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Eric Seiti Yamanaka, Luis A Tortajada-Genaro, Nuria Pastor, Ángel Maquieira
The genotyping of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is addressed through methods based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with user-friendly optical read-outs to cover the current demand for point-of-care DNA biomarker detection. The modification of primer design and reaction composition improved the assay selectivity yielding allele-specific results and reducing false-positive frequency. Furthermore, the reduced cost, ease of use and effectiveness of colorimetric detection (solution and hybridisation chip formats) were availed for the image capture by a smartphone, reching high sensitivity...
March 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Sorina Suarasan, Emilia Licarete, Simion Astilean, Ana-Maria Craciun
Nowadays, the non-linear optical effect of two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence has recently grown in interest in recent years over other optical imaging method, due to improved 3D spatial resolution, deep penetrability and less photodamage of living organism owing to the excitation in near-infrared region (NIR). In parallel, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gain considerable attention for NIR TPE bio-imaging applications due to their appealing ability to generate strong intrinsic photoluminescence (PL). Here, we demonstrate the capability of differently shaped gelatin-coated AuNPs to perform as reliable label-free contrast agents for the non-invasive NIR imaging of NIH:OVCAR-3 ovary cancer cells via TPE Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)...
March 14, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Eric J Warrant
For over half a century, the multitudinous mirror eyes of the lowly scallop have continuously amazed us with their visual eccentricities. The latest surprise is the mirror itself, which turns out to be an extraordinary optical wonder.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Wei Wu, Jin Wang, Peter Ercius, Nicomario Courtney Wright, Danielle Marie Leppert-Simenauer, Robert A Burke, Madan Dubey, Avinash M Dongare, Michael Thompson Pettes
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are particularly sensitive to mechanical strain as they are capable of experiencing high atomic displacements without nucleating defects to release excess energy. Promising for photonic applications, it has been shown that as certain phases of layered TMDs MX2 (M=Mo, W; X=S, Se, Te) are scaled to a thickness of one monolayer, the photoluminescence response is dramatically enhanced due to the emergence of a direct electronic band gap, compared with their multi-layer or bulk counterparts which typically exhibit indirect band gaps...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Konstantinos Daskalakis, Aaro Ilmari Väkeväinen, Jani-Petri Martikainen, Tommi K Hakala, Päivi Törmä
Nanoscale coherent light sources offer potentially ultrafast modulation speeds which could be utilized for novel sensors and optical switches. Plasmonic periodic structures combined with organic gain materials have emerged as promising candidates for such nanolasers. Their plasmonic component provides high intensity and ultrafast nanoscale-confined electric fields, while organic gain materials offer fabrication flexibility and low acquisition cost. Despite reports on lasing in plasmonic arrays, lasing dynamics in these structures has not been experimentally studied yet...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Moritz Lindner, Sebastian Kosanetzky, Maximilian Pfau, Jennifer Nadal, Lukas A Gördt, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Matthias Schmid, Frank G Holz, Monika Fleckenstein
Purpose: To assess the impact of distinct atrophy border characteristics based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging on local atrophy progression. Methods: Patients with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to AMD were recruited in the context of the Longitudinal Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-related Macular Degeneration and Directional Spread in Geographic Atrophy studies (NCT00393692, NCT02051998). Horizontal and vertical SD-OCT scans were acquired at sequential visits using a device allowing for anatomically accurate registration of follow-up to baseline scans...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Paolo Pozzi, Oleg Soloviev, Dean Wilding, Gleb Vdovin, Michel Verhaegen
We report on a universal sample-independent sensorless adaptive optics method, based on modal optimization of the second moment of the fluorescence emission from a point-like excitation. Our method employs a sample-independent precalibration, performed only once for the particular system, to establish the direct relation between the image quality and the aberration. The method is potentially applicable to any form of microscopy with epifluorescence detection, including the practically important case of incoherent fluorescence emission from a three dimensional object, through minor hardware modifications...
