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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331465/genome-wide-association-study-for-milk-infrared-wavenumbers
#1
Qiuyu Wang, Henk Bovenhuis
Individual wavenumbers of the infrared (IR) spectra of bovine milk have been shown to be moderately to highly heritable. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with individual milk IR wavenumbers. This is expected to provide information about the genetic background of milk composition and give insight in the relation between IR wavenumbers and milk components. For this purpose, a genome-wide association study was performed for a selected set of 50 individual IR wavenumbers measured on 1,748 Dutch Holstein cows...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330433/effect-of-atorvastatin-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-high-fat-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemic-rats
#2
Tariq Jamal Khan, Youssri M Ahmed, Mazin A Zamzami, Saleh A Mohamed, Imran Khan, Othman A S Baothman, Mohamed G Mehanna, Muhammad Yasir
The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in gut microbiota associated with hypercholesterolemia and treatment with atorvastatin, a commonly prescribed cholesterol-lowering drug. In this study, seven experimental groups of rats were developed based on diets [high-fat diet (HFD) and normal chow diet (NCD)] and various doses of atorvastatin in HFD and NCD groups. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to analyze the gut microbiota. Atorvastatin significantly reduced the cholesterol level in treated rats...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327789/imaging-macrophage-distribution-and-density-in-mammary-tumors-and-lung-metastases-using-fluorine-19-mri-cell-tracking
#3
Ashley V Makela, Paula J Foster
PURPOSE: The presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) correlates with breast cancer progression and metastatic spread. Metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs) are also recruited to distant sites, where they support metastatic growth. In this study, we demonstrate that in vivo fluorine-19 (19 F)-based MRI cell tracking can evaluate the density and distribution of macrophages within murine breast cancer tumors and associated metastases. METHODS: Three murine breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials (4T1, 168FARN, and 67NR) were implanted into the mammary fat pad in mice...
January 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327584/gama-aminobutyric-acid-enriched-rice-bran-diet-attenuates-insulin-resistance-and-balances-energy-expenditure-via-modification-of-gut-microbiota-and-scfas
#4
Xu Si, Wenting Shang, Zhongkai Zhou, Guanghou Shui, Sin Man Lam, Christopher L Blanchard, Padraig Strappe
In this study, gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched rice bran (ERB) was supplemented to obese rats to investigate the attenuation of metabolic syndromes induced by high-fat diet. ERB-containing diet stimulated butyrate and propionate production by promoting Anaerostipes, Anaerostipes sp. and associated synthesizing enzymes. This altered SCFA distribution further enhanced circulatory levels of leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, controlling food intake by down-regulating orexigenic factors. Together with the enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation highlighted by Prkaa2, Ppara, Scd1 expression via AMPK signaling pathway and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathway, energy expenditure was positively modulated...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327139/galectin-3-levels-relate-in-children-to-total-body-fat-abdominal-fat-body-fat-distribution-and-cardiac-size
#5
Magnus Dencker, Daniel Arvidsson, Magnus K Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Lars B Andersen, Ola Thorsson
Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325772/the-association-of-snp276g-t-at-adiponectin-gene-with-insulin-resistance-and-circulating-adiponectin-in-response-to-two-different-hypocaloric-diets
#6
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, R Aller, A Ortola, E Gómez, J J Lopez
BACKGROUND: Several adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) have been related with adiponectin levels and risk for obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of rs1501299 ADIPOQ gene polymorphism and dietary intake on total adiponectin levels and insulin resistance after two hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Caucasian population of 284 obese patients was enrolled in a randomized clinical trial with two hypocaloric diets (I: moderate carbohydrates vs II: low fat)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325553/sitagliptin-improved-glucose-assimilation-in-detriment-of-fatty-acid-utilization-in-experimental-type-ii-diabetes-role-of-glp-1-isoforms-in-glut4-receptor-trafficking
#7
E Ramírez, B Picatoste, A González-Bris, M Oteo, F Cruz, A Caro-Vadillo, J Egido, J Tuñón, M A Morcillo, Ó Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: The distribution of glucose and fatty-acid transporters in the heart is crucial for energy consecution and myocardial function. In this sense, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhancer, sitagliptin, improves glucose homeostasis but it could also trigger direct cardioprotective actions, including regulation of energy substrate utilization. METHODS: Type-II diabetic GK (Goto-Kakizaki), sitagliptin-treated GK (10 mg/kg/day) and wistar rats (n = 10, each) underwent echocardiographic evaluation, and positron emission tomography scanning for [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG)...
