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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324021/endogenous-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#1
Tian Liu, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Takayuki Sakurai, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Lei Yang, Megumu Tanaka, Xian Xian, Akira Imai, Liuyu Zhai, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Kun Dai, Keiya Tanimura, Teng Liu, Nanqi Cui, Kyoko Igarashi, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Shindo
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a bioactive peptide produced by alternative splicing of the primary transcript of the calcitonin/CGRP gene. CGRP is largely distributed in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, where it acts as a regulatory factor. CGRP is also expressed in organs and tissues involved in metabolic regulation, including white adipose tissue (WAT), where its function is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of endogenous CGRP on metabolic function. When we administered a high-fat diet to CGRP knockout (CGRP-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice for 10 weeks, we observed that food intake did not differ between the two groups, but body weight and visceral fat weight were significantly lower in CGRP-/- mice...
January 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323972/neurosecretory-protein-gl-a-hypothalamic-small-secretory-protein-participates-in-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#2
Daichi Matsuura, Kenshiro Shikano, Takaya Saito, Eiko Iwakoshi-Ukena, Megumi Furumitsu, Yuta Ochi, Manami Sato, George E Bentley, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Kazuyoshi Ukena
We have recently identified a novel cDNA encoding a small secretory protein termed neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL) from the avian hypothalamus. In chicks, NPGL increases body weight gain without affecting food intake. A database search reveals that NPGL is conserved throughout vertebrates. However, the central distribution and functional role of NPGL remains to be elucidated in mammals. In this study, we identified the precursor cDNA encoding NPGL from the mouse hypothalamus. Quantitative RT-PCR and morphological analyses revealed that NPGL precursor mRNA is robustly expressed in the mediobasal hypothalamus with NPGL neurons specifically localized to the lateroposterior part of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus...
March 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317858/near-infrared-photoluminescent-carbon-nanotubes-for-imaging-of-brown-fat
#3
Masako Yudasaka, Yohei Yomogida, Minfang Zhang, Takeshi Tanaka, Masako Nakahara, Norihiko Kobayashi, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Ken Machida, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Kumiko Saeki, Hiromichi Kataura
Near-infrared photoluminescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are expected to provide effectual bio-imaging tools, although, as yet, only limited applications have been reported. Here, we report that CNTs coated with an amphiphilic and biocompatible polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate; PMB), generate high-quality images of brown fat. Brown fat is a heat-productive adipose tissue, which is attracting increasing attention as a new therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic disorders...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316139/changes-in-body-composition-and-metabolic-profile-during-interleukin-6-inhibition-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Anne Tournadre, Bruno Pereira, Fréderic Dutheil, Charlotte Giraud, Daniel Courteix, Vincent Sapin, Thomas Frayssac, Sylvain Mathieu, Sandrine Malochet-Guinamand, Martin Soubrier
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased mortality associated with cardiometabolic disorders including dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and cachectic obesity. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and interleukin 6 receptor blocker licensed for the treatment of RA decrease inflammation and could thus improve cardiovascular risk, but their effects on body composition and metabolic profile need to be clarified. We investigated the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody, on body composition and metabolic profile in patients treated for RA...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315932/body-and-liver-fat-content-and-adipokines-in-schizophrenia-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-study
#5
Jong-Hoon Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim, Pil-Whan Park, Jürgen Machann, Michael Roden, Sheen-Woo Lee, Jong-Hee Hwang
RATIONALE: Although antipsychotic treatment often causes weight gain and lipid abnormalities, quantitative analyses of tissue-specific body fat content and its distribution along with adipokines have not been reported for antipsychotic-treated patients. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of the present study were to quantitatively assess abdominal and liver fat in patients with schizophrenia on antipsychotic treatment and age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls and to evaluate their associations with plasma leptin and adiponectin levels...
March 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315779/energy-and-macronutrient-intake-over-the-course-of-the-day-of-german-adults-a-dedipac-study
#6
Friederike Wittig, Eva Hummel, Germaine Wenzler, Thorsten Heuer
The aim of the study was to analyze the energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of selected population groups in Germany defined by sex, age, BMI, SES, and diet quality. The study was based on food consumption data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (2005-2007) assessed by two 4-day dietary weighing records of 662 women and men aged between 18 and 80 years. Energy and macronutrient intake were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02 and summarized for the periods 'morning', 'midday', 'afternoon', 'evening', and 'night'...
March 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306550/female-pelvic-synthetic-ct-generation-based-on-joint-intensity-and-shape-analysis
#7
Lianli Liu, Shruti Jolly, Yue Cao, Karen Vineberg, Jeffrey A Fessler, James M Balter
Using MRI for radiotherapy treatment planning and image guidance is appealing as it provides superior soft tissue information over CT scans and avoids possible systematic errors introduced by aligning MR to CT images. This study presents a method that generates Synthetic CT (MRCT) volumes by performing probabilistic tissue classification of voxels from MRI data using a single imaging sequence (T1 Dixon). The intensity overlap between different tissues on MR images, a major challenge for voxel-based MRCT generation methods, is addressed by adding bone shape information to an intensity-based classification scheme...
