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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897085/the-anti-obesity-effect-of-starch-in-a-whole-grain-like-structural-form
#1
Kaiyun Luo, Xufeng Wang, Genyi Zhang
Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, and the anti-obesity effect of starch in a whole grain-like structural form (WGLSF) prepared through co-gelation with oat β-glucan and alginate was studied using high-fat (HF) induced obese male C57BL/6J mice. In vitro human fecal fermentation of WGLSF-starch showed a slower rate of fermentation and a higher production of butyric acid (132.0 μmol per 50 mg sample) when compared to the physical mixture counterpart of starch, β-glucan, and alginate (PM) (110...
June 13, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896090/activation-of-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-neurons-promotes-physical-activity-and-decreases-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-zucker-fatty-rats
#2
Ni Zhang, Liang Yang, Lanting Guo, Sheng Bi
Previous reports have shown that running wheel activity or voluntary exercise prevents hyperphagia and obesity in various animal models of obesity, but such effects seem only minimal in obese animals lacking leptin or leptin receptors. The mechanisms underlying this ineffectiveness remain unclear. Here, we identified the action of neuronal activation in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in modulating physical activity, food intake and body weight using leptin receptor mutant obese Zucker ( Lepr(fa) , ZF) and Koletsky ( Lepr(fak) , SHROB) rats...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881371/new-insights-in-cushing-disease-treatment-with-focus-on-a-derivative-of-vitamin-a
#3
REVIEW
Mariana Fuertes, Julieta Tkatch, Josefina Rosmino, Leandro Nieto, Mirtha Adriana Guitelman, Eduardo Arzt
Cushing's disease (CD) is an endocrine disorder originated by a corticotroph tumor. It is linked with high mortality and morbidity due to chronic hypercortisolism. Treatment goals are to control cortisol excess and achieve long-term remission, therefore, reducing both complications and patient's mortality. First-line of treatment for CD is pituitary's surgery. However, 30% of patients who undergo surgery experience recurrence in long-term follow-up. Persistent or recurrent CD demands second-line treatments, such as pituitary radiotherapy, adrenal surgery, and/or pharmacological therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848222/gestational-folic-acid-content-alters-the-development-and-function-of-hypothalamic-food-intake-regulating-neurons-in-wistar-rat-offspring-post-weaning
#4
Neil Victor Yang, Emanuela Pannia, Diptendu Chatterjee, Ruslan Kubant, Mandy Ho, Rola Hammoud, Zdenka Pausova, G Harvey Anderson
BACKGROUND: Folic acid plays an important role in early brain development of offspring, including proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells known to impact the function of food intake regulatory pathways. Excess (10-fold) intakes of folic acid in the gestational diet have been linked to increased food intake and obesity in male rat offspring post-weaning. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effects of folic acid content in gestational diets on the development and function of two hypothalamic neuronal populations, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), within food intake regulatory pathways of male Wistar rat offspring at birth and post-weaning...
May 30, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791746/molecular-and-cellular-characterization-of-nachr-subtypes-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-mouse-hypothalamus
#5
Cali A Calarco, Zhiying Li, Seth R Taylor, Somin Lee, Wenliang Zhou, Jeffrey M Friedman, Yann S Mineur, Cecilia Gotti, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotine, acting through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), increases the firing rate of both orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), yet nicotine and other nAChR agonists decrease food intake in mice. Viral-mediated knockdown of β4 nAChR subunit in all neuronal cell types in the ARC prevents the nicotinic agonist cytisine from decreasing food intake, but it is not known whether the β4 subunit is selectively expressed in anorexogenic neurons or how other nAChR subtypes are distributed in this nucleus...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751050/effects-of-hypergravity-on-the-gene-expression-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-related-neuropeptides-in-mice-via-vestibular-inputs
#6
Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yoichi Ueta
The effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in sham-operated (Sham) and vestibular-lesioned (VL) mice were examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus was increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice after 3 days of exposure to a 2 g environment compared with a 1 g environment. Significant decreases in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and significant increases in neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein in the arcuate nucleus and orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area were observed in both Sham and VL mice...