2018: PloS One
Vyacheslav A Trofimov, Tatiana M Lysak, Evgenii M Trykin
We discuss a novel type of surface soliton-aberrated surface soliton-appearance in a nonlinear one dimensional photonic crystal and a possibility of this surface soliton formation in two dimensional photonic crystal. An aberrated surface soliton possesses a nonlinear distribution of the wavefront. We show that, in one dimensional photonic crystal, the surface soliton is formed at the photonic crystal boundary with the ambient medium. Essentially, that it occupies several layers at the photonic crystal boundary and penetrates into the ambient medium at a distance also equal to several layers, so that one can infer about light energy localization at the lateral surface of the photonic crystal...
2018: PloS One
Tomasz Tański, Wiktor Matysiak
The purpose of this paper was to produce SiO₂ and TiO₂ nanowires via the electrospinning process from a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)/Titanium (IV) butoxide (TNBT)/dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol (EtOH) solution. The as-obtained nanofibers were calcined at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 600 °C in order to remove the organic phase. The one-dimensional ceramic nanostructures were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to analyze the influence of the used temperature on the morphology and structures of the obtained ceramic nanomaterials...
March 20, 2018: Nanomaterials
Shinpei Ogawa, Masafumi Kimata
Electromagnetic wave absorbers have been investigated for many years with the aim of achieving high absorbance and tunability of both the absorption wavelength and the operation mode by geometrical control, small and thin absorber volume, and simple fabrication. There is particular interest in metal-insulator-metal-based plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MIM-PMAs) due to their complete fulfillment of these demands. MIM-PMAs consist of top periodic micropatches, a middle dielectric layer, and a bottom reflector layer to generate strong localized surface plasmon resonance at absorption wavelengths...
March 20, 2018: Materials
Chunjie Gong, Hao Tu, Changjun Wu, Jianhua Wang, Xuping Su
An hypereutectic Al-18Si alloy was modified via an Al-3B master alloy. The effect of the added Al-3B and the modification temperature on the microstructure, tensile fracture morphologies, and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated using an optical microscope, Image-Pro Plus 6.0, a scanning electron microscope, and a universal testing machine. The results show that the size of the primary Si and its fraction decreased at first, and then increased as an additional amount of Al-3B was added. When the added Al-3B reached 0...
March 20, 2018: Materials
Flavio Esposito, Rajeev Ranjan, Stefania Campopiano, Agostino Iadicicco
In this work, we report about our recent results concerning the fabrication of Long Period Grating (LPG) sensors in several optical fibers, through the Electric Arc Discharge (EAD) technique. In particular, the following silica fibers with both different dopants and geometrical structures are considered: standard Ge-doped, photosensitive B/Ge codoped, P-doped, pure-silica core with F-doped cladding, Panda type Polarization-maintaining, and Hollow core Photonic crystal fiber. An adaptive platform was developed and the appropriate "recipe" was identified for each fiber, in terms of both arc discharge parameters and setup arrangement, for manufacturing LPGs with strong and narrow attenuation bands, low insertion losses, and short length...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Arnaldo Leal-Junior, Anselmo Frizera-Neto, Carlos Marques, Maria José Pontes
This paper presents a system capable of measuring temperature and relative humidity with polymer optical fiber (POF) sensors. The sensors are based on variations of the Young's and shear moduli of the POF with variations in temperature and relative humidity. The system comprises two POFs, each with a predefined torsion stress that resulted in a variation in the fiber refractive index due to the stress-optic effect. Because there is a correlation between stress and material properties, the variation in temperature and humidity causes a variation in the fiber's stress, which leads to variations in the fiber refractive index...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Ethan Phillip M LaRochelle, Jennifer R Shell, Jason R Gunn, Scott C Davis, Brian W Pogue
During external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), in vivo Cherenkov optical emissions can be used as a dosimetry tool or to excite luminescence, termed Cherenkov-excited luminescence (CEL) with microsecond-level time-gated cameras. The goal of this work was to develop a complete theoretical foundation for the detectable signal strength, in order to provide guidance on optimization of the limits of detection and how to optimize near real time imaging. The key parameters affecting photon production, propagation and detection were considered and experimental validation with both tissue phantoms and a murine model are shown...
