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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154832/carboxylesterase-genes-in-pyrethroid-resistant-house-flies-musca-domestica
#1
Xuechun Feng, Ming Li, Nannan Liu
Carboxylesterases are one of the major enzyme families involved in the detoxification of pyrethroids. Up-regulation of carboxylesterase genes is thought to be a major component of insecticide resistant mechanisms in insects. Based on the house fly transcriptome and genome database, a total of 39 carboxylesterase genes of different functional clades have been identified in house flies. In this study, eleven of these genes were found to be significantly overexpressed in the resistant ALHF house fly strain compared with susceptible aabys and wild-type CS strains...
November 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154726/comparison-of-apolipoprotein-apob-apoa-1-and-lipoprotein-total-cholesterol-hdl-ratios-in-obese-adolescents
#2
Ramin Alemzadeh, Jessica Kichler
BACKGROUND: Serum (ApoB/ApoA-1) ratio is considered a stronger predictor of systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis than serum total cholesterol/HDL (TC/HDL) ratio among adults. We evaluated the relationships between ApoB/ApoA-1 and TC/HDL ratios with surrogate markers of inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) among obese adolescents. METHODS: Body mass index z-score (BMI-z), body composition, fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, high-sensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were evaluated in 143 obese adolescents...
November 20, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151890/techno-economic-and-resource-analysis-of-hydroprocessed-renewable-jet-fuel
#3
Ling Tao, Anelia Milbrandt, Yanan Zhang, Wei-Cheng Wang
Background: Biomass-derived jet fuel is an alternative jet fuel (AJF) showing promise of reducing the dependence on fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) concept is also known as one of the pathways for producing bio jet fuel. HEFA fuel was approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials in 2011, and can be blended up to 50% with conventional jet fuel. Since then, several HEFA economic and life-cycle assessments have been published in literature...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151596/comparison-of-regional-fat-measurements-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-conventional-anthropometry-and-their-association-with-markers-of-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#4
S K Vasan, C Osmond, D Canoy, C Christodoulides, M J Neville, C Di Gravio, C H D Fall, F Karpe
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Fat distribution is a strong and independent predictor of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is usually determined using conventional anthropometry in epidemiological studies. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can measure total and regional adiposity more accurately. Nonetheless, whether DXA provides more precise estimates of cardiovascular risk in relation to total and regional adiposity is not known. We determined the strength of the associations between DXA- and conventional anthropometry determined fat distribution and T2D and CVD risk...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151298/impact-of-body-mass-index-waist-circumference-and-pfannenstiel-sitetissue-thickness-and-elastosonography-on-operative-parameters
#5
Serap Gültekin, İsmail Burak Gültekin, Zehra Yılmaz, Bilal İçer, Afra Alkan, Tuncay Küçüközkan
Background/aim: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of body fat distribution measured by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and Pfannenstiel incision site tissue thickness, and elastosonography on bleeding and operation time during cesarean delivery.Materials and methods: A prospective study was made of 52 healthy, term pregnant women with prior cesarean deliveries. The impact of BMI, WC, incision site thickness, and elastosonography on preoperative and postoperative differences in hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Htc) levels and operation times was evaluated...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149712/detection-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-sulphonates-in-italian-eel-samples-by-hplc-hrms-orbitrap
#6
Luca Maria Chiesa, Maria Nobile, Elisa Pasquale, Claudia Balzaretti, Petra Cagnardi, Doriana Tedesco, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contain one or more carbon-bound hydrogens substituted by fluorine. Since the 1950s, these compounds have been used to manufacture fat- and water-resistant fabrics, paper and food containers, and to produce photographic films, firefighting foams, detergents and insecticides. The widespread use and global distribution of PFASs, have led to their accumulation in the environment. Food, particularly fish and other seafood, is considered the main route of human exposure to PFASs...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149174/cystatin-b-cathepsin-l-and-d-related-to-surrogate-markers-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-children
