga, M Nakata, F Maekawa, K Dezaki, S Ishibashi, T Yada
Hyperphagia triggers and accelerates diabetes, and prevents proper dietary control of glycemia. Inversely, the impact of hyperglycemia on hyperphagia and possible mechanistic cause common for these two metabolic disorders in type 2 diabetes are less defined. The present study examined the precise developmental process of hyperglycemia and hyperphagia and explored the alterations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), the primary feeding and metabolic center, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes and nearly normal body weight...
February 6, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510398/epigenetic-effects-of-intravenous-diacetylmorphine-on-the-methylation-of-pomc-and-nr3c1
#11
Adrian Groh, Mathias Rhein, Vanessa Buchholz, Alexandra Burkert, Christian G Huber, Undine E Lang, Stefan J Borgwardt, Annemarie Heberlein, Marc A N Muschler, Thomas Hillemacher, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Marc Walter
The administration of diacetylmorphine (DAM) reduces the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in opioid-maintained patients. However, the epigenetic effects of DAM on addiction-related genes have not been investigated yet. In a randomized controlled study, we examined the immediate effects of intravenous DAM versus placebo on the promoter methylation of the POMC (pro- opiomelanocortin) and NR3C1 (glucocorticoid receptor 1) genes. Twenty-eight heroin-dependent patients on DAM-assisted treatment received either DAM or saline in a randomized crossover design and 17 healthy participants received saline only...
March 6, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483626/vasopressin-secreting-neurons-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-through-specific-induction-of-dorsal-hypothalamic-progenitors
#12
Koichiro Ogawa, Hidetaka Suga, Chikafumi Ozone, Mayu Sakakibara, Tomiko Yamada, Mayuko Kano, Kazuki Mitsumoto, Takatoshi Kasai, Yu Kodani, Hiroshi Nagasaki, Naoki Yamamoto, Daisuke Hagiwara, Motomitsu Goto, Ryoichi Banno, Yoshihisa Sugimura, Hiroshi Arima
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) neurons exist in the hypothalamus, a major region of the diencephalon, and play an essential role in water balance. Here, we established the differentiation method for AVP-secreting neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) by recapitulating in vitro the in vivo embryonic developmental processes of AVP neurons. At first, the differentiation efficiency was improved. That was achieved through the optimization of the culture condition for obtaining dorsal hypothalamic progenitors...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457782/hypothalamic-er-associated-degradation-regulates-pomc-maturation-feeding-and-age-associated-obesity
#13
Geun Hyang Kim, Guojun Shi, Diane Rm Somlo, Leena Haataja, Soobin Song, Qiaoming Long, Eduardo A Nillni, Malcolm J Low, Peter Arvan, Martin G Myers, Ling Qi
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons function as key regulators of metabolism and physiology by releasing prohormone-derived neuropeptides with distinct biological activities. However, our understanding of early events in prohormone maturation in the ER remains incomplete. Highlighting the significance of this gap in knowledge, a single POMC cysteine-to-phenylalanine mutation at position 28 (POMC-C28F) is defective for ER processing and causes early onset obesity in a dominant-negative manner in humans through an unclear mechanism...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454967/sarm1-deletion-restrains-nafld-induced-by-high-fat-diet-hfd-through-reducing-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-lipid-accumulation
#14
Zhen-Guo Pan, Xu-Sheng An
SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412826/integrated-insights-into-the-role-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulatory-hormone-in-the-control-of-food-intake-and-glycaemia
#15
Werd Al-Najim, Carel W le Roux, Neil G Docherty
Identifying peptide hormones with multipotent actions on both weight and glycaemia can have a significant impact on therapeutic options in the treatment of obesity and diabetes. This has been exemplified by recent advances involving pharmacological exploitation of glucagon-like peptide 1 biology. Herein, we summarise evidence supporting the potential candidacy in this light of alpha-melanocyte stimulatory hormone, an endogenous peptide hormone and a breakdown product of the neuropeptide pro-opiomelanocortin...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408859/transcriptome-analysis-revealed-the-possible-regulatory-pathways-initiating-female-geese-broodiness-within-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis
#16
Hehe Liu, Jiwen Wang, Liang Li, Chunchun Han, Hua He, Hengyong Xu
Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397535/the-leptin-dopamine-and-serotonin-receptors-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-of-normal-and-obese-rodents
#17
Irina V Romanova, Kira V Derkach, Anastasiya L Mikhrina, Ivan B Sukhov, Elena V Mikhailova, Alexander O Shpakov
The pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are involved in the control of food intake and metabolic processes. It is assumed that, in addition to leptin, the activity of these neurons is regulated by serotonin and dopamine, but only subtype 2C serotonin receptors (5-HT2C R) was identified earlier on the POMC-neurons. The aim of this work was a comparative study of the localization and number of leptin receptors (LepR), types 1 and 2 dopamine receptors (D1 R, D2 R), 5-HT1B R and 5-HT2C R on the POMC-neurons and the expression of the genes encoding them in the ARC of the normal and diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents and the agouti mice (Ay /a) with the melanocortin obesity...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391540/4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic-acid-regulates-orexigenic-peptides-and-hepatic-glucose-homeostasis-through-phosphorylation-of-foxo1
#18
Ann W Kinyua, Chang Mann Ko, Khanh V Doan, Dong Joo Yang, My Khanh Q Huynh, Sang Hyun Moh, Yun-Hee Choi, Ki Woo Kim
4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid, FA) is known to have numerous beneficial health effects, including anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic properties. However, the molecular networks that modulate the beneficial FA-induced metabolic effects have not been well elucidated. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms mediating the beneficial metabolic effects of FA. In mice, FA protected against high-fat diet-induced weight gain, reduced food intake and exhibited an overall improved metabolic phenotype...
February 2, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351427/role-of-ptp1b-in-pomc-neurons-during-chronic-high-fat-diet-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-liver-lipids-and-glucose-tolerance
#19
Nicola Aberdein, Robert J Dambrino, Jussara M do Carmo, Zhen Wang, Laura E Mitchell, Heather A Drummond, John E Hall
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of leptin receptor signaling and may contribute to leptin resistance in diet-induced obesity. Although PTP1B inhibition has been suggested as a potential weight loss therapy, the role of specific neuronal PTP1B signaling in cardiovascular and metabolic regulation and the importance of sex differences in this regulation are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuronal PTP1B deficiency in cardiometabolic regulation in male and female mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343842/leptin-resistance-was-involved-in-susceptibility-to-overweight-in-the-striped-hamster-re-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#20
Ying Zhao, Li-Bing Chen, Si-Si Mao, Hong-Xia Min, Jing Cao
Food restriction (FR) is the most commonly used intervention to prevent the overweight. However, the lost weight is usually followed by "compensatory growth" when FR ends, resulting in overweight. The present study was aimed to examining the behavior patterns and hormones mechanisms underpinning the over-weight. Energy budget and body fat content, and several endocrine markers related to leptin signals were examined in the striped hamsters under 20% FR refed by either low-fat diet (LF group) or high-fat diet (HF group)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
keyword
keyword
56067
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"