March 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Hao Li, Ming Li, Zhan Kang
The competition between the out-of-plane rigidity and the van der Waals interaction leads to the scrolled and folded structural configurations of graphene. These configuration changes, as compared with the initially planar geometry, significantly affect the electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene, promising exciting applications in graphene-nanoelectronics. We propose a finite-deformation theoretical model, in which no presumed assumptions on the geometries of deformed configurations are required...
March 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Maria Spies, Jakub Polaczynski, Akhil Ajay, Dipankar Kalita, Jonas Lähnemann, Bruno Gayral, Martien den Hertog, Eva Monroy
Nanowire photodetectors are investigated because of their compatibility with flexible electronics, or for the implementation of on-chip optical interconnects. Such devices are characterized by ultrahigh photocurrent gain, but their photoresponse scales sublinearly with the optical power. Here, we present a study of single-nanowire photodetectors displaying a linear response to ultraviolet illumination. Their structure consists of a GaN nanowire incorporating an AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructure, which generates an internal electric field...
March 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Felix G E Dyrna, Florian B Imhoff, Andreas Voss, Sepp Braun, Elifho Obopilwe, John M Apostolakos, Daichi Morikawa, Brendan Comer, Andreas B Imhoff, Augustus D Mazzocca, Knut Beitzel
BACKGROUND: The acromioclavicular (AC) capsule is an important stabilizer against horizontal translation and also contributes to the strut function of the clavicle, which guides rotation of the scapula. To best reproduce the biomechanical properties and the complex 3-dimensional (3D) guidance of the AC joint, detailed knowledge of the contribution of each of the distinctive capsular structures is needed. Purpose/Hypothesis: To perform a detailed biomechanical evaluation of the specific capsular structures of the AC joint and their contribution to translational and rotational stability...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Ning Lu, Zhiwen Zhuo, Hongyan Guo, Ping Wu, Wei Fa, Xiaojun Wu, Xiao Cheng Zeng
Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with direct and modest bandgap and ultrahigh carrier mobility are highly desired functional materials for nanoelectronic applications. Herein, we predict that monolayer CaP3 is a new 2D functional material that possesses not only a direct bandgap of 1.15 eV (based on HSE06 computation), and also a very high electron mobility up to 19930 cm2 V-1 s-1, comparable to that of monolayer phosphorene. More remarkably, contrary to the bilayer phosphorene which possesses dramatically reduced carrier mobility compared to its monolayer counterpart, CaP3 bilayer possesses even higher electron mobility (22380 cm2 V-1 s-1) than its monolayer counterpart...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Mohamed Mamdouh Elwan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To report a novel technique for extraction of dropped haptics of hard posterior chamber intraocular lens. METHODS: A 58-year-old woman had undergone cataract extraction, and while implanting the posterior chamber intraocular lens it was dislocated in the anterior vitreous, and the cataract surgeon, tried to remove it by the anterior approach, but he succeeded to remove the optic part only, leaving the haptics dropped, then he referred the case after giving topical and systemic medications to control intraocular inflammation and, the case was prepared for pars plana vitrectomy, then injection of perfluorodecaline to keep the haptics away from the posterior pole then by 23 G vitrectomy probe and, the use of vacuum only, the haptics were removed and the perfluorodecaline was removed...
March 19, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Ji Won Kim, JaeSang Ko, Young Jun Woo, Hyoung Won Bae, Jin Sook Yoon
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in patients with GO and to investigate the associations between clinical features of the disease and the prevalence of OHT and OAG. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among a total of 1128 patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO). A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, including intraocular pressure, optic disc photography, visual field testing using a Humphrey visual field analyzer, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
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