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Self-affirmation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716423/risk-perceptions-after-receiving-multiple-risk-feedback
#1
Martina Gamp, Harald T Schupp, Britta Renner
How do people respond to multiple risk feedback in a real-life context? Based on theoretical assumptions, three different predictions for risk perceptions were tested: (a) relative accuracy in risk perceptions, (b) self-defensive responses according to self-affirmation theory, and (c) compensatory responses according to the compensatory health belief model. Participants of a community health screening ( N = 725) received multiple risk indicator feedback for actual blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid levels...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693478/psychoeducation-against-depression-anxiety-alexithymia-and-fibromyalgia-a-pilot-study-in-primary-care-for-patients-on-sick-leave
#2
Eva O Melin, Ralph Svensson, Hans O Thulesius
OBJECTIVES: Feasibility testing of a psychoeducational method -The Affect School and Script Analyses (ASSA) - in a Swedish primary care setting. Exploring associations between psychological, and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). DESIGN: Pilot study. SETTING: Three Swedish primary care centers serving 20,000 people. INTERVENTION: 8 weekly 2-hour sessions with a 5-7 participant group led by two instructors - followed by 10 individual hour-long sessions...
June 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676254/-the-smile-and-dento-facial-orthopaedics
#3
Pierre Canal, Catherine Galletti
INTRODUCTION: The mouth is an essential feature of the human body since it is there that the breath and food of life pass. In addition, it bears witness to our emotions. Today, the smile has become a major means of communication and of "self-affirmation". OBJECTIVE: The first task of the orthodontist is to restore correct function while, obviously, also contributing to enhance the patient's appearance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this article, we will present six cases to demonstrate that the leading mission of orthodontics is to restore the occlusion and function...
March 2018: L' Orthodontie Française
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658829/playground-love-sex-work-pleasure-and-self-affirmation-in-the-urban-nightlife-of-indonesian-waria
#4
Terje Toomistu
Indonesian transgender women, locally and internationally recognised as waria, share some lifestyle patterns that have emerged under conditions of limited social acceptance. These patterns include involvement in sex work. The high number of waria who are sex workers is usually explained in economic terms. However, their presence in certain locations around the city known for waria sex work is not only for work, and quite often not even for sex. Waria street nightlife fosters waria agency, which emerges from self-affirmation through pleasurable bodily practices involving intimate (sexual partners) and both proximate (other waria and men nearby) and distant others (structuring ideals)...
April 16, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458312/reflections-on-researcher-departure-closure-of-prison-relationships-in-ethnographic-research
#5
Laura Abbott, Tricia Scott
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom has the highest incarceration rate in Western Europe. It is known that women in prison are a vulnerable female population who are at risk of mental ill-health due to disadvantaged and chaotic life experiences. Accurate numbers of pregnant women held in UK prisons are not recorded, yet it is estimated that 6%-7% of the female prison population are at varying stages of pregnancy and around 100 babies are born to incarcerated women each year. There are limited published papers that document the departure of the researcher following closure of fieldwork with women in prison...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458267/can-self-affirmation-exacerbate-adverse-reactions-to-stress-under-certain-conditions
#6
Donna C Jessop, Susan Ayers, Flora Burn, Corin Ryda
OBJECTIVE: Self-affirmation has repeatedly been shown to reduce adverse psychological and physiological responses to stress. However, it is plausible that self-affirmation could exacerbate negative reactions to stress under certain conditions. The current research explored whether self-affirmation would increase negative psychological responses to a stressor occurring in a central life domain characterised by low levels of control. DESIGN: Female participants (Study 1 N = 132; Study 2 N = 141) completed baseline measures of anxiety and mood...
February 19, 2018: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247405/impact-of-depression-and-demoralization-on-blood-pressure-control-in-african-americans-with-hypertension-findings-from-the-triumph-trial
#7
Emanuela Offidani, Giada Benasi, Mary E Charlson, Joseph E Ravenell, Carla Boutin-Foster
BACKGROUND: African Americans develop hypertension earlier and have worse cardiovascular outcomes than Caucasians. Accumulating evidence suggests that psychological distress may play a role in the observed racial differences in hypertension. Several studies have investigated the relationship between depression and hypertension while little is still known about the role of demoralization. METHODS: Using data from the Trial Using Motivational Interviewing, Positive Affect, and Self-affirmation in African Americans with Hypertension (TRIUMPH), logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in blood pressure control at 12 months among participants with demoralization, depression, and both conditions...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236554/just-a-spoonful-of-sugar-helps-the-messages-go-down-using-stories-and-vicarious-self-affirmation-to-reduce-e-cigarette-use
#8
Nathan Walter, Stefanie Z Demetriades, Sheila T Murphy
While prior research has demonstrated the benefits of self-affirming individuals prior to exposing them to potentially threatening health messages, the current study assesses the feasibility of inducing self-affirmation vicariously through the success of a character in a narrative. In Study 1, college-age participants who regularly use e-cigarettes (N = 225) were randomly assigned to read one of two versions of a story depicting a college student of their own gender. The versions were identical except in the vicarious self-affirmation (VSA) condition, the main character achieves success (i...
