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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107516/liver-amp-activated-protein-kinase-is-unnecessary-for-gluconeogenesis-but-protects-energy-state-during-nutrient-deprivation
#1
Clinton M Hasenour, D Emerson Ridley, Freyja D James, Curtis C Hughey, E Patrick Donahue, Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz, Jamey D Young, David H Wasserman
AMPK is an energy sensor that protects cellular energy state by attenuating anabolic and promoting catabolic processes. AMPK signaling is purported to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and substrate oxidation; coordination of these processes is vital during nutrient deprivation or pathogenic during overnutrition. Here we directly test hepatic AMPK function in regulating metabolic fluxes that converge to produce glucose and energy in vivo. Flux analysis was applied in mice with a liver-specific deletion of AMPK (L-KO) or floxed control littermates to assess rates of hepatic glucose producing and citric acid cycle (CAC) fluxes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106105/autoimmune-hepatitis-review-of-histologic-features-included-in-the-simplified-criteria-proposed-by-the-international-autoimmune-hepatitis-group-and-proposal-for-new-histologic-criteria
#2
Dana Balitzer, Nafis Shafizadeh, Marion G Peters, Linda D Ferrell, Najeeb Alshak, Sanjay Kakar
Simplified criteria for diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis are based on autoantibodies, serum immunoglobulin G, histologic features, and negative viral serology. A score of 6 points is necessary for the designation of probable autoimmune hepatitis and 7 points or more for definite autoimmune hepatitis. The presence of three histologic features is required for categorizing a case as typical (2 points): interface hepatitis with portal lymphocytic/lymphoplasmacytic cells extending into lobule, emperipolesis, and rosettes...
January 20, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104995/spontaneous-rupture-of-hepatic-epithelioid-hemangioendothelioma-a-case-report
#3
Jun-Wu Yang, Yong Li, Kai Xie, Wei Dong, Xian-Tong Cao, Wei-Dong Xiao
Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEH) is a rare tumor of vascular endothelial origin. Spontaneous rupture of HEH is a life-threatening complication and is extremely rare. HEH has variable malignant potential, and the clinical diagnosis remains challenging. Here we report a case of HEH with spontaneous rupture. A 44-year-old man presented with constant cutting pains over the right upper abdomen after eating. He had hemoptysis 11 d previously. Diagnostic abdominal puncture demonstrated active bleeding...
January 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104990/sitagliptin-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Tisha R Joy, Charles A McKenzie, Rommel G Tirona, Kelly Summers, Shannon Seney, Subrata Chakrabarti, Neel Malhotra, Melanie D Beaton
AIM: To evaluate the effect of sitagliptin vs placebo on histologic and non-histologic parameters of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Twelve patients with biopsy-proven NASH were randomized to sitagliptin (100 mg daily) (n = 6) or placebo (n = 6) for 24 wk. The primary outcome was improvement in liver fibrosis after 24 wk. Secondary outcomes included evaluation of changes in NAFLD activity score (NAS), individual components of NAS (hepatocyte ballooning, lobular inflammation, and steatosis), glycemic control and insulin resistance [including measurements of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and adipocytokines], lipid profile including free fatty acids, adipose distribution measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thrombosis markers (platelet aggregation and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels)...
January 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104587/pkc%C3%AE-expanding-role-in-hepatic-adaptation-of-cholesterol-homeostasis-to-dietary-fat-cholesterol
#5
Devina Mehta, Kamal D Mehta
Cholesterol homeostasis relies on an intricate network of cellular processes whose deregulation in response to Western type high-fat/cholesterol diets can lead to several life-threatening pathologies. Significant advances have been made in resolving the molecular identity and regulatory function of transcription factors sensitive to fat, cholesterol, or bile acids, but whether body senses the presence of both fat and cholesterol simultaneously is not known. Assessing the impact of a high-fat/cholesterol load, rather than an individual component alone, on cholesterol homeostasis is more physiologically relevant because Western diets deliver both fat and cholesterol at the same time...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104319/the-mexican-consensus-on-probiotics-in-gastroenterology
#6
M A Valdovinos, E Montijo, A T Abreu, S Heller, A González-Garay, D Bacarreza, M Bielsa-Fernández, M C Bojórquez-Ramos, F Bosques-Padilla, A I Burguete-García, R Carmona-Sánchez, A Consuelo-Sánchez, E Coss-Adame, J A Chávez-Barrera, M de Ariño, J Flores-Calderón, O Gómez-Escudero, M S González-Huezo, M E Icaza-Chávez, A Larrosa-Haro, M Morales-Arámbula, C Murata, J A Ramírez-Mayans, J M Remes-Troche, T Rizo-Robles, M Peláez-Luna, E M Toro-Monjaraz, A Torre, M E Urquidi-Rivera, R Vázquez, J K Yamamoto-Furusho, F Guarner