May 8, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742429/diet-induced-growth-is-regulated-via-acquired-leptin-resistance-and-engages-a-pomc-somatostatin-growth-hormone-circuit
#7
Heiko Löhr, Simon Hess, Mafalda M A Pereira, Philip Reinoß, Sandra Leibold, Christel Schenkel, Claudia M Wunderlich, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens C Brüning, Matthias Hammerschmidt
Anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)/alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) neurons of the hypothalamic melanocortin system function as key regulators of energy homeostasis, also controlling somatic growth across different species. However, the mechanisms of melanocortin-dependent growth control still remain ill-defined. Here, we reveal a thus-far-unrecognized structural and functional connection between Pomc neurons and the somatotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Excessive feeding of larval zebrafish causes leptin resistance and reduced levels of the hypothalamic satiety mediator pomca...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734335/pomc-neurons-in-heat-a-link-between-warm-temperatures-and-appetite-suppression
#8
Maria A Vicent, Conor L Mook, Matthew E Carter
When core body temperature increases, appetite and food consumption decline. A higher core body temperature can occur during exercise, during exposure to warm environmental temperatures, or during a fever, yet the mechanisms that link relatively warm temperatures to appetite suppression are unknown. A recent study in PLOS Biology demonstrates that neurons in the mouse hypothalamus that express pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), a neural population well known to suppress food intake, also express a temperature-sensitive ion channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729230/role-of-hypothalamus-in-aging-and-its-underlying-cellular-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Keetae Kim, Han Kyoung Choe
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of several physiological functions that can cause various age-related disorders. Several factors have been identified as causes of aging to elucidate the decline in functions. Various aspects of physiological deterioration are controlled by the hypothalamus, a critical brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to physiological functions. In addition, functional alterations in a set of agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, a set of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SST) neurons, a set of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons, and a set of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons contribute to age-related physiological decline in energy metabolism, hormone regulation, circadian rhythm, and reproduction, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670283/genetic-identification-of-leptin-neural-circuits-in-energy-and-glucose-homeostases
#10
Jie Xu, Christopher L Bartolome, Cho Shing Low, Xinchi Yi, Cheng-Hao Chien, Peng Wang, Dong Kong
Leptin, a hormone produced in white adipose tissue, acts in the brain to communicate fuel status, suppress appetite following a meal, promote energy expenditure and maintain blood glucose stability1,2 . Dysregulation of leptin or its receptors (LEPR) results in severe obesity and diabetes3-5 . Although intensive studies on leptin have transformed obesity and diabetes research2,6 , clinical applications of the molecule are still limited 7 , at least in part owing to the complexity and our incomplete understanding of the underlying neural circuits...
April 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670083/tap63-contributes-to-sexual-dimorphism-in-pomc-neuron-functions-and-energy-homeostasis
#11
Chunmei Wang, Yanlin He, Pingwen Xu, Yongjie Yang, Kenji Saito, Yan Xia, Xiaofeng Yan, Antentor Hinton, Chunling Yan, Hongfang Ding, Likai Yu, Gang Shu, Rajat Gupta, Qi Wu, Qingchun Tong, William R Lagor, Elsa R Flores, Yong Xu
Sexual dimorphism exists in energy balance, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the female mice have more pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus than males, and female POMC neurons display higher neural activities, compared to male counterparts. Strikingly, deletion of the transcription factor, TAp63, in POMC neurons confers "male-like" diet-induced obesity (DIO) in female mice associated with decreased POMC neural activities; but the same deletion does not affect male mice...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669731/involvement-of-activated-brain-stress-responsive-systems-in-excessive-and-relapse-alcohol-drinking-in-rodent-models-implications-for-therapeutics
#12
Yan Zhou, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Addictive diseases, including addiction to alcohol, pose massive public health costs. Addiction is a chronic relapsing disease caused by both the direct effects induced by drugs and persistent neuroadaptations at the molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels. These drug-type specific neuroadaptations are brought on largely by the reinforcing effects of drugs on the central nervous system and environmental stressors. Results from animal experiments have demonstrated important interactions between alcohol and stress-responsive systems...
July 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658387/identification-of-avian-vasotocin-receptor-subtype-specific-antagonists-involved-in-the-stress-response-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus
#13
Seong W Kang, Srinivas Jayanthi, Gurueswar Nagarajan, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh Kumar, Wayne J Kuenzel
Vasotocin 1a and 1b receptors (V1aR and V1bR) have been shown to play important roles in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress responses via the anterior pituitary (AP) of birds. To identify effective subtype-specific antagonists for the chicken V1aR (cV1aR) and cV1bR, potential antagonists to the mammalian V1R were screened against the cV1aR and cV1bR 3D structural models by molecular docking analysis with determination of binding pocket/amino acid residues involved in the interaction. The antagonistic effects of the selected ligands were examined by measuring pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) heteronuclear RNA (hnPOMC) levels following the in vitro stress administration to primary chicken AP cells...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562733/astragaloside-iv-prevents-obesity-associated-hypertension-by-improving-pro-inflammatory-reaction-and-leptin-resistance
#14
Ping Jiang, Dufang Ma, Xue Wang, Yongcheng Wang, Yuxin Bi, Jinlong Yang, Xuebing Wang, Xiao Li
Low-grade pro-inflammatory state and leptin resistance are important underlying mechanisms that contribute to obesity-associated hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that Astragaloside IV (As IV), known to counteract obesity and hypertension, could prevent obesity-associated hypertension by inhibiting pro-inflammatory reaction and leptin resistance. High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the HFD control group (HF con group), As IV group, and the As IV + α-bungaratoxin (α-BGT) group (As IV+α-BGT group)...
