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Hyunjung Lee, Helmut Mayer
Numerical simulations based on the ENVI-met model were carried out for an E-W street canyon in the city of Stuttgart (Southwest Germany) to analyse the effect of increased albedo of building walls on outdoor human thermal comfort. It was quantified by air temperature (Ta ), mean radiant temperature (Tmrt ) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The simulations were conducted on 4 August 2003 as a heat wave day that represents a typical scenario for future summer weather in Central Europe. The simulation results presented for 13 CET and averaged over the period 10-16 CET are focused on pedestrians on both sidewalks...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Lily Kpobi, Leslie Swartz
BACKGROUND: Traditional healing methods are considered central to mental health care in low-income countries such as Ghana, because they are perceived to be more easily accessible, more affordable and generally ascribe similar causal beliefs to those of the patients. However, not much is known about the work of traditional healers largely because their methods are shrouded in mysticism and secrecy. There is a need to understand the ideology and beliefs of traditional healers surrounding mental disorders, including knowledge about their practices in mental health care...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Yongli Guo, Qing Wu, Changsuo Li, Zhenhua Zhao, Bin Sun, Shiyi He, Guanghui Jiang, Yuanzheng Zhai, Fang Guo
  The paper proposes a risk-based early warning considering characteristics of fracture-karst aquifer in North China and applied it in a super-large fracture-karst water source. Groundwater vulnerability, types of land use, water abundance, transmissivity and spatial temporal variation of groundwater quality were chosen as indexes of the method. Weights of factors were obtained by using AHP method based on relative importance of factors, maps of factors were zoned by GIS, early warning map was conducted based on extension theory with the help of GIS, ENVI+IDL...
March 1, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Adaris M Lopez-Marzo, Raquel Hoyos-de-la-Torre, Eva Baldrich
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been exploited as signal-producing tags in electrochemical biosensors. However, the electro-chemical detection of AuNPs is currently performed using corrosive acid solutions, which may raise health and environmental concerns. Here, oxidant salts, and specifically the environmentally friendly and occupational safe NaNO3/NaCl mixture, have been evaluated for the first time as potential alternatives to the acid solutions traditionally used for AuNPs electrooxidation. In addition, a new strategy to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor through PEG-based ligand exchange to produce less compact and easier to oxidize AuNPs immunoconjugates is presented too...
March 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Denis Daneman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Wolfgang Tremel, Karsten Korschelt, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir
We describe elementary concepts, up-to-date developments, and per-spectives of the emerging field of nanoparticle enzyme mimics (so-called "nanozymes") at the interface of chemistry, biology, materials, and nanotechnology. The design and synthesis of functional enzyme mimics is a long-standing goal of biomimetic chemistry. Metal com-plexes, polymers and engineered biomolecules capturing the structure of natural enzymes or their active centers have been made to achieve high rates and enhanced selectivities...
February 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Aurel Pera
Is Facebook utilization beneficial or detrimental for psychological well-being? I draw on outstanding research (e.g., Chou and Edge, 2012; Lin and Utz, 2015; Appel et al., 2016; Ehrenreich and Underwood, 2016; Vogel and Rose, 2016; Hu et al., 2017) to substantiate that examining other individuals' positively presented material on Facebook may have detrimental consequences. Increasing comparisons on Facebook may generate feelings of envy, the latter being a significant process determining the effect of growing social comparison on psychological well-being...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mohammad Mehrtak, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Shahram Habibzadeh, Aziz Kamran, Hamed Zandian, Abdollah Mahdavi
Background: Developing and guiding new knowledge are futile unless the organizational culture can also be transformed. Future leaders cannot emerge out of an organizational environment that is not conducive to the accumulation of experiences. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the role of organizational culture in creating a succession-planning system at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2014. Methods: The present qualitative framework analysis held interviews with 23 director generals, administrative directors and deputies from the headquarters of the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2014 who were selected through snowball sampling...
November 2017: Electronic Physician
Jed A Diekfuss, Jessica De Larwelle, Susan H McFadden
Background/Study Context: Employing the stereotype content model and terror management theory, we examined whether stereotypes and feelings about persons with dementia vary depending on the type of dementia diagnosis and purported causes of the dementia. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four vignettes that depicted a man who consulted his doctor because of memory problems. All vignettes described the same symptoms and diagnostic tests, but each of four groups read a different result: all tests normal (Normal); Alzheimer's disease (AD); Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) associated with alcohol abuse; and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) associated with head injuries from playing football in high school and college...
March 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Jens Lange, Aaron C Weidman, Jan Crusius
Despite envy's importance as a driver of social behavior, scholars disagree on its conceptualization. We review the literature and distinguish three incongruent theories: (a) Malicious Envy Theory (i.e., envy as uniform and malicious), (b) Dual Envy Theory (i.e., envy as taking on 2 forms, benign and malicious), and (c) Pain Theory of Envy (i.e., envy as uniform and driven by pain). Moreover, within and across theories, operationalizations of envy have included various different components. We integrate these conceptualizations using a data-driven approach, deriving a comprehensive theory of envy in 5 studies (total N = 1,237)-the Pain-driven Dual Envy (PaDE) Theory...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Kuo-Tsang Huang, Shing-Ru Yang, Andreas Matzarakis, Tzu-Ping Lin
The outdoor thermal environment is expected to be deteriorated under climate change. An approach of risk identification including assessment from aspects of thermal stress effect, people's exposure, and local's vulnerability were adopted to study a hot-and-humid traditional rural community located at Tainan, Taiwan. Layers of each aspect were either constructed by in-situ measurements or simulations. To evaluate the future thermal comfort changes by simulations, the prerequisite hourly climate data of three future time slices were produced...