December 13, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202653/empathic-concern-and-the-desire-to-help-as-separable-components-of-compassionate-responding
#9
Lauren M Ministero, Michael J Poulin, Anneke E K Buffone, Shane DeLury
When do people experience versus regulate responses to compassion-evoking stimuli? We hypothesized that compassionate responding is composed of two factors-empathic concern and the desire to help-and that these would be differentially affected by perspective taking and self-affirmation. Exploratory (Study 1) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated that a compassion measure consisted of two factors corresponding to empathic concern and the desire to help. In Study 1 ( N = 237), participants with high emotion regulation ability reported less empathic concern for multiple children than for one, but perspective taking prevented this effect...
April 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161940/helping-others-by-first-affirming-the-self-when-self-affirmation-reduces-ego-defensive-downplaying-of-others-misfortunes
#10
Sara Kim, Ann L McGill
We show that self-affirmation increases helping behavior toward others in need. We argue that as awareness of others' pain causes discomfort, individuals are often motivated to ignore information about such pain. However, ignoring others' suffering implies that one is not a good and caring person, which presents a threat to self-integrity. To resolve this conflict, people might downplay others' pain. Studies show that self-affirmation intervenes in this process, thereby increasing willingness to help (Studies 1-4)...
March 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083209/ethnic-pride-self-esteem-and-school-belonging-a-reciprocal-analysis-over-time
#11
Maciel M Hernández, Richard W Robins, Keith F Widaman, Rand D Conger
School belonging (i.e., social connectedness to school) has positive implications for academic achievement and well-being. However, few studies have examined the developmental antecedents of school belonging, particularly for students of Mexican origin. To address this gap in the research literature, the present study examined reciprocal relations between school belonging and two self-affirmation beliefs-self-esteem and ethnic pride-using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin students followed from fifth to ninth grade (N = 674, Mage at Wave 1 = 10...
December 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941040/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-brief-online-intervention-to-reduce-alcohol-consumption-in-new-university-students-combining-self-affirmation-theory-of-planned-behaviour-messages-and-implementation-intentions
#12
Paul Norman, David Cameron, Tracy Epton, Thomas L Webb, Peter R Harris, Abigail Millings, Paschal Sheeran
OBJECTIVES: Excessive alcohol consumption increases when students enter university. This study tests whether combining (1) messages that target key beliefs from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that underlie binge drinking, (2) a self-affirmation manipulation to reduce defensive processing, and (3) implementation intentions (if-then plans to avoid binge drinking) reduces alcohol consumption in the first 6 months at university. DESIGN: A 2 (self-affirmation) × 2 (TPB messages) × 2 (implementation intention) between-participants randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up...
February 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905204/racial-vs-self-affirmation-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-the-effects-of-racial-exclusion-on-negative-affect-and-substance-use-vulnerability-among-black-young-adults
#13
Michelle L Stock, Frederick X Gibbons, Janine B Beekman, Kipling D Williams, Laura S Richman, Meg Gerrard
Affirming one's racial identity may help protect against the harmful effects of racial exclusion on substance use cognitions. This study examined whether racial versus self-affirmation (vs. no affirmation) buffers against the effects of racial exclusion on substance use willingness and substance use word associations in Black young adults. It also examined anger as a potential mediator of these effects. After being included, or racially excluded by White peers, participants were assigned to a writing task: self-affirmation, racial-affirmation, or describing their sleep routine (neutral)...
April 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903640/it-s-all-about-the-money-for-some-consequences-of-financially-contingent-self-worth
#14
Lora E Park, Deborah E Ward, Kristin Naragon-Gainey
Financial success is an important goal, yet striving for it is often associated with negative outcomes. One reason for this paradox is that financial pressures may be tied to basing self-worth on financial success. Studies 1a to 1c developed a measure of Financial Contingency of Self-Worth (Financial CSW), and found that it predicted more financial social comparisons, financial hassles, stress, anxiety, and less autonomy. In response to a financial (vs. academic) threat, higher Financial CSW participants experienced less autonomy, perceived financial problems more negatively, and disengaged from their financial problems (Study 2)...
