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John A Velez, Michael D Hanus
Video games have a wide variety of benefits for players. The current study examines how video games can also increase players' willingness to internalize important but threatening self-information. Research suggests that negative information regarding a valued self-image evokes defensive strategies aimed at dismissing or discrediting the source of information. Self-Affirmation Theory proposes that affirming or bolstering an important self-image unrelated to the previous threat can be an effective strategy for reducing defensiveness...
November 21, 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Julie Spencer-Rodgers, Brenda Major, Daniel Forster, Kaiping Peng
Extending the group affirmation literature to the domain of prejudice, this study investigated whether group affirmation buffers the self-esteem of women exposed to blatant sexism. In accordance with Self-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988) and group affirmation research (Sherman et al., 2007), we hypothesized that when one aspect of the collective self is threatened (gender identity), self-esteem can be maintained via the affirmation of an alternative aspect of the collective self. In a 2×2 between-participants design, female students were randomly assigned to read about discrimination directed toward women or a non-self-relevant disadvantaged group (the Inuit)...
2016: Self and Identity: the Journal of the International Society for Self and Identity
Stefanie Z Demetriades, Nathan Walter
This study explores whether self-affirmation has the capacity not merely to reduce the perceived threat associated with health-related information but also to facilitate interpersonal discussion and affect health information-seeking behavior. The context for the study is the ongoing California drought, which serves as suitable context to examine the intersection of self-affirmation and information-seeking behavior because it involves a threatening message (the destructive consequences of the drought) and highlights discrepancies between actual (water waste) and prosocial (water conservation) behavior...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Health Communication
Chia-Ling Yang, Chun-Ming Lee, Lee-Ing Tsao
The purpose of the current study was to use grounded theory to explore the experiences of caring for pets from the perspective of Taiwanese community-dwelling older adults. Twelve participants ages 65 to 73 were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Pets as an integral part of the family unit and beyond was the core category. The pet becomes part of my family was identified as the antecedent condition; this process undertakes action and interaction among the categories of the pet is part of my daily life, the pet provides positive life energy, and the pet is a sweet companion...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Alexandra F Corning, Michaela M Bucchianeri
Two experiments tested the extent to which the believability of women's body statements (fat talk or self-affirming) depends on their body type (thin or overweight). Experiment 1 (N=130) revealed fat talk was more believable than self-affirming talk regardless of body type. Experiment 2's (N=125) results showed, as hypothesized, that overweight women's fat talk was significantly more believable than fat talk by thin women and self-affirming talk by either thin or overweight women. Consistent with Experiment 1, there was a trend in Experiment 2 toward thin women's fat talk being more believable than their self-affirming talk...
December 2016: Body Image
Michèle Charpentier, Anne Quéniart
This article examines experiences of aging of older immigrant women. The data are based on qualitative research that was conducted in Québec/Canada with 83 elderly women from different ethnocultural backgrounds (Arab, African, Haitian, Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese, Romanian, etc.). The results on how such immigrant women deal with material conditions of existence such as deskilling, aging alone, being more economically independent, and the combined effects of liberation from social and family norms associated with age and gender in the light of the migration route, will be presented...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Women & Aging
Kate E Memish, Natalie Schüz, Mai Frandsen, Stuart G Ferguson, Benjamin Schüz
INTRODUCTION: Emotive health messages are widely used tools in tobacco control. However, under some circumstances, they can be less effective than desired by eliciting defensive responses in smokers. AIMS: This study tests whether enhancing a currently used emotive graphic smoking health warning with a self-affirmation component reduces cigarette consumption and whether potential effects are stronger in heavier smokers, as suggested by previous research. METHODS: Participants (n = 265) were randomly allocated to a self-affirmation (reflecting on personal values and positive traits using a questionnaire) or matched control condition before viewing an emotive graphic health message from a current Australian government public health campaign...
July 5, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Nathan Walter, Stefanie Z Demetriades, Sheila T Murphy
Self-affirmation theory posits that thoughts and actions that affirm an important aspect of the self-concept can make people more susceptible to change by casting their self in a positive light. Whereas much of the current literature has been restricted to individual-level concerns, the current study provides longitudinal evidence for behavioral outcomes in the context of the California drought, advancing our theoretical knowledge regarding the underlying processes that lead self-affirmed individuals to address societal risks and collective concerns...