#7
Magnus Dencker, Tina Tanha, Magnus K Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Lars B Andersen, Ola Thorsson
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated potential associations between novel biomarkers for cardiovascular disease and other surrogate markers for health. METHODS: Community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass (TBF) and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total body fat was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148120/mapping-brown-adipose-tissue-based-on-fat-water-fraction-provided-by-z-spectral-imaging
#8
Alessandro Scotti, Rong-Wen Tain, Weiguo Li, Victoria Gil, Chong Wee Liew, Kejia Cai
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a great relevance in metabolic diseases and has been shown to be reduced in obesity and insulin resistance patients. Currently, Dixon MRI is used to calculate fat-water fraction (FWF) and differentiate BAT from white adipose tissue (WAT). However, it may fail in areas of phase wrapping and introduce fat-water swapping artifacts. PURPOSE: To investigate the capacity of the Z-spectrum imaging (ZSI) for the identification of BAT in vivo...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147778/genome-wide-investigation-of-transcription-factors-provides-insights-into-transcriptional-regulation-in-plutella-xylostella
#9
Qian Zhao, Dongna Ma, Yuping Huang, Weiyi He, Yiying Li, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
Transcription factors (TFs), which play a vital role in regulating gene expression, are prevalent in all organisms and characterization of them may provide important clues for understanding regulation in vivo. The present study reports a genome-wide investigation of TFs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a worldwide pest of crucifers. A total of 940 TFs distributed among 133 families were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of insect species showed that some of these families were found to have expanded during the evolution of P...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142243/genetic-risk-scores-for-body-fat-distribution-attenuate-weight-loss-in-women-during-dietary-intervention
#10
M Svendstrup, K H Allin, T I A Sørensen, T H Hansen, N Grarup, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142011/effect-of-distinct-lifestyle-interventions-on-mobilization-of-fat-storage-pools-the-central-mri-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136711/-the-optimal-cutoff-value-of-waist-to-height-ratio-in-chinese-based-on-cardiovascular-risk-and-metabolic-disease
#12
A H Jia, S Y Xu, J Ming, J Zhou, W C Zhang, P R Hao, Q H Ji
Objective: Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), a measurement of the distribution of body fat, correlated with abdominal obesity indicating that it might be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk and metabolic disease. We, therefore, evaluated optimal WHtR cutoff points according to the risk of framingham risk score (FRS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese. Methods: The subjects were from China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey during 2007-2008. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to examine the optimal cutoff values of WHtR according to the risk of FRS and MS...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134673/modified-dixon-based-renal-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-facilitates-automated-registration-and-perfusion-analysis
#13
Anneloes de Boer, Tim Leiner, Eva E Vink, Peter J Blankestijn, Cornelis A T van den Berg
PURPOSE: Renal dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI provides information on renal perfusion and filtration. However, clinical implementation is hampered by challenges in postprocessing as a result of misalignment of the kidneys due to respiration. We propose to perform automated image registration using the fat-only images derived from a modified Dixon reconstruction of a dual-echo acquisition because these provide consistent contrast over the dynamic series. METHODS: DCE data of 10 hypertensive patients was used...
November 13, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134302/nuclear-organization-during-in-vitro-differentiation-of-porcine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-into-adipocytes
#14
Joanna Stachecka, Agnieszka Walczak, Beata Kociucka, Błażej Ruszczycki, Grzegorz Wilczyński, Izabela Szczerbal
Differentiation of progenitor cells into adipocytes is accompanied by remarkable changes in cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and gene expression profile. Mature adipocytes are filled with a large lipid droplet and the nucleus tends to move to the cell periphery. It was hypothesized that the differentiation process is also associated with changes of nuclear organization. The aim of this study was to determine the number and distribution of selected components of nuclear architecture during porcine in vitro adipogenesis...
