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Self-affirmation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083209/ethnic-pride-self-esteem-and-school-belonging-a-reciprocal-analysis-over-time
#1
Maciel M Hernández, Richard W Robins, Keith F Widaman, Rand D Conger
School belonging (i.e., social connectedness to school) has positive implications for academic achievement and well-being. However, few studies have examined the developmental antecedents of school belonging, particularly for students of Mexican origin. To address this gap in the research literature, the present study examined reciprocal relations between school belonging and two self-affirmation beliefs-self-esteem and ethnic pride-using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin students followed from fifth to ninth grade (N = 674, Mage at Wave 1 = 10...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941040/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-brief-online-intervention-to-reduce-alcohol-consumption-in-new-university-students-combining-self-affirmation-theory-of-planned-behaviour-messages-and-implementation-intentions
#2
Paul Norman, David Cameron, Tracy Epton, Thomas L Webb, Peter R Harris, Abigail Millings, Paschal Sheeran
OBJECTIVES: Excessive alcohol consumption increases when students enter university. This study tests whether combining (1) messages that target key beliefs from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that underlie binge drinking, (2) a self-affirmation manipulation to reduce defensive processing, and (3) implementation intentions (if-then plans to avoid binge drinking) reduces alcohol consumption in the first 6 months at university. DESIGN: A 2 (self-affirmation) × 2 (TPB messages) × 2 (implementation intention) between-participants randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up...
September 20, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905204/racial-vs-self-affirmation-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-the-effects-of-racial-exclusion-on-negative-affect-and-substance-use-vulnerability-among-black-young-adults
#3
Michelle L Stock, Frederick X Gibbons, Janine B Beekman, Kipling D Williams, Laura S Richman, Meg Gerrard
Affirming one's racial identity may help protect against the harmful effects of racial exclusion on substance use cognitions. This study examined whether racial versus self-affirmation (vs. no affirmation) buffers against the effects of racial exclusion on substance use willingness and substance use word associations in Black young adults. It also examined anger as a potential mediator of these effects. After being included, or racially excluded by White peers, participants were assigned to a writing task: self-affirmation, racial-affirmation, or describing their sleep routine (neutral)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903640/it-s-all-about-the-money-for-some-consequences-of-financially-contingent-self-worth
#4
Lora E Park, Deborah E Ward, Kristin Naragon-Gainey
Financial success is an important goal, yet striving for it is often associated with negative outcomes. One reason for this paradox is that financial pressures may be tied to basing self-worth on financial success. Studies 1a to 1c developed a measure of Financial Contingency of Self-Worth (Financial CSW), and found that it predicted more financial social comparisons, financial hassles, stress, anxiety, and less autonomy. In response to a financial (vs. academic) threat, higher Financial CSW participants experienced less autonomy, perceived financial problems more negatively, and disengaged from their financial problems (Study 2)...
May 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858695/interest-in-and-reactions-to-genetic-risk-information-the-role-of-implicit-theories-and-self-affirmation
#5
Jennifer M Taber, William M P Klein, Susan Persky, Rebecca A Ferrer, Annette R Kaufman, Chan L Thai, Peter R Harris
RATIONALE: Implicit theories reflect core assumptions about whether human attributes are malleable or fixed: Incremental theorists believe a characteristic is malleable whereas entity theorists believe it is fixed. People with entity theories about health may be less likely to engage in risk-mitigating behavior. Spontaneous self-affirmation (e.g., reflecting on one's values when threatened) may lessen defensiveness and unhealthy behaviors associated with fixed beliefs, and reduce the likelihood of responding to health risk information with fixed beliefs...
August 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758769/self-affirmation-attenuates-death-thought-accessibility-after-mortality-salience-but-not-among-a-high-post-traumatic-stress-sample
#6
Kenneth E Vail, Adrienne Morgan, Lauren Kahle
OBJECTIVE: According to anxiety buffer disruption theory (ABDT), people function effectively in the world, in part, by relying on anxiety-buffer systems to protect against death awareness; however, traumatic experiences can overwhelm and disrupt those anxiety-buffer systems, leaving people unprotected from death awareness and at increased risk for the major symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on that idea, it was hypothesized that (a) when posttraumatic stress symptoms are low, self-affirmation (a known worldview/self-esteem based anxiety-buffer) should prevent mortality reminders from causing increased death-thought accessibility (DTA); but that (b) when posttraumatic stress symptoms are high (indicating anxiety-buffer disruption), self-affirmation should fail to prevent mortality reminders from increasing DTA...
