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Diana-Mirela Cândea, Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar
Evidence shows that people with high social anxiety levels ruminate about distressing social events, which contributes to the maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. The present study aimed to explore the role of shame in maintaining post-event rumination (PER) following a negative social event (an impromptu speech with negative feedback) in a student sample (N = 104). Participants reported negative rumination related to the event one day and one week after the speech. PER measured one day after the speech was not associated with social anxiety symptoms and state anxiety...
October 15, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Alexandra J Hawkey, Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz, Christine Metusela
Experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation are shaped by the sociocultural environment in which women are embedded. We explored experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation among migrant and refugee women resettled in Sydney, Australia, and Vancouver, Canada. Seventy-eight semistructured individual interviews and 15 focus groups comprised of 82 participants were undertaken with women from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and varying South American countries...
October 14, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Megan L Rogers, Jessica Kelliher-Rabon, Christopher R Hagan, Jameson K Hirsch, Thomas E Joiner
BACKGROUND: Suicide rates among veterans are disproportionately high compared to rates among the general population. Veterans may experience a number of negative emotions (e.g., anger, self-directed hostility, shame, guilt) during periods of postwar adjustment and reintegration into civilian life that may uniquely confer risk for suicide. Mechanisms of these associations, however, are less well studied. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between negative emotions and suicide risk in veterans through the theoretical framework of the interpersonal theory of suicide...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Calum Munro, Louise Randell, Stephen M Lawrie
: The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Lewis Mehl-Madrona
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is disproportionately common among Aboriginal people in Canada. METHODS: Life stories were collected from 54 Aboriginal suicide attempters in northern Saskatchewan. Constant comparison techniques and modified grounded theory identified common themes expressed. RESULTS: Three common plots/themes preceded suicide attempts: 1) relationship breakup, usually sudden, unanticipated, involving a third person; 2) being publicly humiliated by another person(s), accompanied by high levels of shame; and 3) high levels of unremitting, chronic life stress (including poverty) with relative isolation...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Susan G Kornstein, Jelena L Kunovac, Barry K Herman, Larry Culpepper
OBJECTIVE: Review the clinical skills needed to recognize, diagnose, and manage binge-eating disorder (BED) in a primary care setting. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search of English-language publications (January 1, 2008-December 11, 2014) was conducted using the term binge-eating disorder. Relevant articles known to the authors were also included. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: Publications focusing on preclinical topics (eg, characterization of receptors and neurotransmitter systems) without discussing clinical relevance were excluded...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Michelle White, Dennis Alcorn, Kirsten Randall, Stephanie Duncan, Heather Klassen, Mark Shrime
BACKGROUND: Billions of people worldwide lack access to safe affordable surgery. Surgical missions and non-governmental organisations (NGO) are vital in meeting this need, but long-term outcomes are rarely reported. Mercy Ships is a surgical NGO, and we aimed to measure disability-free survival, impact and patient satisfaction in Madagascar after a 7-month mission. METHOD: We aimed to evaluate 346 patients. Primary outcome measure was the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule 2...
October 11, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Giuseppe Sangiorgi, Riccardo Colantonio, Gabriele Antonini, Antonio Savino, Massimiliano Sperandio
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to get and maintain a sufficient erection to ensure an acceptable sexual activity for the subject and the partner. Although ED does not represent per se a serious disease, it carries a notable and severe influence on quality of life, with significant implications on familiar and social relationship; DE may cause depression, shame, impairment of personal esteem and relational problems. Among many possible etiologies of ED, atherosclerotic disease of penile arteries represents one of the most frequent causes, so it should always be looked for in patients with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease or an established coronary or peripheral artery disease...
October 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Aylin Tugcu, Zhezhen Jin, Shunichi Homma, Mitchell S V Elkind, Tatjana Rundek, Mitsuhiro Yoshita, Charles DeCarli, Koki Nakanishi, Sofia Shames, Clinton B Wright, Ralph L Sacco, Marco R Di Tullio
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aortic arch plaque (AAP) is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, but its association with subclinical cerebrovascular disease is not established. We investigated the association between AAP and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in an elderly stroke-free community-based cohort. METHODS: The CABL study (Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions) was designed to investigate cardiovascular predictors of silent cerebrovascular disease in the elderly...
October 11, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Andrew Dillon, Ladislav Timulak, Leslie S Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of change in emotional states over a course of emotion-focused therapy using the model of sequential emotional processing as an initial framework for analysis. METHOD: This was a single case study observational design examining 15 sessions of therapy with one client. A qualitative analysis of moment-to-moment shifts in client emotional events was conducted. This conceptualised the interplay between experienced emotions using the sequential emotional processing model as an interpretative framework...