March 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534973/lateral-but-not-medial-hypothalamic-ampk-activation-occurs-at-the-hypoglycemic-nadir-in-insulin-injected-male-rats-impact-of-caudal-dorsomedial-hindbrain-catecholamine-signaling
#15
Hussain N Alhamami, Md Main Uddin, A S M Hasan Mahmood, Karen P Briski
The hypothalamic energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, responds to pharmacological manipulation of hindbrain AMPK activity. Dorsomedial hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons express hypoglycemia-sensitive metabolo-sensory biomarkers, including AMPK. Here, adult male rats were pretreated by intra-caudal fourth ventricular administration of the selective neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to determine if catecholamine signaling from the aforesaid site governs hypothalamic AMPK activation during insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH)...
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528284/pomc-neurons-expressing-leptin-receptors-coordinate-metabolic-responses-to-fasting-via-suppression-of-leptin-levels
#16
Alexandre Caron, Heather M Dungan Lemko, Carlos M Castorena, Teppei Fujikawa, Syann Lee, Caleb C Lord, Newaz Ahmed, Charlotte E Lee, William L Holland, Chen Liu, Joel K Elmquist
Leptin is critical for energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and for metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to starvation. A prevalent model predicts that leptin's actions are mediated through pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons that express leptin receptors (LEPRs). However, previous studies have used prenatal genetic manipulations, which may be subject to developmental compensation. Here, we tested the direct contribution of POMC neurons expressing LEPRs in regulating energy balance, glucose homeostasis and leptin secretion during fasting using a spatiotemporally controlled Lepr expression mouse model...
March 12, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526104/valine-supplementation-in-a-reduced-protein-diet-regulates-growth-performance-partially-through-modulation-of-plasma-amino-acids-profile-metabolic-responses-endocrine-and-neural-factors-in-piglets
#17
Xiaoya Zhang, Xutong Liu, Hongmin Jia, Pingli He, Xiangbing Mao, Shiyan Qiao, Xiangfang Zeng
The objective of this study was to investigate whether valine (Val) supplementation in a reduced protein (RP) diet regulates growth performance associated with the changes in plasma amino acids (AAs) profile, metabolism, endocrine, and neural system in piglets. Piglets or piglets with a catheter in the precaval vein were randomly assigned to two treatments, including two RP diets with standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val:Lysine (Lys) ratio of 0.45 and 0.65, respectively. The results indicated that piglets in the higher Val:Lys ratio treatment had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) ( P < 0...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525935/selective-vagotomy-worsens-glucose-control-after-ileal-transposition
#18
Weijie Chen, Zenan Xia, Wei Liu, Xiaodong He, Weimin Zhang
PURPOSES: Our aim was to investigate the effects of selective celiac branch vagotomy on food intake and glycemic control after ileal transposition (IT) and the possible roles of the vagus on the improvement of diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty non-obese rats with diabetes underwent either IT, IT + celiac branch vagotomy (ITV), sham IT (SI), or sham IT + celiac branch vagotomy (SIV). They were pair fed, and the food intake, body weight, fasting plasma glucose, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) level were monitored...
March 10, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525472/weaning-stage-hyperglycemia-induces-glucose-insensitivity-in-arcuate-pomc-neurons-and-hyperphagia-in-type-2-diabetic-gk-rats
#19
A Ando, D Gantulga, M Nakata, F Maekawa, K Dezaki, S Ishibashi, T Yada
Hyperphagia triggers and accelerates diabetes, and prevents proper dietary control of glycemia. Inversely, the impact of hyperglycemia on hyperphagia and possible mechanistic cause common for these two metabolic disorders in type 2 diabetes are less defined. The present study examined the precise developmental process of hyperglycemia and hyperphagia and explored the alterations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), the primary feeding and metabolic center, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes and nearly normal body weight...
April 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510398/epigenetic-effects-of-intravenous-diacetylmorphine-on-the-methylation-of-pomc-and-nr3c1
#20
Adrian Groh, Mathias Rhein, Vanessa Buchholz, Alexandra Burkert, Christian G Huber, Undine E Lang, Stefan J Borgwardt, Annemarie Heberlein, Marc A N Muschler, Thomas Hillemacher, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Marc Walter
The administration of diacetylmorphine (DAM) reduces the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in opioid-maintained patients. However, the epigenetic effects of DAM on addiction-related genes have not been investigated yet. In a randomized controlled study, we examined the immediate effects of intravenous DAM versus placebo on the promoter methylation of the POMC (pro- opiomelanocortin) and NR3C1 (glucocorticoid receptor 1) genes. Twenty-eight heroin-dependent patients on DAM-assisted treatment received either DAM or saline in a randomized crossover design and 17 healthy participants received saline only...
2017: Neuropsychobiology
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