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Pro-opiomelanocortin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023418/association-between-stress-and-the-hpa-axis-in-the-atopic-dermatitis
#1
REVIEW
Tzu-Kai Lin, Lily Zhong, Juan Luis Santiago
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the body's neuroendocrine networks that responds to psychological stress (PS). In the skin, there exists a peripheral HPA axis similar to the central axis. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are key effector molecules of the HPA axis and are essential for cutaneous homeostasis. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition typically characterized by a chronic relapsing course that often results in PS. HPA dysfunction is present in AD patients by the decreased response of GCs elevation to stress as compared to those unaffected by AD...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973533/the-prader-willi-syndrome-proteins-magel2-and-necdin-regulate-leptin-receptor-cell-surface-abundance-through-ubiquitination-pathways
#2
Tishani Methsala Wijesuriya, Leentje De Ceuninck, Delphine Masschaele, Matthea R Sanderson, Karin Vanessa Carias, Jan Tavernier, Rachel Wevrick
In Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), obesity is caused by the disruption of appetite-controlling pathways in the brain. Two PWS candidate genes encode MAGEL2 and necdin, related melanoma antigen proteins that assemble into ubiquitination complexes. Mice lacking Magel2 are obese and lack leptin sensitivity in hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin neurons, suggesting dysregulation of leptin receptor (LepR) activity. Hypothalamus from Magel2-null mice had less LepR and altered levels of ubiquitin pathway proteins that regulate LepR processing (Rnf41, Usp8, and Stam1)...
August 14, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945354/integration-of-ion-mobility-mse-after-fully-automated-online-high-resolution-liquid-extraction-surface-analysis-micro-liquid-chromatography
#3
Lieke Lamont, Mark Baumert, Nina Ogrinc Potočnik, Mark H Allen, Rob J Vreeken, Ron M A Heeren, Tiffany Porta
Due to its rapid and accurate readouts, direct analysis by mass spectrometry (imaging) has become increasingly deployed in pre-clinical and clinical research. However, when it comes to biomarker discovery or histopathological diagnostics, more sensitive and in-depth profiling from localized areas is required. To address this need, we developed a comprehensive, fully automated online platform for high-resolution liquid extraction surface analysis (HR-LESA) followed by micro-liquid chromatography (LC) separation and a data-independent acquisition strategy for untargeted and low abundant analyte identification directly from tissue sections...
September 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929258/inhibitory-neurotransmitter-serotonin-and-excitatory-neurotransmitter-dopamine-both-decrease-food-intake-in-chinese-perch-siniperca-chuatsi
#4
Yu-Hui He, Ling Li, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Luo Zhao, Yan-Peng Zhang
Aminergic neurotransmitters play important roles in the regulation of food intake. However, their effects on feeding in fish have been less explored and still unclear. In the present study, the effects of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) on food intake were evaluated through intraventricular (ICV) administration in Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) and the mRNA expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were detected. At 1 h post-injection, 5-HT significantly decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner...
September 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928661/ginkgo-biloba-extract-gbe-stimulates-the-hypothalamic-serotonergic-system-and-attenuates-obesity-in-ovariectomized-rats
#5
Renata M Banin, Iracema S de Andrade, Suzete M Cerutti, Lila M Oyama, Mônica M Telles, Eliane B Ribeiro
Menopause is associated with increased risk to develop obesity but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We have shown that Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) improved diet-induced obesity. Since GbE might be effective in the treatment of obesity related to menopause, avoiding the side effects of hormone replacement therapy, we investigated the effect of GbE on hypothalamic systems controlling energy homeostasis. Wistar rats were either ovariectomized (OVX) or Sham-operated. After 2 months, either 500 mg...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911267/the-behavioral-and-molecular-evaluation-of-effects-of-social-instability-stress-as-a-model-of-stress-related-disorders-in-adult-female-rats
#6
Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Ewa Obuchowicz, Andrzej Małecki
The study aimed to test the hypotheses that chronic social instability stress (CSIS) alters behavioral and physiological parameters and expression of selected genes important for stress response and social behaviors. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the 4-week CSIS procedure, which involves unpredictable rotation between phases of isolation and overcrowding. Behavioral analyses (Experiment 1) were performed on the same rats before and after CSIS (n = 16) and physiological and biochemical measurements (Experiment 2) were made on further control (CON; n = 7) and stressed groups (CSIS; n = 8)...