March 17, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302391/non-uniform-muscle-fat-replacement-along-the-proximodistal-axis-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#8
M T Hooijmans, E H Niks, J Burakiewicz, C Anastasopoulos, S I van den Berg, E van Zwet, A G Webb, J J G M Verschuuren, H E Kan
The progressive replacement of muscle tissue by fat in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has been studied using quantitative MRI between, but not within, individual muscles. We studied fat replacement along the proximodistal muscle axis using the Dixon technique on a 3T MR scanner in 22 DMD patients and 12 healthy controls. Mean fat fractions per muscle per slice for seven lower and upper leg muscles were compared between and within groups assuming a parabolic distribution. Average fat fraction for a small central slice stack and a large coverage slice stack were compared to the value when the stack was shifted one slice (15 mm) up or down...
February 21, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301844/the-placenta-maternal-diet-and-adipose-tissue-development-in-the-newborn
#9
Michael E Symonds, Ian Bloor, Shalini Ojha, Helen Budge
BACKGROUND: A majority of adipose tissue present in the newborn possess the unique mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein (UCP1). It is thus highly metabolically active and capable of producing 300 times more heat per unit mass than any other organ in the body. The extent to which maternal obesity and/or an obesogenic diet impacts on placental function thereby resetting the relative distribution of different types of fat in the fetus is unknown. SUMMARY: Developmentally the majority (if not all) fat in the fetus can be considered as classical brown fat, in which UCP1 is highly abundant...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298399/growth-differentiation-factor-15-is-a-predictor-of-important-disease-outcomes-in-patients-with-copd
#10
Gunnar R Husebø, Rune Grønseth, Lorena Lerner, Jeno Gyuris, Jon A Hardie, Per S Bakke, Tomas M Eagan
Increased levels of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) are associated with cachexia, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The role of GDF15 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown.The study included 413 patients with COPD from the Bergen COPD Cohort Study. All patients had a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) <80% predicted, a FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio <0.7 and a history of smoking. Spirometry, fat free mass index, blood gases and plasma GDF15 were measured at baseline...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297801/-effect-of-curcumin-on-intestinal-mucosal-mechanical-barrier-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
H T Hou, Y M Qiu, H W Zhao, D H Li, Y T Liu, Y Z Wang, S H Su
Objective: To investigate the effect of curcumin on intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into normal control group, model group, and curcumin intervention group. The rats in the model group and the curcumin intervention group were given high-fat feed for 16 weeks, and those in the curcumin intervention group were given curcumin 200 mg/kg/day by gavage once a day after 8 weeks of high-fat feeding...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293435/interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-and-interleukin-4-genes-variable-number-tandem-repeats-are-associated-with-adiposity-in-malaysian-subjects
#12
Yung-Yean Kok, Hing-Huat Ong, Yee-How Say
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) intron 2 86 bp repeat and interleukin-4 (IL4) intron 3 70 bp repeat are variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) that have been associated with various diseases, but their role in obesity is elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of IL1RA and IL4 VNTRs with obesity and adiposity in 315 Malaysian subjects (128 M/187 F; 23 Malays/251 ethnic Chinese/41 ethnic Indians). The allelic distributions of IL1RA and IL4 were significantly different among ethnicities, and the alleles were associated with total body fat (TBF) classes...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289621/posterior-interosseous-nerve-syndrome-resulting-from-parosteal-lipoma-of-the-proximal-radius-an-elusive-diagnosis-yet-excellent-outcome
#13
Muhammad Saaiq, Saad Siddiui
A 53-year old man presented with seven months history of progressive weakness of extension of the digits and the thumb of the left hand. The wrist extension was normal and sensations were also intact. The patient had also been noticing a progressively enlarging lump on the lower anterolateral aspect of the left antecubital fossa for the last three months. Physical examination andelectro diagnostic studies revealed motor deficit along the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) distribution with preservation of sensations...
January 2017: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284880/sex-differences-in-obesity-x-chromosome-dosage-as-a-risk-factor-for-increased-food-intake-adiposity-and-co-morbidities
#14
REVIEW
Karen Reue
Obesity is a world-wide problem, and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. It is well established that sex differences influence fat storage. Males and females exhibit differences in anatomical fat distribution, utilization of fat stores, levels of adipose tissue-derived hormones, and obesity co-morbidities. The basis for these sex differences may be parsed into the effects of male vs. female gonadal hormones and the effects of XX vs. XY chromosome complement. Studies employing mouse models that allow the distinction of gonadal from chromosomal effects have revealed that X chromosome dosage influences food intake, which in turn affects adiposity and the occurrence of adverse metabolic conditions such as hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and fatty liver...