January 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322549/noise-properties-of-proton-density-fat-fraction-estimated-using-chemical-shift-encoded-mri
#8
Nathan T Roberts, Diego Hernando, James H Holmes, Curtis N Wiens, Scott B Reeder
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to characterize the noise distribution of proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measured using chemical shift-encoded MRI, and to provide alternative strategies to reduce bias in PDFF estimation. THEORY: We derived the probability density function for PDFF estimated using chemical shift-encoded MRI, and found it to exhibit an asymmetric noise distribution that contributes to signal-to-noise-ratio dependent bias. METHODS: To study PDFF noise bias, we performed (at 1...
January 10, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321599/splicing-qtl-of-human-adipose-related-traits
#9
Liang Ma, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao
Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 loci associated with adipose-related traits across different populations. However, their functional roles still remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the splicing regulation of these GWAS signals in a tissue-specific fashion. For adipose-related GWAS signals, we selected six adipose-related tissues (adipose subcutaneous, artery tibial, blood, heart left ventricle, muscle-skeletal, and thyroid) with the sample size greater than 80 for splicing quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis using GTEx released datasets...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317321/differential-distribution-and-association-of-fto-rs9939609-gene-polymorphism-with-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study-among-two-tribal-populations-of-india-with-east-asian-ancestry
#10
Somorjit Singh Ningombam, Varhlun Chhungi, Masan Kambo Newmei, Sunanda Rajkumari, Naorem Kiranmala Devi, Prakash Ranjan Mondal, Kallur Nava Saraswathy
The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 gene polymorphism is most widely studied in terms of obesity in various populations. Recently, the prevalence of obesity has been reported to be very high among the North-Eastern State of India. The major aim of the present study is to understand the extent of FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism and its association with obesity among the two North-East Indian tribal populations with similar East Asian ancestry. Somatometric data and fasting blood sample were collected from 521 tribal individuals (258 Liangmai and 263 Mizo) of Manipur after obtaining written informed consent...
January 6, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311037/relationships-among-dietary-intakes-and-persistent-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-receiving-enzyme-treatment-for-genetic-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency
#11
Anne Boney, Heather E Elser, Heidi J Silver
BACKGROUND: Sucrose-isomaltase deficiency (SID) remains underdiagnosed. Absent or reduced enzyme activity promotes diarrhea, abdominal bloating, and flatulence from undigested and malabsorbed disaccharides. Frequency and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms may be associated with the type of carbohydrates consumed. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the dietary intakes of patients treated with sacrosidase (Sucraid; QOL Medical) for SID and determine relationships between type of carbohydrates, sacrosidase dose, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306717/body-fat-percentage-is-better-than-indicators-of-weight-status-to-identify-children-and-adolescents-with-unfavorable-lipid-profile
#12
Polyana Romano Oliosa, Divanei Zaniqueli, Rafael de Oliveira Alvim, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues Barbosa, José Geraldo Mill
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (<P95) or obese (≥P95) according to body fat percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio...
January 4, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305401/changes-in-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-and-long-term-successful-weight-loss-in-response-to-weight-loss-diets-the-pounds-lost-trial
#13
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Steven R Smith, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Adiposity and the gut microbiota are both related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to comprehensively examine how changes induced by a weight-loss diet intervention in gut microbiota-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline and l-carnitine), were associated with improvements in adiposity and regional fat deposition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 510 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned one of four diets varying in macronutrient intake...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301208/effects-of-plant-oil-interesterified-triacylglycerols-on-lipemia-and-human-health
#14
REVIEW
Andreina Alfieri, Esther Imperlini, Ersilia Nigro, Daniela Vitucci, Stefania Orrù, Aurora Daniele, Pasqualina Buono, Annamaria Mancini
The position of the fatty acids (sn-1, sn-2 and sn-3) (stereospecific numbering (sn)) in triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules produces a characteristic stereospecificity that defines the physical properties of the fats and influences their absorption, metabolism and uptake into tissues. Fat interesterification is a process that implies a positional distribution of fatty acids (FAs) within the TAG molecules, generating new TAG species, without affecting the FA cis-trans natural balance. The interesterified (IE) fats, frequently used in the food industry comprise fats that are rich in long-chain saturated FAs, such as palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0)...