September 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904020/gtrap3-18-regulates-food-intake-and-body-weight-by-interacting-with-pro-opiomelanocortin
#7
Koji Aoyama, Wattanaporn Bhadhprasit, Masahiko Watabe, Fan Wang, Nobuko Matsumura, Toshio Nakaki
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons provide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which stimulates melanocortin 4 receptor to induce hypophagia by AMPK inhibition in the hypothalamus. α-MSH is produced by POMC cleavage in secretory granules and released. However, it is not known yet whether any posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism of POMC signaling exists upstream of the secretory granules in neurons. Here we show that glutamate transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18), an anchor protein that retains interacting proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, is a critical regulator of food intake and body weight by interacting with POMC...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883210/developmental-changes-in-hypothalamic-sf-1-pomc-and-er%C3%AE-mrna-expression-and-their-sensitivity-to-fasting-in-male-and-female-rats
#8
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Yiliyasi Mayila, Kiyohito Yano, Minoru Irahara
Estrogen plays pivotal roles in body weight regulation through its effects on central estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression. ERα is found on neurons that express the hypothalamic anorexigenic factors steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mediate these effects of estrogen. As the gonadal hormonal milieu is drastically altered during the developmental period, the expression levels of SF-1 and POMC might also change during this period. In this study, we showed that hypothalamic SF-1 and ERα mRNA expression did not change during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period (from postnatal day 10 to 30), and there were no significant differences in the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of these molecules between males and females at any examined age...
September 6, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878021/ck1%C3%AE-ablation-in-keratinocytes-induces-p53-dependent-sunburn-protective-skin-hyperpigmentation
#9
Chung-Hsing Chang, Che-Jung Kuo, Takamichi Ito, Yu-Ya Su, Si-Tse Jiang, Min-Hsi Chiu, Yi-Hsiung Lin, Andrea Nist, Marco Mernberger, Thorsten Stiewe, Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Yi-An Hsueh, Sheau-Yann Shieh, Irit Snir-Alkalay, Yinon Ben-Neriah
Casein kinase 1α (CK1α), a component of the β-catenin destruction complex, is a critical regulator of Wnt signaling; its ablation induces both Wnt and p53 activation. To characterize the role of CK1α (encoded by Csnk1a1) in skin physiology, we crossed mice harboring floxed Csnk1a1 with mice expressing K14-Cre-ER(T2) to generate mice in which tamoxifen induces the deletion of Csnk1a1 exclusively in keratinocytes [single-knockout (SKO) mice]. As expected, CK1α loss was accompanied by β-catenin and p53 stabilization, with the preferential induction of p53 target genes, but phenotypically most striking was hyperpigmentation of the skin, importantly without tumorigenesis, for at least 9 mo after Csnk1a1 ablation...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851749/the-thermogenic-effect-of-nesfatin-1-requires-recruitment-of-the-melanocortin-system
#10
Riccardo Dore, Luka Levata, Sogol Gachkar, Olaf Jöhren, Jens Mittag, Hendrik Lehnert, Carla Schulz
Nesfatin-1 is a bioactive polypeptide expressed both in the brain and peripheral tissues and involved in the control of energy balance by reducing food intake. Central administration of nesfatin-1 significantly increases energy expenditure, as demonstrated by a higher dry heat loss; yet, the mechanisms underlying the thermogenic effect of central nesfatin-1 remain unknown. Therefore, in this study, we sought to investigate whether the increase in energy expenditure induced by nesfatin-1 is mediated by the central melanocortin pathway, which was previously reported to mediate central nesfatin-1´s effects on feeding and numerous other physiological functions...
November 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762947/energy-imbalance-alters-ca-2-handling-and-excitability-of-pomc-neurons
#11
Lars Paeger, Andreas Pippow, Simon Hess, Moritz Paehler, Andreas C Klein, Andreas Husch, Christophe Pouzat, Jens C Brüning, Peter Kloppenburg
Satiety-signaling, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus play a pivotal role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recent studies reported altered mitochondrial dynamics and decreased mitochondria- endoplasmic reticulum contacts in POMC neurons during diet-induced obesity. Since mitochondria play a crucial role in Ca(2+) signaling, we investigated whether obesity alters Ca(2+) handling of these neurons in mice. In diet-induced obesity, cellular Ca(2+) handling properties including mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity are impaired, and an increased resting level of free intracellular Ca(2+) is accompanied by a marked decrease in neuronal excitability...
August 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762946/plasticity-of-calcium-permeable-ampa-glutamate-receptors-in-pro-opiomelanocortin-neurons
#12
Shigetomo Suyama, Alexandra Ralevski, Zhong-Wu Liu, Marcelo O Dietrich, Toshihiko Yada, Stephanie E Simonds, Michael A Cowley, Xiao-Bing Gao, Sabrina Diano, Tamas L Horvath
POMC neurons integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Here, we show in mice that food deprivation induces a linear current-voltage relationship of AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in POMC neurons. Inhibition of EPSCs by IEM-1460, an antagonist of calcium-permeable (Cp) AMPARs, diminished EPSC amplitude in the fed but not in the fasted state, suggesting entry of GluR2 subunits into the AMPA receptor complex during food deprivation. Accordingly, removal of extracellular calcium from ACSF decreased the amplitude of mEPSCs in the fed but not the fasted state...
