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Chang Liu, Sen Yao, Xuqian Li, Feng Wang, Yanyan Jiang
iRGD (internalizing RGD) with high affinity to αν integrins was reported to enhance tumor penetrability by binding to neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). Based on our previous study, chitosan surface-modified poly (lactide-co-glycolides) nanoparticles (PLGA/CS NPs), loaded with carmustine (BCNU) and its sensitizer (O(6)-benzylguanine, BG) showed stronger anti-tumor effect than free drugs. In present study, PLGA/CS NPs (NPs) with core-shell structure were prepared and modified with iRGD or mPEG. F98, C6 or U87 cell lines with different receptors levels were selected for in vitro and in vivo studies...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
Elaine N Daminelli, Ana E M Martinelli, Adriana Bulgarelli, Fatima R Freitas, Raul C Maranhão
PURPOSE: After injection in the bloodstream, a lipid nanoparticle (LDE) resembling low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrates in atherosclerotic lesions of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Here, rabbits with atherosclerosis were treated with carmustine, an antiproliferative agent used in cancer chemotherapy, associated to LDE to investigate the effects on the lesions. METHODS: Twenty-seven male New Zealand rabbits were fed a 1 % cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks nine animals were treated with intravenous saline solution, nine with intravenous LDE alone, and nine with intravenous LDE-carmustine (4 mg/kg, weekly for 4 weeks)...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Sarah Perreault, Julie Baker, Erin Medoff, Kathryn Pratt, Francine Foss, Iris Isufi, Stuart Seropian, Dennis L Cooper
PURPOSE: Carmustine (BCNU) is used in the conditioning regimens BEAM and CBV for autologous stem cell transplantation. Carmustine-related infusion reactions, while not described in the BEAM literature, occurred in 95 % of patients who received CBV. The most common symptoms include flushing, facial pain, headache, and hypotension. These reactions have been attributed to the absolute ethanol that is used in the reconstitution process or alternatively by a direct effect of carmustine. It is currently recommended that carmustine 300 mg/m(2) be infused over at least 100 min (3-5 mg/m(2)/min)...
September 10, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Amanda F Cashen, Theresa Fletcher, Connie Ceriotti, Feng Gao, Armin Ghobadi, Ravi Vij, Keith Stockerl-Goldstein, John DiPersio, Camille Abboud
The lyophilized formulation of melphalan has several limitations based on its marginal solubility, limited stability after reconstitution, and the requirement to reconstitute it in propylene glycol (PG). PG-free melphalan (Evomela; Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Irvine CA) overcomes these limitations by using the solubilizing agent Captisol (Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Inc., LaJolla CA) to improve the stability of the reconstituted melphalan and avoid the potential toxicities of PG. This phase II study investigated the safety and efficacy of high-dose PG-free melphalan when included in the carmustine, etoposide, and cytarabine (BEAM) regimen for adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)...
August 26, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Gerald Illerhaus, Benjamin Kasenda, Gabriele Ihorst, Gerlinde Egerer, Monika Lamprecht, Ulrich Keller, Hans-Heinrich Wolf, Carsten Hirt, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Mascha Binder, Peter Hau, Matthias Edinger, Norbert Frickhofen, Martin Bentz, Robert Möhle, Alexander Röth, Michael Pfreundschuh, Louisa von Baumgarten, Martina Deckert, Claudia Hader, Heidi Fricker, Elke Valk, Elisabeth Schorb, Kristina Fritsch, Jürgen Finke
BACKGROUND: High-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy is standard for primary CNS lymphoma, but most patients relapse. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HCT-ASCT) is supposed to overcome the blood-brain barrier and eliminate residual disease in the CNS. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of HCT-ASCT in patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma. METHODS: In this prospective, single-arm, phase 2 trial, we recruited patients aged 18-65 years with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma and immunocompetence, with no limitation on clinical performance status, from 15 hospitals in Germany...
August 2016: Lancet Haematology
Nancy Berte, Andrea Piée-Staffa, Nadine Piecha, Mengwan Wang, Kerstin Borgmann, Bernd Kaina, Teodora Nikolova
Malignant gliomas exhibit a high level of intrinsic and acquired drug resistance and have a dismal prognosis. First- and second-line therapeutics for glioblastomas are alkylating agents, including the chloroethylating nitrosoureas (CNU) lomustine, nimustine, fotemustine, and carmustine. These agents target the tumor DNA, forming O(6) -chloroethylguanine adducts and secondary DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL). These cross-links are supposed to be converted into DNA double-strand breaks, which trigger cell death pathways...
