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Peter Bamberger, Elena Belogolovsky
This study examines a long-standing contention of practitioners and scholars alike, namely that pay transparency may adversely affect employees' tendency to offer assistance to coworkers. Drawing from research on social comparison, information vividness, and envy, we develop and test a moderated-mediation model positing that transparency adversely affects the amount of help individuals afford to peers who, based on pay for performance, are paid more than them. Testing our hypotheses in the context of a multiround simulation-based laboratory experiment, we find that this adverse effect of pay transparency on helping is largely explained by transparency's positive association with episodic envy, but only when individual differences grounded in differential social value orientations, specifically those regarding individualism beliefs and prosocial motivation, are taken into consideration...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Allison A Vaughn, Stacy A Teeters, Melody S Sadler, Sierra B Cronan
The utility of the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) and the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes map (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007) was examined in the context of heterosexuals' attitudes towards sexual minorities. Heterosexual adults completed a survey measuring stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral tendencies towards lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men. Stereotype content differed across groups and showed "gendered" and "valenced" effects on emotions and behavioral tendencies...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Bing Ho, Anton Skaro, Samantha Montag, Lihui Zhao
The use of modern data acquisition and analytics commonly in use in the technology sector by Google, IBM, and others have long been the envy of the health services researcher. In this issue, Srinivas et al. have demonstrated feasibility in the use of data mining and natural language processing (NLP) in data abstraction.(1) In their study they developed predictive models for graft loss and patient survival in kidney transplantation using single-center retrospective data. This article is protected by copyright...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
P Z Yu, E C Zhao, C H Jia, L Chen, H J He, J J Jing, M He
BACHGROUND: The residue concentrations and dissipation rate of a new oxathiapiprolin fungicide in the grapes and soil were investigated to provide an evaluation for the safe use of oxathiapiprolin in grape. Pesticide residue was extracted by acetonitrile, then purified by SPE with Envi-Carb cartridge and determined by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The fortified recoveries ranged from 85.2%-99.0% with relative standard deviations of 1...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
N Katsoulas, D Antoniadis, I L Tsirogiannis, E Labraki, T Bartzanas, C Kittas
The objectives of this effort was to study the effect of vertical (green wall) and horizontal (pergola) green structures on the microclimate conditions of the building surroundings and estimate the thermal perception and heat stress conditions near the two structures. The experimental data were used to validate the results simulated by the recent version (V4.0 preview III) of ENVI-met software which was used to simulate the effect of different design parameters of a pergola and a green façade on microclimate and heat stress conditions...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Kate M Esterline, Charlene L Muehlenhard
People engage in sexual behavior for many reasons, some of which require an audience (e.g., arousing onlookers, making someone jealous). In this study, we investigated the prevalence, motivations, and outcomes of young people's experiences with performative making out-making out with someone and wanting others to see. Of the 155 female and 194 male college students who completed the online questionnaire, 32% of the women and 37% of the men reported having done this, often before entering college. Significantly more women than men reported same-sex performative experiences...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
Morten Tromholt
Most people use Facebook on a daily basis; few are aware of the consequences. Based on a 1-week experiment with 1,095 participants in late 2015 in Denmark, this study provides causal evidence that Facebook use affects our well-being negatively. By comparing the treatment group (participants who took a break from Facebook) with the control group (participants who kept using Facebook), it was demonstrated that taking a break from Facebook has positive effects on the two dimensions of well-being: our life satisfaction increases and our emotions become more positive...
November 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Maria Luísa Lima, Dominic Abrams, Hannah J Swift, Christopher Bratt
Psychological theories of aging highlight the importance of social context. However, very little research has distinguished empirically between older people's perception of how others in their social context perceive them (personal meta-perceptions) and the shared perceptions in society (societal meta-perceptions). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping and using a multilevel perspective, this article examines how well older people's perceptions of age discrimination (PAD) are predicted by (a) older people's personal meta-perceptions, (b) societal meta-perceptions, and (c) social norms of intolerance toward age prejudice...
November 2016: Psychology and Aging
Nidal Farhan Al Deek, Donald H Lalonde
Fu-Chan Wei is a world-renowned plastic and reconstructive surgeon. He is clearly one of the most influential and innovative surgeons in the history of plastic surgery. The Taiwanese legend is the innovator of the osteoseptocutaneous fibula flap, which revolutionized the reconstruction of composite bone and soft tissue defects in the jaw and extremities. He has pioneered several perforator flaps, including the free style variety. He has taken toe-to-hand microsurgical transplantation to a whole new level. He is not only recognized for his surgical skills and clinical innovations, but also for his vision, leadership, and teaching...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Miriam Rennung, Johannes Blum, Anja S Göritz
Power posing, the adoption of open and powerful postures, has effects that parallel those of actual social power. This study explored the social evaluation of adopting powerful vs. powerless body postures in men and women regarding perceived warmth, competence, and the likelihood of eliciting admiration, envy, pity, and contempt. Previous findings suggest that the display of power by women may have side effects due to gender stereotyping, namely reduced warmth ratings and negative emotional reactions. An experiment (N = 2,473) asked participants to rate pictures of men and women who adopted high-power or low-power body postures...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Tobi Eniolu Morakinyo, Yun Fat Lam, Song Hao
To enhance the quality of human life in a rapidly urbanized world plagued with high transportation, the masterful contribution of improved urban and local air quality cannot be overemphasized. In order to reduce human exposure to near-road air pollution, several approaches including the installation of roadside structural barriers especially in open street areas, such as city entrances are being applied. In the present study, the air quality around real world and idealized green infrastructures was investigated by means of numerical simulation and a short field measurement campaign...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Tobi Eniolu Morakinyo, Yun Fat Lam
Numerical experiments involving street canyons of varying aspect ratio with traffic-induced pollutants (PM2.5) and implanted trees of varying aspect ratio, leaf area index, leaf area density distribution, trunk height, tree-covered area, and tree planting pattern under different wind conditions were conducted using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, ENVI-met. Various aspects of dispersion and deposition were investigated, which include the influence of various tree configurations and wind condition on dispersion within the street canyon, pollutant mass at the free stream layer and street canyon, and comparison between mass removal by surface (leaf) deposition and mass enhancement due to the presence of trees...