August 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716934/sigma-1-receptors-control-immune-driven-peripheral-opioid-analgesia-during-inflammation-in-mice
#13
Miguel A Tejada, Angeles Montilla-García, Shane J Cronin, Domagoj Cikes, Cristina Sánchez-Fernández, Rafael González-Cano, M Carmen Ruiz-Cantero, Josef M Penninger, José M Vela, José M Baeyens, Enrique J Cobos
Sigma-1 antagonism potentiates the antinociceptive effects of opioid drugs, so sigma-1 receptors constitute a biological brake to opioid drug-induced analgesia. The pathophysiological role of this process is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether sigma-1 antagonism reduces inflammatory pain through the disinhibition of the endogenous opioidergic system in mice. The selective sigma-1 antagonists BD-1063 and S1RA abolished mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in mice with carrageenan-induced acute (3 h) inflammation...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699813/prolylcarboxypeptidase-prcp-inhibitors-and-the-therapeutic-uses-thereof-a-patent-review
#14
REVIEW
Thomas H Graham
Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PrCP) is a serine protease that produces or degrades signaling proteins in several important pathways including the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system. PrCP has the potential to be a therapeutic target for cardiovascular, inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Numerous classes of PrCP inhibitors have been developed by rational drug design and from high-throughput screening hits. These inhibitors have been tested in mouse models to assess their potential as new therapeutics...
October 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694769/hypothalamic-integration-of-metabolic-endocrine-and-circadian-signals-in-fish-involvement-in-the-control-of-food-intake
#15
REVIEW
María J Delgado, José M Cerdá-Reverter, José L Soengas
The regulation of food intake in fish is a complex process carried out through several different mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) with hypothalamus being the main regulatory center. As in mammals, a complex hypothalamic circuit including two populations of neurons: one co-expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and the second one population co-expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is involved in the integration of information relating to food intake control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649723/distribution-and-female-reproductive-state-differences-in-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-mouth-brooding-african-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#16
Danielle T Porter, David A Roberts, Karen P Maruska
Integration of reproduction and metabolism is necessary for species survival. While the neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis are well-characterized, the signals controlling the relay of nutritional information to the reproductive axis are less understood. The cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is ideal for studying the neural regulation of feeding and reproduction because females cycle between a feeding gravid state and a period of forced starvation while they brood developing young inside their mouths...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632132/antagonistic-modulation-of-npy-agrp-and-pomc-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-by-noradrenalin
#17
Lars Paeger, Ismene Karakasilioti, Janine Altmüller, Peter Frommolt, Jens Brüning, Peter Kloppenburg
In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) satiety signaling (anorexigenic) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing and hunger signaling (orexigenic) agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons are key components of the neuronal circuits that control food intake and energy homeostasis. Here, we assessed whether the catecholamine noradrenalin directly modulates the activity of these neurons in mice. Perforated patch clamp recordings showed that noradrenalin changes the activity of these functionally antagonistic neurons in opposite ways, increasing the activity of the orexigenic NPY/AgRP neurons and decreasing the activity of the anorexigenic POMC neurons...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617052/neotomodon-alstoni-mice-present-sex-differences-between-lean-and-obese-in-daily-hypothalamic-leptin-signaling
#18
Moisés Pérez-Mendoza, Dalia Luna-Moreno, Agustín Carmona-Castro, Hugo A Rodríguez-Guadarrama, Luis M Montoya-Gómez, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz, Manuel Miranda-Anaya
This article compared the effects of spontaneous obesity on the daily profile in the relative amount of the leptin receptor (LepRb), and its output. That is the precursor Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) over a 24-hour period and compared with differences in locomotion and food intake in periods of artificial light. Differences between lean and obese mice were examined, as were sex differences. Body weight, food intake and locomotor activity were monitored in freely moving lean and obese mice. Hypothalamic tissue was collected at 5 h, 10 h, 15 h, 19 h and 24 h...
June 15, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610922/central-administration-of-glp-1-and-gip-decreases-feeding-in-mice
#19
Cherl NamKoong, Min Sun Kim, Byeong-Tak Jang, Young Hee Lee, Young-Min Cho, Hyung Jin Choi
Glucagon-like peptide-1 amide (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones regulating energy metabolism. GLP-1 and GIP combination is suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, the neuronal mechanisms are not yet investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of central GLP-1 and GIP in regulation of body weight homeostasis. The effect of GLP-1 with GIP on food intake, body weight, locomotor activity were determined following intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of GLP-1 and/or GIP in mice...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575455/adolescent-alcohol-exposure-induced-changes-in-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-and-neuropeptide-y-pathways-via-histone-acetylation-in-the-brain-during-adulthood
#20
Dadasaheb M Kokare, Evan J Kyzar, Huaibo Zhang, Amul J Sakharkar, Subhash C Pandey
Background: Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure causes long-lasting alterations in brain epigenetic mechanisms. Melanocortin and neuropeptide Y signaling interact and are affected by ethanol exposure in the brain. Here, the persistent effects of adolescent intermittent ethanol on alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, melanocortin 4 receptor, and neuropeptide Y expression and their regulation by histone acetylation mechanisms were investigated in adulthood. Methods: Male rats were exposed to adolescent intermittent ethanol (2 g/kg, i...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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