March 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284809/discovery-of-orally-active-hepatoselective-glucokinase-activators-for-treatment-of-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Jiayi Xu, Songnian Lin, Robert W Myers, Maria E Trujillo, Michele J Pachanski, Sunita Malkani, Hsuan-Shen Chen, Zhesheng Chen, Brian Campbell, George J Eiermann, Nadine Elowe, Brian T Farrer, Wen Feng, Qinghong Fu, Roman Kats-Kagan, Michael Kavana, Daniel R McMasters, Kaushik Mitra, Xinchun Tong, Libo Xu, Fengqi Zhang, Rui Zhang, George H Addona, Joel P Berger, Bei Zhang, Emma R Parmee
Systemically acting glucokinase activators (GKA) have been demonstrated in clinical trials to effectively lower blood glucose in patients with type II diabetes. However, mechanism-based hypoglycemia is a major adverse effect that limits the therapeutic potential of these agents. We hypothesized that the predominant mechanism leading to hypoglycemia is GKA-induced excessive insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells at (sub-)euglycemic levels. We further hypothesized that restricting GK activation to hepatocytes would maintain glucose-lowering efficacy while significantly reducing hypoglycemic risk...
October 31, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283399/dietary-intake-and-lipid-profile-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis
#16
Janna W Woestenenk, Dorothea A Schulkes, Henk S Schipper, Cornelis K van der Ent, Roderick H J Houwen
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are advised to derive 35% of their daily energy intake from dietary fat. Whether this high fat intake is associated with dyslipidaemia is unknown. We described the lipid profile and dietary intake in paediatric patients with CF. METHODS: 110 fasting lipid concentrations of 110 Dutch patients with CF were studied, along with 86 measurements of dietary intake. For the total group and for boys and girls separately, the lipid profile and the dietary intake were investigated...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282466/fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-fto-is-associated-to-eating-disorders-susceptibility-and-moderates-the-expression-of-psychopathological-traits
#17
Giovanni Castellini, Marica Franzago, Silvia Bagnoli, Lorenzo Lelli, Michela Balsamo, Milena Mancini, Benedetta Nacmias, Valdo Ricca, Sandro Sorbi, Ivana Antonucci, Liborio Stuppia, Giovanni Stanghellini
Eating Disorders (EDs) show a multifactorial etiopathogenesis including environmental, psychological and biological factors. In the present study, we propose a model of interactions between genetic vulnerability-represented by Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) gene-and stable psychopathological traits, such as bodily disorders and emotion dysregulation for EDs patients. The distribution of a polymorphism of the FTO (rs9939609 T>A) was evaluated in a series of 250 EDs patients and in a group of 119 healthy control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281164/abdominal-visceral-to-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-ratio-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-erosive-esophagitis
#18
Eun Young Ze, Beom Jin Kim, Hyun Kang, Jae Gyu Kim
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between abdominal fat distribution represented by the visceral fat area (VFA) to subcutaneous fat area (SFA) ratio, and erosive esophagitis (EE). METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty-eight participants aged >40 years underwent physical examination, blood tests, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and abdominal computer tomography at Chung-Ang University Hospital from 2007 to 2012. RESULTS: Of 728 subjects, 65 (8...
March 9, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278265/visceral-fat-area-is-a-strong-predictor-of-leukocyte-cell-derived-chemotaxin-2-a-potential-biomarker-of-dyslipidemia
#19
Kumpei Tanisawa, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Xiaomin Sun, Tomoko Ito, Ryoko Kawakami, Shizuo Sakamoto, Mitsuru Higuchi
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a hepatokine linking obesity to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Although previous studies reported that obesity was associated with high levels of circulating LECT2 in human, the associations of detailed body fat distribution with LECT2 levels have not been examined. Furthermore, although animal study suggested that exercise decreased circulating LECT2 levels, it remains unknown whether physical fitness is associated with LECT2 levels in human...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277301/body-composition-analysis-and-adipocytokine-concentrations-in-haemodialysis-patients-abdominal-fat-gain-as-an-added-cardiovascular-risk-factor-abdominal-fat-gain-and-cardiovascular-risk
#20
Elena González, Juan J Díez, Almudena Pérez Torres, María Auxiliadora Bajo, Gloria Del Peso, Rafael Sánchez-Villanueva, Cristina Grande, Olaia Rodríguez, Mónica Coronado, Carmen Gómez Candela, Mariana Díaz-Almirón, Pedro Iglesias, Rafael Selgas
INTRODUCTION: Abdominal fat and its increment over time in particular has become a cardiovascular risk factor in uraemic patients. OBJECTIVES: To analyse changes in abdominal fat in haemodialysis patients over one year and study their possible correlation with the variation in adipocytokine serum levels. As a secondary objective, we tried to validate the data obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with data obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
October 26, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
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