July 31, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758237/towards-an-understanding-of-how-appraisal-of-doctors-produces-its-effects-a-realist-review
#7
REVIEW
Nicola Brennan, Marie Bryce, Mark Pearson, Geoff Wong, Chris Cooper, Julian Archer
CONTEXT: Revalidation was launched in the UK to provide assurances to the public that doctors are up to date and fit to practice. Appraisal is a fundamental component of revalidation. Approximately 150 000 doctors are appraised annually, costing an estimated £97 million over 10 years. There is little understanding of the theory of how and why appraisal is supposed to produce its effects. A realist review of the literature was utilised to explore these issues, as they generate context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations, resulting in the creation of theories of how and why appraisal of doctors produces its effects...
July 31, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704520/a-self-affirmation-exercise-does-not-improve-intentions-to-vaccinate-among-parents-with-negative-vaccine-attitudes-and-may-decrease-intentions-to-vaccinate
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rachael D Reavis, Jacob B Ebbs, Adaobi K Onunkwo, L Mariah Sage
Two studies investigated the effectiveness of a self-affirmation exercise on vaccine safety beliefs and intent to vaccinate future children. In Study 1, a sample of 585 parents with at least one child under the age of 18 in the home participated through Amazon's MTurk. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a 2 x 2 design. Participants read either correcting information refuting a link between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism or a control passage about bird feeding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630338/self-affirmation-facilitates-minority-middle-schoolers-progress-along-college-trajectories
#9
J Parker Goyer, Julio Garcia, Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, Kevin R Binning, Jonathan E Cook, Stephanie L Reeves, Nancy Apfel, Suzanne Taborsky-Barba, David K Sherman, Geoffrey L Cohen
Small but timely experiences can have long-term benefits when their psychological effects interact with institutional processes. In a follow-up of two randomized field experiments, a brief values affirmation intervention designed to buffer minority middle schoolers against the threat of negative stereotypes had long-term benefits on college-relevant outcomes. In study 1, conducted in the Mountain West, the intervention increased Latino Americans' probability of entering a college readiness track rather than a remedial one near the transition to high school 2 y later...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541088/-when-risk-communication-backfires-randomized-controlled-trial-on-self-affirmation-and-reactance-to-personalized-risk-feedback-in-high-risk-individuals-correction-to-sch%C3%A3-z-sch%C3%A3-z-and-eid-2013
#10
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "When risk communication backfires: Randomized controlled trial on self-affirmation and reactance to personalized risk feedback in high-risk individuals" by Natalie Schüz, Benjamin Schüz and Michael Eid (Health Psychology, 2013[May], Vol 32[5], 561-570). Several errors appear in the data in the Results section. The corrected information is provided. It is noted that, in all cases, the statistical conclusions remain the same. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-14977-010...
June 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485483/preliminary-support-for-a-brief-psychological-intervention-to-improve-first-time-hearing-aid-use-among-adults
#11
Christopher J Armitage, Deborah Lees, Kathryn Lewis, Kevin J Munro
OBJECTIVES: Suboptimal hearing aid use extorts significant social, health, and economic costs. The aims of this study were to (1) test the novel hypothesis that the threat associated with being diagnosed with hearing loss could be ameliorated with a self-affirmation manipulation and (2) gauge the feasibility of deploying the manipulation in routine clinical practice. DESIGN: Parallel groups randomized controlled trial with 10-week follow-up. METHOD: Fifty people, newly prescribed with a hearing aid, completed either a questionnaire that included a brief self-affirming exercise or an identical questionnaire with no self-affirming exercise...
November 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484982/experimentally-manipulated-self-affirmation-promotes-reduced-alcohol-consumption-in-response-to-narrative-information
#12
Kerry J Fox, Peter R Harris, Donna C Jessop
BACKGROUND: Health-risk information is increasingly being conveyed through accounts of personal experiences or narrative information. However, whether self-affirmation can enhance the ability of such messages to promote behavior change has yet to be established. PURPOSE: This study aims to test whether self-affirmation (a) promotes behavior change following exposure to narrative information about the risks of excessive alcohol consumption and (b) boosts message acceptance by increasing narrative engagement...
May 8, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450753/new-evidence-on-self-affirmation-effects-and-theorized-sources-of-heterogeneity-from-large-scale-replications
#13
Paul Hanselman, Christopher S Rozek, Jeffrey Grigg, Geoffrey D Borman
Brief, targeted self-affirmation writing exercises have recently been offered as a way to reduce racial achievement gaps, but evidence about their effects in educational settings is mixed, leaving ambiguity about the likely benefits of these strategies if implemented broadly. A key limitation in interpreting these mixed results is that they come from studies conducted by different research teams with different procedures in different settings; it is therefore impossible to isolate whether different effects are the result of theorized heterogeneity, unidentified moderators, or idiosyncratic features of the different studies...