July 29, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Yunke Bi, Lisha Liu, Yifei Lu, Tao Sun, Chen Shen, Xinli Chen, Qinjun Chen, Sai An, Xi He, Chunhui Ruan, Yinhao Wu, Yujie Zhang, Qin Guo, Zhixing Zheng, Yaohua Liu, Meiqing Lou, Shiguang Zhao, Chen Jiang
Glioma is regarded as the deadliest and most common brain tumor because of the extremely difficult surgical excision ascribed from its invasive nature. In addition, the natural blood-brain barrier (BBB) greatly restricts the therapeutics' penetration into the central nervous system. Carmustine (BCNU) is a widely used antiglioma drug in clinical applications. However, its serious complications prevent it from being applied in a clinical setting to some extent. Thus, it is urgent to explore novel BCNU delivery systems specially designed for glioma...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S Ye, X Zheng, T Hu, H Zeng
Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is an important potential anticancer drug target and closely related to both carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Ethaselen (BBSKE), a novel organoselenium compound inhibiting TrxR1 with selective antitumor effect, while its symmetrical structure results in poor solubility. Carmustine (BCNU), a DNA cross-link agent and also a deactivator of TrxR, is with high toxicity and low selectivity which limit its clinical application to some extents. Herein, a novel compound, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-3-(2-(3-oxobenzoelenazol-2(3H)-yl)ethyl)urea(4a-1), which was designed through the combination of Ethaselen and Carmustine, showed good solubility, good tagetability, low toxicity and excellent antitumor activity by synergism...
June 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Jørn Herrstedt, Fausto Roila, David Warr, Luigi Celio, Rudolph M Navari, Paul J Hesketh, Alexandre Chan, Matti S Aapro
PURPOSE: This review summarizes the recommendations for the prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting in adults receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) which includes cisplatin, mechlorethamine, streptozocin, cyclophosphamide >1500 mg/m(2), carmustine, dacarbazine, and the combination of an anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC) administered to women with breast cancer, as agreed at the MASCC/ESMO Antiemetic Guidelines Update meeting in Copenhagen in June 2015. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature using PubMed and the Cochrane Database from 2009 to June 2015 was performed...
July 22, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Yuzo Hasegawa, Toshihiko Iuchi, Tsukasa Sakaida, Sana Yokoi, Koichiro Kawasaki
The development of perifocal edema and tumor bed cyst has been reported after implantation of biodegradable carmustine wafers for the treatment of malignant gliomas. We retrospectively evaluated these changes in a series of patients; 19 consecutive patients with malignant glioma who received carmustine wafer implantation at our hospital from January 2013 through July 2013, and 28 patients who underwent surgery prior to our institution's initiation of carmustine wafer implantation, as historical controls. The volume of the tumor bed cyst and perifocal edema was calculated on MRI acquired at four time points: ⩽72hours after surgery for baseline, and at 1-4, 5-8, and 9-12weeks after surgery...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Miyuki Sugimoto, Shoko Ito, Kiyomi Mashima, Kento Umino, Daisuke Minakata, Hirofumi Nakano, Ryoko Yamasaki, Yasufumi Kawasaki, Masahiro Ashizawa, Chihiro Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro Fujiwara, Kiyoshi Okazuka, Kaoru Hatano, Kazuya Sato, Iekuni Oh, Ken Ohmine, Takahiro Suzuki, Kazuo Muroi, Shinichi Kako, Yoshinobu Kanda
The BEAM regimen consisting of carmustine (BCNU), etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (MEL) is widely used before autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) for lymphoma. However, intravenous BCNU is not available in Japan, and therefore, ranimustine (MCNU) has been used instead of BCNU (the MEAM regimen). We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of 79 adult patients who underwent auto-HSCT for lymphoma using this regimen in two centers, with 1- and 2-day dosing of MEL, respectively. Three-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) probabilities were 77...
September 2016: Annals of Hematology
Amelia Maria Gaman, Adriana Uzoni, Aurel Popa-Wagner, Anghel Andrei, Eugen-Bogdan Petcu
Chemobrain or chemotherapy induced cognitive impairment (CICI) represents a new clinical syndrome characterised by memory, learning and motor function impairment. As numerous patients with cancer are long-term survivors, CICI represent a significant factor which may interfere with their quality of life. However, this entity CICI must be distinguished from other cognitive syndromes and addressed accordingly. At the present time, experimental and clinical research suggests that CICI could be induced by numerous factors including oxidative stress...