September 9, 2016: Health Communication
Tyler B Mason, Carolyn M Pearson, Jason M Lavender, Stephen A Wonderlich, Ross D Crosby, Ann L Erickson, James E Mitchell, Scott J Crow, Tracey L Smith, Marjorie H Klein, Carol B Peterson
Two of the primary components within Integrative Cognitive Affective Therapy (ICAT) are self-discrepancy and self-directed style. Self-discrepancy includes both actual:ideal (discrepancy between oneself and who one wishes they were) and actual:ought (discrepancy between oneself and who one believes they ought to be). Self-directed style in ICAT refers to a variety of behaviors emitted by a person toward the self including self-blaming and self-affirming. This study explored main effects and interactions between self-discrepancy and self-directed style in relation to global eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and anxiety...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Loes T E Kessels, Peter R Harris, Robert A C Ruiter, William M P Klein
OBJECTIVE: Self-affirmation has been shown to reduce defensive responding to threatening information. However, little is known about the cognitive and attentional processes underlying these effects. In the current eye-movement study, the authors explored whether self-affirmation affects attention allocation (i.e., number of fixations) among those for whom a threatening health message is self-relevant. METHODS: After a self-affirmation manipulation, 47 smokers and 52 nonsmokers viewed a series of cigarette packs displaying high or low threat smoking-related images accompanied by a brief smoking message containing risk, coping or neutral textual information...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Zoe Kinias, Jessica Sim
Two field experiments examined if and how values affirmations can ameliorate stereotype threat-induced gender performance gaps in an international competitive business environment. Based on self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988), we predicted that writing about personal values unrelated to the perceived threat would attenuate the gender performance gap. Study 1 found that an online assignment to write about one's personal values (but not a similar writing assignment including organizational values) closed the gender gap in course grades by 89...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Donna C Jessop, Paul Sparks, Laura Jessop, Lauren Dodds, Sarah Lynch
OBJECTIVES: Two studies explored the relative efficacy of a morality-based versus a competence-based self-affirmation manipulation at increasing acceptance of personally relevant health risk information. In accordance with prior theorizing (e.g., Cohen & Sherman, 2014), it was hypothesized that the morality affirmation would be more effective than the competence affirmation in such contexts, as the former targets a different domain to that threatened by the health risk information. DESIGN: Both studies employed a cross-sectional experimental design...
June 24, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
Christopher J Armitage, Madelynne A Arden
OBJECTIVE: Excess alcohol consumption extorts significant social and economic costs that are increasing despite the presence of mandatory warning labels on packaged alcoholic beverages. We used a novel approach by adding a brief statement based on self-affirmation theory to alcohol warning labels. METHOD: In two studies (N = 85 and N = 58), we randomized regular wine drinkers recruited from university campuses to complete a wine-pouring task with bottles that had standard labeling or bottles that added a self-affirming implementation intention to the standard labeling...
October 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Jennifer M Taber, William M P Klein, Rebecca A Ferrer, Erik Augustson, Heather Patrick
BACKGROUND: Although effective smoking cessation treatments, including mHealth interventions, have been empirically validated and are widely available, smoking relapse is likely. Self-affirmation, a process through which individuals focus on their strengths and behaviors, has been shown to reduce negative effects of self-threats and to promote engagement in healthier behavior. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of incorporating self-affirmations into an existing text messaging-based smoking cessation program (Smokefree TXT) and to determine whether self-affirmation led to greater engagement and higher cessation rates than the standard intervention...
2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Daisy Bradbury, Rebecca Upsher, Joseph Chilcot
Self-affirmation may reduce defensive processing towards health messages. We tested the effects of a self-affirmation implementation intentional intervention with regard to salt risk message acceptance, estimates of daily-recommended intake and self-reported intake. Participants (n = 65) who consumed over 6 g/day of salt were randomised into three conditions: self-affirmation, self-affirming implementation intention and control. Participants attended the laboratory and completed a 2-week follow-up. There was no effect of the condition on message acceptance, salt estimation and 2-week salt intake...
May 22, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Laura M Arpan, Young Sun Lee, Zihan Wang
This study tested a new method of using self-affirmation theory to increase adaptive responses to health risk messages. Participants' self-concepts were affirmed via text integrated with risk messages (public service announcements/PSAs) rather than by methods used in most previous studies that have limited applicability for campaigns employing mediated messages. Participants were exposed to health risk PSAs either including or not including affirming text to examine relative effects on message evaluation and adaptive responses...
May 19, 2016: Health Communication
James Morgan, Lisa Atkin
The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nobue Nakahori, Michikazu Sekine, Masaaki Yamada, Takashi Tatsuse
Objectives The numbers of nuclear families and working women have been increasing. Such changes in the home environment may affect children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health. This study aims to clarify the associations between the home environment and children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health.Methods In July 2014, we questioned the students and parents of five elementary schools that joined the Super Food Education School Project in Takaoka City, Toyama Prefecture. Of 2057 subjects, 1936 (94...
2016: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Amber S Emanuel, Jennifer L Howell, Jennifer M Taber, Rebecca A Ferrer, William Mp Klein, Peter R Harris
Emerging evidence suggests that individuals spontaneously self-affirm, by reflecting on values and strengths, in response to daily threats. We examined the prevalence and demographic and well-being correlates of spontaneous self-affirmation in the general population. Participants (n = 3185) completed the cross-sectional, nationally representative 2013 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 3), and answered questions about spontaneous self-affirmation, demographic factors, well-being, and affect...
May 9, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Sunjeev K Kamboj, Hannah Place, Jessica A Barton, Stuart Linke, H Valerie Curran, Peter R Harris
AIMS: Defensiveness in response to threatening health information related to excessive alcohol consumption prevents appropriate behaviour change. Alternatively, self-affirmation may improve cognitive-affective processing of threatening information, thus contributing to successful self-regulation. METHODS: Effects of an online self-affirmation procedure were examined in at-risk university student drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to a self-affirmation (writing about personally relevant values) or control task (writing about values relevant to another person) prior to presentation of alcohol-related threatening information...
March 18, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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