May 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858695/interest-in-and-reactions-to-genetic-risk-information-the-role-of-implicit-theories-and-self-affirmation
#15
Jennifer M Taber, William M P Klein, Susan Persky, Rebecca A Ferrer, Annette R Kaufman, Chan L Thai, Peter R Harris
RATIONALE: Implicit theories reflect core assumptions about whether human attributes are malleable or fixed: Incremental theorists believe a characteristic is malleable whereas entity theorists believe it is fixed. People with entity theories about health may be less likely to engage in risk-mitigating behavior. Spontaneous self-affirmation (e.g., reflecting on one's values when threatened) may lessen defensiveness and unhealthy behaviors associated with fixed beliefs, and reduce the likelihood of responding to health risk information with fixed beliefs...
August 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758769/self-affirmation-attenuates-death-thought-accessibility-after-mortality-salience-but-not-among-a-high-post-traumatic-stress-sample
#16
Kenneth E Vail, Adrienne Morgan, Lauren Kahle
OBJECTIVE: According to anxiety buffer disruption theory (ABDT), people function effectively in the world, in part, by relying on anxiety-buffer systems to protect against death awareness; however, traumatic experiences can overwhelm and disrupt those anxiety-buffer systems, leaving people unprotected from death awareness and at increased risk for the major symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on that idea, it was hypothesized that (a) when posttraumatic stress symptoms are low, self-affirmation (a known worldview/self-esteem based anxiety-buffer) should prevent mortality reminders from causing increased death-thought accessibility (DTA); but that (b) when posttraumatic stress symptoms are high (indicating anxiety-buffer disruption), self-affirmation should fail to prevent mortality reminders from increasing DTA...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758237/towards-an-understanding-of-how-appraisal-of-doctors-produces-its-effects-a-realist-review
#17
REVIEW
Nicola Brennan, Marie Bryce, Mark Pearson, Geoff Wong, Chris Cooper, Julian Archer
CONTEXT: Revalidation was launched in the UK to provide assurances to the public that doctors are up to date and fit to practice. Appraisal is a fundamental component of revalidation. Approximately 150 000 doctors are appraised annually, costing an estimated £97 million over 10 years. There is little understanding of the theory of how and why appraisal is supposed to produce its effects. A realist review of the literature was utilised to explore these issues, as they generate context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations, resulting in the creation of theories of how and why appraisal of doctors produces its effects...
October 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704520/a-self-affirmation-exercise-does-not-improve-intentions-to-vaccinate-among-parents-with-negative-vaccine-attitudes-and-may-decrease-intentions-to-vaccinate
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rachael D Reavis, Jacob B Ebbs, Adaobi K Onunkwo, L Mariah Sage
Two studies investigated the effectiveness of a self-affirmation exercise on vaccine safety beliefs and intent to vaccinate future children. In Study 1, a sample of 585 parents with at least one child under the age of 18 in the home participated through Amazon's MTurk. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a 2 x 2 design. Participants read either correcting information refuting a link between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism or a control passage about bird feeding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630338/self-affirmation-facilitates-minority-middle-schoolers-progress-along-college-trajectories
#19
J Parker Goyer, Julio Garcia, Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, Kevin R Binning, Jonathan E Cook, Stephanie L Reeves, Nancy Apfel, Suzanne Taborsky-Barba, David K Sherman, Geoffrey L Cohen
Small but timely experiences can have long-term benefits when their psychological effects interact with institutional processes. In a follow-up of two randomized field experiments, a brief values affirmation intervention designed to buffer minority middle schoolers against the threat of negative stereotypes had long-term benefits on college-relevant outcomes. In study 1, conducted in the Mountain West, the intervention increased Latino Americans' probability of entering a college readiness track rather than a remedial one near the transition to high school 2 y later...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541088/-when-risk-communication-backfires-randomized-controlled-trial-on-self-affirmation-and-reactance-to-personalized-risk-feedback-in-high-risk-individuals-correction-to-sch%C3%A3-z-sch%C3%A3-z-and-eid-2013
#20
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "When risk communication backfires: Randomized controlled trial on self-affirmation and reactance to personalized risk feedback in high-risk individuals" by Natalie Schüz, Benjamin Schüz and Michael Eid ( Health Psychology , 2013[May], Vol 32[5], 561-570). Several errors appear in the data in the Results section. The corrected information is provided. It is noted that, in all cases, the statistical conclusions remain the same. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-14977-010...
June 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
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