November 13, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133317/association-between-visceral-obesity-and-hepatitis-c-infection-stratified-by-gender-a-cross-sectional-study-in-taiwan
#15
Yu-Chung Tsao, Jau-Yuan Chen, Wei-Chung Yeh, Yun-Shing Peng, Wen-Cheng Li
OBJECTIVES: The global prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is approximately 2%-3%, and the prevalence of the positive anti-HCV antibody has been increasing. Several studies have evaluated regional adipose tissue distribution and metabolism over the past decades. However, no study has focused on the gender difference in visceral obesity among patients with HCV infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: We reviewed the medical records of patients who visited a hospital in Southern Taiwan for health check-up from 2013 to 2015...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133203/expression-and-functional-characterization-of-tachykinin-related-peptides-in-the-blood-feeding-bug-rhodnius-prolixus
#16
A N S Haddad, M S Defferrari, S Hana, S G Szeto, A B Lange
Tachykinins (tachykinin-related peptides, TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that have widespread distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the gastrointestinal tract of many insects, and most have been shown to stimulate contractions of visceral muscles. Invertebrate TRPs carry a characteristic conserved C-terminal pentapeptide (FXGXR-amide) and most of them share some amino acid sequence similarities (approx. 45%) with the vertebrate and mammalian tachykinin family. We have functionally characterized the tachykinins in R...
November 10, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131859/development-and-validation-of-an-immunoperoxidase-antigen-detection-test-for-improved-diagnosis-of-rabies-in-indonesia
#17
Ibnu Rahmadane, Andrea F Certoma, Grantley R Peck, Yul Fitria, Jean Payne, Axel Colling, Brian J Shiell, Gary Beddome, Susanne Wilson, Meng Yu, Chris Morrissy, Wojtek P Michalski, John Bingham, Ian A Gardner, John D Allen
Rabies continues to pose a significant threat to human and animal health in regions of Indonesia. Indonesia has an extensive network of veterinary diagnostic laboratories and the 8 National laboratories are equipped to undertake diagnostic testing for rabies using the commercially-procured direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT), which is considered the reference (gold standard) test. However, many of the Indonesian Provincial diagnostic laboratories do not have a fluorescence microscope required to undertake the FAT...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130706/androgen-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-maximal-fat-oxidation-in-healthy-men-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Jesús Gustavo Ponce González, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Francisco Germán Rodríguez-González, Rafael Torres-Peralta, David Morales-Alamo, Lorena Rodríguez-García, Bonifacio Nicolás Díaz-Chico, José Antonio López Calbet, Cecilia Dorado
INTRODUCTION: Androgens play a major role in fat oxidation; however, the effects of androgens depend, among other factors, on the intrinsic characteristics of the androgen receptor (AR). Lower repetitions of CAG and GGN polymorphism appear to have a protective effect on fat accumulation in the transition from adolescent to mid-twenties. Whether a similar protective effect is present later in life remains unknown. The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate if extreme CAG and GGN repeat polymorphisms of the androgen receptors influence body fat mass, its regional distribution, resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximal fat oxidation capacity (MFO) and serum leptin, free testosterone and osteocalcin in healthy adult men; and b) to determine the longitudinal effects on fat tissue accumulation after 6...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129355/a-metagenomic-approach-to-dissect-the-genetic-composition-of-enterotypes-in-han-chinese-and-two-muslim-groups
#19
Jing Li, Ruiqing Fu, Yajun Yang, Hans-Peter Horz, Yaqun Guan, Yan Lu, Haiyi Lou, Lei Tian, Shijie Zheng, Hongjiao Liu, Meng Shi, Kun Tang, Sijia Wang, Shuhua Xu
Distinct enterotypes have been observed in the human gut but little is known about the genetic basis of the microbiome. Moreover, it is not clear how many genetic differences exist between enterotypes within or between populations. In this study, both the 16S rRNA gene and the metagenomes of the gut microbiota were sequenced from 48 Han Chinese, 48 Kazaks, and 96 Uyghurs, and taxonomies were assigned after de novo assembly. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified by referring to data from the Human Microbiome Project...
November 9, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128339/rs6923761-gene-variant-in-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-allelic-frequencies-and-influence-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-a-multicenter-study-of-castilla-leon
#20
D A de Luis, M Ballesteros, A Lopez Guzman, E Ruiz, C Muñoz, M A Penacho, P Iglesias, A Maldonado, V Puigdevall, M Delgado
BACKGROUND: Some GLP-1 receptor studies have identified polymorphisms in the GLP-1 receptor gene that might be related to different cardiovascular risk factors. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the allelic distribution of rs6923761 GLP-1 receptor polymorphism in a geographic area of Spain (Community of Castilla y Leon) and to evaluate the influence of this polymorphism on obesity anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors in the fasted state in obese patients...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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