January 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Redzo Mujcic, Andrew J Oswald
Nearly 100 years ago, the philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell warned of the social dangers of widespread envy. One view of modern society is that it is systematically developing a set of institutions -- such as social media and new forms of advertising -- that make people feel inadequate and envious of others. If so, how might that be influencing the psychological health of our citizens? This paper reports the first large-scale longitudinal research into envy and its possible repercussions. The paper studies 18,000 randomly selected individuals over the years 2005, 2009, and 2013...
December 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Susan Reh, Christian Tröster, Niels Van Quaquebeke
The extant social undermining literature suggests that employees envy and, consequently, undermine coworkers when they feel that these coworkers are better off and thus pose a threat to their own current status. With the present research, we draw on the sociofunctional approach to emotions to propose that an anticipated future status threat can similarly incline employees to feel envy toward, and subsequently undermine, their coworkers. We argue that employees pay special attention to coworkers' past development in relation to their own, because faster-rising coworkers may pose a future status threat even if they are still performing worse in absolute terms in the present...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Nathan Kravis
Kierkegaard's concept of leveling is applied to the dynamics of envy, particularly as they come into play among psychoanalysts doing clinical analytic work. This is illustrated in two clinical vignettes. The technocultural surround of the digital age impinges on analytic identity in ways that can evoke fantasied retreats into sameness and erasure of distinction. The "digital reality principle" is introduced as a way of conceptualizing an aspect of the hatred of thinking and certain envious responses to distinction...
October 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Hernando Santamaría-García, Sandra Baez, Pablo Reyes, José A Santamaría-García, José M Santacruz-Escudero, Diana Matallana, Analía Arévalo, Mariano Sigman, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
The study of moral emotions (i.e. Schadenfreude and envy) is critical to understand the ecological complexity of everyday interactions between cognitive, affective, and social cognition processes. Most previous studies in this area have used correlational imaging techniques and framed Schadenfreude and envy as unified and monolithic emotional domains. Here, we profit from a relevant neurodegeneration model to disentangle the brain regions engaged in three dimensions of Schadenfreude and envy: deservingness, morality, and legality...
December 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Vilayanur S Ramachandran, Baland Jalal
The old dogma has always been that the most complex aspects of human emotions are driven by culture; Germans and English are thought to be straight-laced whereas Italians and Indians are effusive. Yet in the last two decades there has been a growing realization that even though culture plays a major role in the final expression of human nature, there must be a basic scaffolding specified by genes. While this is recognized to be true for simple emotions like anger, fear, and joy, the relevance of evolutionary arguments for more complex nuances of emotion have been inadequately explored...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Keli Yang, Yaoling Zhang, Yaping Dong, Wu Li
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from the hypersaline Da Qaidam Lake using solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods with five different adsorbents: ENVI-Carb (non-porous graphitized carbon), HLB, PPL, and XAD-8 (polymer based), and ENVI-18 (silica based). Structure-selective assessments of SPE-DOM isolated using the different adsorbents were conducted using a combination of complementary analysis techniques, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) analysis, as well as elemental analysis, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS)...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Nicolas Joubert, Caroline Denevault-Sabourin, Francesca Bryden, Marie-Claude Viaud-Massuard
The design of innovative anticancer chemotherapies with superior antitumor efficacy and reduced toxicity continues to be a challenging endeavor. Recently, the success of Adcetris(®) and Kadcyla(®) made antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) serious contenders to reach the envied status of Paul Ehrlich's "magic bullet". However, ADCs classically target overexpressed and internalizing antigens at the surface of cancer cells, and in solid tumors are associated with poor tumor penetration, insufficient targeting in heterogeneous tumors, and appearance of several resistance mechanisms...
August 23, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sandra Baez, Mariana Pino, Mildred Berrío, Hernando Santamaría-García, Lucas Sedeño, Adolfo M García, Sol Fittipaldi, Agustín Ibáñez
Schadenfreude-pleasure at others' misfortunes-is a multidetermined social emotion which involves reward processing, mentalising and perspective-taking abilities. Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit reductions of this experience, suggesting a role of striatal degeneration in such impairment. However, no study has directly assessed the relationship between regional brain atrophy in HD and reduced schadenfreude. Here, we assessed whether grey matter (GM) atrophy in patients with HD correlates with ratings of schadenfreude...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Lina Minou
This article is concerned with the physicality of envy primarily in early -modern, but also in eighteenth-century health contexts. The discussion brings together descriptions of the effects of envy on the body of the envier, mainly from works of physiology and health preservation, but also from literary and spiritual writings. These depictions of envy are studied beyond their symbolism and with a view to establish whether they are meaningful according to the medical theories of the time in which they occur...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
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