December 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300982/gender-and-schooling-inequalities-in-risk-and-protective-factors-for-chronic-diseases-among-brazilian-adults
#15
Carla C Enes, Luciana B Nucci
Background: There is consistent evidence showing that low socioeconomic level, both at the individual and contextual levels, is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality due to noncommunicable diseases. Objective: To identify gender and schooling inequalities in the distribution of risk and protective factors for chronic diseases among Brazilian adults. Methods: This study included data from 97 468 individuals interviewed in 2012 and 2013 from the Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300913/simultaneous-use-of-selective-neurectomy-with-liposuction-for-calf-reduction-in-asians
#16
Seong Hoon Park, Joo Hyun Kim, Jun Won Lee, Hii Sun Jeong, In Suck Suh
Background: Calf contouring continues to be popular among Northeast Asians. Calf hypertrophy and distorted leg contours are stressful to many women. Several calf reduction techniques such as a selective neurectomy or calf muscle resection have been attempted, but have inconsistent results. Objectives: This study was designed to demonstrate improved outcomes when combining a selective neurectomy with simultaneous liposuction. Methods: A total of 780 patients with hypertrophic calves underwent calf reduction from January 2002 to December 2010...
December 28, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299987/atherogenic-index-of-plasma-is-associated-with-body-fat-level-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#17
Ping Song, Lan Xu, Jin Xu, Hai-Qing Zhang, Chun-Xiao Yu, Qing-Bo Guan, Meng Zhao, Xu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of body fat distribution and the relationship between body fat index and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: A total of 316 participants were divided into a T2DM group and a non-diabetes group (controls). According to the visceral fat area (VFA), all participants were further divided into VFA ≥100 cm2 and VFA <100 cm2 groups. To compare the differences of blood lipid, blood glucose, body fat index and AIP between the 2 groups, single factor correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between the indexes and AIP, and multiple linear regression was used to analyse the correlation between the related factors and AIP...
January 3, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298511/chrysanthemum-indicum-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-activates-the-ampk-pathway-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Sarmila Nepali, Ji-Yun Cha, Hyeon-Hui Ki, Hoon-Yeon Lee, Young-Ho Kim, Dae-Ki Kim, Bong-Joon Song, Young-Mi Lee
Chrysanthemum indicum (CI) is widely distributed in China and many parts of the tropical world, and has been reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects, but no information is available on its effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. This was undertaken to investigate the mechanism responsible for the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of CI (CIEA) on adipogenesis, in vitro and in vivo models of obesity. In the in vitro study, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells were treated with media to initiate differentiation (MDI) in the presence or absence of CIEA with different concentrations, and in the in vivo study, C57BL/6 mice were fed with HFD and administered CIEA daily for six weeks...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298067/high-levels-of-avenanthramides-in-oat-based-diet-further-suppress-high-fat-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-in-ldlr-mice
#19
Michael Thomas, Sharon Kim, Weimin Guo, William F Collins, Mitchell L Wise, Mohsen Meydani
Oats, in addition to cholesterol-lowering properties, contain unique antioxidants called avenanthramides (Avns), which inhibit both inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in endothelial cells in culture. This study evaluated the effects of Avns of oats on atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice, one of the most commonly used atherosclerosis mouse models with their similar cholesterol distributions to humans. The Ldlr-/- mice were fed a low fat, high fat, high fat containing regular oat brans with low levels of Avns (HFLA), or high fat containing regular oat brans with high levels of Avns (HFHA) diet...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286319/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-non-pharmaceutical-ischemic-stroke-therapy-in-aged-subjects
#20
REVIEW
Raluca Elena Sandu, Danut Dumbrava, Roxana Surugiu, Daniela-Gabriela Glavan, Andrei Gresita, Eugen Bogdan Petcu
The incidence of ischemic stroke in humans increases exponentially above 70 years both in men and women. Comorbidities like diabetes, arterial hypertension or co-morbidity factors such as hypercholesterolemia, obesity and body fat distribution as well as fat-rich diet and physical inactivity are common in elderly persons and are associated with higher risk of stroke, increased mortality and disability. Obesity could represent a state of chronic inflammation that can be prevented to some extent by non-pharmaceutical interventions such as calorie restriction and hypothermia...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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