April 2017: Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382755/innovative-approaches-to-weight-loss-in-a-high-risk-population-the-small-changes-and-lasting-effects-scale-trial
#14
Erica G Phillips, Martin T Wells, Ginger Winston, Rosio Ramos, Carol M Devine, Elaine Wethington, Janey C Peterson, Brian Wansink, Mary Charlson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a small change behavioral weight loss intervention with or without a positive affect/self-affirmation (PA/SA) component on weight loss at 12 months. METHODS: Black and Hispanic adults (N = 405) with body mass index 25-50 kg/m(2) selected one of ten small change eating strategies and a physical activity goal, randomly with/without PA/SA. Participants were followed by community health workers at set intervals (weekly in months 1-3; biweekly in months 4-9; once monthly in months 10-12)...
May 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206787/self-affirmation-increases-defensiveness-toward-health-risk-information-among-those-experiencing-negative-emotions-results-from-two-national-samples
#15
Rebecca A Ferrer, William M P Klein, Kaitlin A Graff
OBJECTIVE: Self-affirmation can promote health behavior change and yield long-term improvements in health via its effect on receptiveness to risk information in behavior change interventions. Across 2 studies, we examined whether the emotional state of the person presented with health risk information moderates self-affirmation effectiveness. METHOD: Data were collected from 2 U.S. national samples (n = 652, n = 448) via GfK, an Internet-based survey company. Female alcohol consumers completed an emotion induction (fear, anger, or neutral)...
April 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165258/can-reflecting-on-personal-values-online-increase-positive-beliefs-about-counseling
#16
Daniel G Lannin, David L Vogel, Patrick J Heath
This research developed and tested an online values-affirmation exercise to attenuate threat and enhance positive beliefs about counseling among individuals struggling with mental health concerns. There is evidence that reflecting on personal values (values-affirmation) is an effective approach to eliciting self-affirmation-a psychological process that temporarily bolsters self-worth in order to forestall maladaptive, self-protective responses to counseling information. The present study utilized a randomized 2-group between-subjects design to test the effectiveness of a values-affirmation exercise with an online sample (N = 186) of adults who reported struggling with a mental health concern...
April 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107336/symptom-management-the-effects-of-self-affirmation-on-chemotherapy-related-symptoms
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Meltem Yildirim, Hatice Gulsoy, Makbule Batmaz, Cansu Ozgat, Gulser Yesilbursali, Reyhan Aydin, Sedanur Ekiz
BACKGROUND: Positive effects of auditory stimulations are common in symptom management. However, the effect of self-affirmations on symptom management is not well known. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of self-affirmations and nature sounds on chemotherapy-related symptoms. METHODS: This randomized, controlled experimental study was conducted with 140 patients receiving chemotherapy. The first experimental group listened to affirmations, the second listened to nature sounds, and the third listened to both...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076550/suicide-in-university-students-in-bogot%C3%A3-colombia-2004-2014
#18
Saúl Alonso Franco, Martha Lucia Gutiérrez, Julián Sarmiento, Decsy Cuspoca, Javier Tatis, Alejandro Castillejo, Miguel Barrios, Magnolia Del Pilar Ballesteros-Cabrera, Sara Zamora, Carlos Iván Rodríguez
We report the results of a retrospective, descriptive, qualitative study of suicide among university students in Bogotá, Colombia. The objective of this study was to document the magnitude, principal characteristics, and impact of this phenomenon in the selected population. A semi-structured survey was employed to collect information from 66 individuals linked to the universities. A total of 45 cases of suicide were documented in the study period (2004 - 2014). Of these, 69% occurred in males and 31% in females...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033199/self-transcendent-values-and-neural-responses-to-threatening-health-messages
#19
Yoona Kang, Matthew Brook OʼDonnell, Victor J Strecher, Shelley E Taylor, Matthew D Lieberman, Emily B Falk
OBJECTIVE: Prioritizing self-transcendent values such as family and friends more than nontranscendent values such as wealth and privilege is associated with lower stress response. In this study, we tested whether having self-transcendent values can reduce specific responses in the brain in the context of potentially threatening health communications. METHODS: Sedentary adults (N = 67) who would likely feel threatened by health messages that highlight the risk of sedentary behavior were recruited...
May 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976934/when-virtual-muscularity-enhances-physical-endurance-masculinity-threat-and-compensatory-avatar-customization-among-young-male-adults
#20
Roselyn J Lee-Won, Wai Yen Tang, Mackenzie R Kibbe
Masculinity-threatened men attempt to resolve the negative states caused by the threat through compensatory behavior such as public display of muscularity, which constitutes one way in which men physically establish masculinity. Avatars serve as a key means for self-presentation in technology-mediated environments, and compensatory motives can drive avatar customization. Noting this, the present research examined whether masculinity-threatened young men engage in compensatory avatar customization and whether such customization can be self-affirming...
January 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
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