August 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ana Lúcia da Silva João, António Fernando Saldanha Portelada
Mobbing is characterized by the repetition, over a long period of time, of hostile behavior and unethical conduct carried out by a hierarchical superior or co-worker, against someone's physic and mental integrity, endangering one's job or disturbing the work environment. This current investigative study intends to assess the existence, frequency, and intensity of mobbing within the Portuguese nurse population, as well as its impact on their well-being and interpersonal relationships. The study carried out was quantitative, correlational, and cross-sectional...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Hong Cui, Xiaode Zhou, Mengjing Guo, Wu Wei
Land-use change is very important for determining and assessing the influence of human activity on aquatic environment of rivers and lakes. The present work with Bosten River basin as the subject, analyzes features of dynamic land-use change of the basin from 1993 to 2013, in order to study the influence of land-use pattern change on the basin water quality, according to the land-use/land-cover(LUCC) chart from 2000 to 2013 made by ArcGIS and ENVI. It shows cultivated land, wetland and forestland constitute most of Bosten River basin, taking up over 41...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Yanhui Xiang, Feng Kong, Xue Wen, Qihan Wu, Lei Mo
Envy differs from common negative emotions across cultures. Although previous studies have explored the neural basis of episodic envy via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), little is known about the neural processes associated with dispositional envy. In the present study, we used regional homogeneity (ReHo) as an index in resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) to identify brain regions involved in individual differences in dispositional envy, as measured by the Dispositional Envy Scale (DES). Results showed that ReHo in the inferior/middle frontal gyrus (IFG/MFG) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) positively predicted dispositional envy...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Sandra Baez, Hernando Santamaría-García, Janni Orozco, Sol Fittipaldi, Adolfo M García, Mariana Pino, Agustín Ibáñez
Schadenfreude - pleasure at others' misfortunes - has been systematically related to ventral striatum activity. This brain region is affected early in individuals with manifest and pre-manifest Huntington's disease (HD). However, the experience of schadenfreude has not yet been investigated in HD. In this study, 21 manifest HD patients, 19 first-degree asymptomatic relatives, and 23 healthy controls performed an experimental task designed to trigger schadenfreude, envy (another social emotion acting as an affective control condition), and control situations...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Masato Sawada, Tsutomu Fujii
This study focused on the differences between two, subtypes of envy known as "benign envy" and "malicious envy" as personality traits, and examined the effects of these traits on academic achievement. Two hundred fifty-one university students participated in the study. Both benign envy and malicious envy were found to be independent as also found in a previous study by Lange & Crusius (2015), and a high criterion-related validity was revealed by an association with characteristic variables such as dispositional envy and self-esteem...
June 2016: Shinrigaku Kenkyu: the Japanese Journal of Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Can preoccupation with the academic success of others be detrimental for nurse academics' own career progression? Michelle Cleary and colleagues, writing in Nurse Researcher, examine envy and jealousy in nursing academia.
July 27, 2016: Nursing Standard
Arshan Nazempour, Chrystal R Quisenberry, Bernard J Van Wie, Nehal I Abu-Lail
Articular cartilage (AC), tissue with the lowest volumetric cellular density, is not supplied with blood and nerve tissue resulting in limited ability for self-repair upon injury. Because there is no treatment capable of fully restoring damaged AC, tissue engineering is being investigated. The emphasis of this field is to engineer functional tissues in vitro in bioreactors capable of mimicking in vivo envi- ronments required for appropriate cellular growth and differentiation. In a step towards engineering AC, human adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated in a unique centrifugal bioreactor under oscillating hydrostatic pressure (OHP) and supply of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) that mimic in vivo environments...
March 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Christian B Nielsen, Alexander Giovannitti, Dan-Tiberiu Sbircea, Enrico Bandiello, Muhammad R Niazi, David A Hanifi, Michele Sessolo, Aram Amassian, George G Malliaras, Jonathan Rivnay, Iain McCulloch
The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), capable of transducing small ionic fluxes into electronic signals in an aqueous environment, is an ideal device to utilize in bioelectronic applications. Currently, most OECTs are fabricated with commercially available conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based suspensions and are therefore operated in depletion mode. Here, we present a series of semiconducting polymers designed to elucidate important structure-property guidelines required for accumulation mode OECT operation...
August 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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