October 11, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Sarah MacLean, Ross Hengsen, Raelene Stephens
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This article identifies factors that participants in a study based in an Australian regional centre believed to be critical to understanding and responding to crystal methamphetamine (ice) use among Aboriginal people. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study entailed a participatory methodology involving a university and an Aboriginal community controlled organisation. Semi-structured interviews conducted with ice users (n = 14), family members (n = 6) and workers (n = 6) were analysed thematically...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Daniel Pratt, Patricia Gooding, Yvonne Awenat, Steve Eccles, Nicholas Tarrier
Suicide is a serious public health problem but a problem that is preventable. This complex and challenging problem is particularly prevalent amongst prisoners; associated with a five-fold increase in risk compared to the general community. Being in prison can lead people to experience fear, distrust, lack of control, isolation, and shame, which is often experienced as overwhelming and intolerable with some choosing suicide as a way to escape. Few effective psychological interventions exist to prevent suicide although cognitive behaviour therapies appear to offer some promise...
November 2016: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
Wijnand A P van Tilburg, Eric R Igou
Boredom research is booming. Nonetheless, a comprehensive understanding of boredom in relation to other negative emotions is lacking. This ambiguity impedes accurate interpretation of boredom's causes and consequences. To gain more insights into boredom, we examined in detail how it differs from a range of other negative experiences, namely sadness, anger, frustration, fear, disgust, depression, guilt, shame, regret, and disappointment. Our research indicates that the appraisals associated with boredom distinguish it clearly from other negative emotions; conceptually (Study 1), in terms of state experiences (Study 2), and in terms of individual differences in these experiences (Study 3)...
October 6, 2016: Emotion
Cavalera Cesare, Pagnini Francesco, Zurloni Valentino, Diana Barbara, Realdon Olivia, Castelnuovo Gianluca, Todisco Patrizia, Molinari Enrico
PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between shame proneness, eating disorders outcomes and psychological aspects of patients with eating disorders (ED). METHODS: Sixty-six girls applying for inpatient treatment for ED and 110 female undergraduate students were assessed using the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 and the Shame Proneness Scale of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect. RESULTS: Shame proneness showed significant correlations with several ED components and psychological scales of EDI-3, with some variations across the subgroups...
October 4, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Solveig Hausken, Rickard Lönner, Claudia Fahlke, Fredrik Spak
Survey of early alcohol  treatment preferences shows higher confidence in face to face meetings Adult men and women (n = 307), working and living in the area of south west Sweden, answered a web based questionnaire where they graded treatment and caregiver preferences while imagining themselves developing an alcohol problem. Alcohol consumption was measured using AUDIT-C. Face-to-face delivered treatment was preferred over telephone or internet based advice. About 53 percent of the men and women considered treatment given by primary health as poor...
October 4, 2016: Läkartidningen
Cristiana Duarte, José Pinto-Gouveia
This study developed and established the psychometric properties of the Body Image Victimization Experiences Scale (BIVES). The BIVES retrospectively assesses the frequency (Part A-frequency) and effect (Part B-impact) of victimization experiences pertaining to body image, perpetrated by peers and parents/caregivers in childhood and adolescence. Distinct samples of Portuguese women were recruited in 2013-2014: two nonclinical samples of the general population (n = 1,177), aged 18-60 years, and a clinical sample of patients with Binge Eating Disorder (BED; n = 73), aged 19-59 years...
October 4, 2016: Women & Health
Traci H Abraham, Eleanor T Lewis, Karen L Drummond, Christine Timko, Michael A Cucciare
: Aim To better understand barriers and facilitators that hinder or help women veterans discuss their alcohol use with providers in primary care in order to better identify problematic drinking and enhance provider-patient communication about harmful drinking. BACKGROUND: Women presenting to primary care may be less likely than men to disclose potentially harmful alcohol use. No studies have qualitatively examined the perspectives of primary care providers about factors that affect accurate disclosure of alcohol use by women veterans during routine clinic visits...
October 3, 2016: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Anat Talmon, Karni Ginzburg
Self-objectification is a process or state in which an individual loses his/her sense of subjectivity. Although several measures assess self-objectification as representing self-perception based on sexual and bodily appearance, there is a need for a measure assessing self-objectification as reflecting dehumanization. This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Self-Objectification Scale (SOS). In Study 1, the SOS was administered to 373 students. In Study 2, the SOS was administered to 300 female students along with a battery of questionnaires, including the Experience of Shame Scale (ESS) and the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBC)...
September 27, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Coralie Bastin, Ben J Harrison, Christopher G Davey, Jorge Moll, Sarah Whittle
This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of the current literature on the neurobiological underpinnings of the experience of the negative moral emotions: shame, embarrassment and guilt. PsycINFO, PubMed and MEDLINE were used to identify existing studies. Twenty-one functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies were reviewed. Although studies differed considerably in methodology, their findings highlight both shared and distinct patterns of brain structure/function associated with these emotions...
September 26, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Mazin Alqhazo, Michael Blomgren, Nelson Roy, Maha Abu Awwad
PURPOSE: This study investigated the internalised feelings and discrimination experienced by people who stutter in Jordan. METHOD: Five adult speakers who stutter were interviewed as a focus group. The participants were asked about their feelings related to stuttering and discrimination. The participants' responses in the focus group and items adapted from the extant literature formed the basis of a 20-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 20 additional adults who stutter to assess their internalised feelings about stuttering and their perceived rejecting behaviours (discrimination) associated with their impairment...
August 9, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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