May 2016: Aging and Disease
Junya Fukai, Hiroki Nishibayashi, Yuji Uematsu, Yonehiro Kanemura, Koji Fujita, Naoyuki Nakao
Carmustine wafers, which are locally delivered chemotherapy in the form of biodegradable implants, confer a survival benefit to patients with glioblastoma (GB) following surgical resection. While the adverse events of this method, including gas retention and perifocal edema, have been extensively investigated, the immediate efficacy of the implant has rarely been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of GB in which the tumor rapidly regressed after partial surgical removal followed by implantation of carmustine wafers...
July 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Martyna Maciejewska, Emilian Snarski, Wiesław Wiktor-Jędrzejczak
OBJECTIVES: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant has become a successful treatment option in aggressive autoimmune diseases. Young women who are consulted before this treatment are faced with an absence of data on the transplant's effect on their fertility. The aim of our study was to analyze information on menstruation recovery after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant for autoimmune diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed among members of an international Web forum of patients who had autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant for autoimmune disease...
June 15, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Joseph C Alvarnas, Jennifer Le Rademacher, Yanli Wang, Richard F Little, Gorgun Akpek, Ernesto Ayala, Steven Devine, Robert Baiocchi, Gerard Lozanski, Lawrence Kaplan, Ariela Noy, Uday Popat, Jack Hsu, Lawrence E Morris, Jason Thompson, Mary M Horowitz, Adam Mendizabal, Alexandra Levine, Amrita Krishnan, Stephen J Forman, Willis H Navarro, Richard Ambinder
Autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) for HIV-infected patients is largely limited to centers with HIV-specific expertise. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network 0803/AIDS Malignancy Consortium 071 trial is a multicenter phase 2 study of AHCT for patients with HIV-related lymphoma (HRL). Eligible patients had chemotherapy-sensitive relapsed/persistent HRL, were >15 years of age, and had treatable HIV infection. Patients were prepared using carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan and received consistent management of peritransplant antiretroviral treatment...
August 25, 2016: Blood
Kiyotaka Saito, Kouji Yamasaki, Kiyotaka Yokogami, Asya Ivanova, Go Takeishi, Yuichiro Sato, Hideo Takeshima
Although carmustine (Gliadel) wafers improve local tumor control and extend the overall survival in patients with malignant glioma, adverse effects have been documented. The authors report the first case of eosinophilic meningitis triggered by the placement of Gliadel wafers. A 61-year-old man with a history of alimentary allergy and glioblastoma in the right frontal lobe underwent resection followed by the implantation of Gliadel wafers. Three weeks later he suffered the sudden onset of headache, vomiting, and progressive consciousness disturbance...
June 10, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Yuan-Yun Tseng, Yi-Chuan Kau, Shih-Jung Liu
INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent primary neoplasm of the brain. Moreover, the prognosis of patients with GBM has been poor, with almost uniform progressive neurological impairment and rapid death. Despite the availability of multimodal treatments through surgery, focal radiation, and chemotherapy, no major progress has been reported until recently. AREA COVERED: The development of interstitial biodegradable carmustine wafers (Gliadel) for treating selected patients with malignant gliomas has resulted in marginal survival benefits in such patients (only approximately 2 months longer than that of those who did not receive the treatment)...
June 1, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Alessandro Isidori, Anna Christofides, Giuseppe Visani
High-dose therapy (HDT) followed by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is the standard treatment for relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma. Until recently, carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (BEAM) was the most commonly used conditioning regimen in this setting, given its acceptable efficacy and tolerability. Despite reasonable success with BEAM, carmustine is associated with a number of acute and late toxicities. Moreover, recent supply and cost issues for this agent have created an urgent need for alternative conditioning regimens...
November 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Chibawanye I Ene, John D Nerva, Ryan P Morton, Ariana S Barkley, Jason K Barber, Andrew L Ko, Daniel L Silbergeld
BACKGROUND: Carmustine (BCNU) wafers (Gliadel) prolongs local disease control and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with malignant gliomas. However, in metastatic brain tumors, there is a paucity of evidence in support of its safety and efficacy. The goal of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of Gliadel wafers in patients with metastatic brain tumors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the University of Washington experience with Gliadel wafers for metastatic brain tumors between 2000 and 2015...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Eiichi Ishikawa, Tetsuya Yamamoto
Carmustine (BCNU) wafer implantation has been used in Japanese patients after resection of high-grade glioma (HGG) since 2013. Wafer implantation plays an important role in improving the prognosis of HGG patients, but it often causes particular changes as observed on neuroimaging and various adverse effects (AEs). Here, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey of Japanese neurosurgeons to determine how they feel about this treatment based on their actual observations. Most neurosurgeons had a positive impression of the treatment based on previous evidence of clinical effectiveness...
May 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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