INTRODUCTION: Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. AIM: To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendations for their use in gastroenterology...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104144/pancreas-transplantation-after-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#7
J H Ryu, T B Lee, Y M Park, K H Yang, C W Chu, J H Lee, B H Choi
Our aim was to describe the clinical indications, surgical technique, and clinical outcomes of a pancreas transplantation, performed 4 years after liver transplantation, as treatment for new-onset, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in a 53-year-old man. Liver transplantation was performed for end-stage liver disease secondary to hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient had no history of diabetes prior to the liver transplantation. The decision to proceed with a pancreas transplantation was made when the patient's blood sugar levels could not be normalized despite insulin doses >100 IU/d...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104133/liver-transplantation-for-biliary-rhabdomyosarcoma-with-liver-metastasis-report-of-one-case
#8
C-H Shen, K-R Dong, Y-F Tao, G Chen, R-D Li, Q-B Zhang, X-F Zhang, S Zheng, Z-X Wang
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation in combination with chemotherapy in postoperative biliary rhabdomyosarcoma recurrence of children was evaluated. METHODS: An 8-year-old girl with biliary rhabdomyosarcoma underwent pancreatico-duodenectomy with postoperative vincristine (VCR), adriamycin (Act-D), and cyclophosphamide (CTX) (VAC chemotherapy) (VCR, 1 mg; Act-D, 0.7 mg; CTX, 1500 mg). Two years later, liver metastasis in the left and right lobes was found and was followed by VAC chemotherapy (CTX, 1800 mg; Act-D, 0...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104130/recurrent-hepatitis-b-and-d-virus-infection-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient
#9
H Miyaaki, Y Tamada, K Hayashi, N Taura, S Miuma, H Shibata, A Soyama, M Hidaka, M Takatsuki, S Eguchi, K Nakao
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) co-infections progress rapidly and lead to cirrhosis. In Japan, the prevalence of HBV and HDV co-infected patients is low. Therefore, there are few reports of patients with HBV and HDV co-infection having undergone liver transplantation. Herein, we report a rare case of recurrence of HBV and HDV in a 41-year-old man who underwent living donor liver transplantation 4 years prior.
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104035/-application-value-of-laparoscopic-radiofrequency-ablation-for-specific-location-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
H D Shi, X J Shi, H X Ma, Y R Liang, L Zhou, Y Shi
Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (LRFA) for specific-location hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: To retrospectively analyze 496 patients with specific-location hepatocellular carcinoma treated with LRFA from January 2010 to January 2015 in our hospital. There was a total of 652 hepatic lesions with a mean diameter of (2.8±1.3) cm including 397 cases with single lesion and 99 cases with multiple lesions. The hepatic lesions were adjacent to major hepatic vessels, hepatic hilar region, diaphragmatic dome, gallbladder, or gastrointestinal tract and on the surface of the liver, respectively...
January 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103965/oxidative-stress-and-changes-in-adenosine-deaminase-activity-of-cattle-experimentally-infected-by-fasciola-hepatica
#11
Aleksandro S DA Silva, Matheus D Baldissera, Nathieli B Bottari, Matheus E Gabriel, Leandro A Rhoden, Manoela M Piva, Ricardo Christ, Fernanda A Stedille, Anderson Gris, Vera M Morsch, Maria Rosa Schetinger, Ricardo E Mendes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in serum and liver and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity of cattle experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. The group A consisted of five healthy animals (uninfected), and the group B was composed of five animals orally infected with 200 metacercariae of F. hepatica. On days 20, 40, 60 and 80 post-infection (PI) serum was collected to measure oxidative stress variables. On day 100 PI, animals were humanely euthanized and liver samples were collected...
January 20, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102520/us-fda-perspective-on-elbasvir-grazoprevir-treatment-for-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-or-4-infection
#12
Sarita D Boyd, LaRee Tracy, Takashi E Komatsu, Patrick R Harrington, Prabha Viswanathan, Jeff Murray, Adam Sherwat
Elbasvir/grazoprevir demonstrated high sustained virologic response rates 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) across five clinical trials in subjects infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, including those with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), and GT4. Despite favorable results overall, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) encountered challenging regulatory issues due to the limitations of clinical trial data in certain subpopulations. In GT1a-infected subjects, baseline NS5A resistance-associated polymorphisms emerged as the strongest baseline characteristic associated with diminished SVR12 rates following 12 weeks of elbasvir/grazoprevir treatment...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100512/postexercise-repletion-of-muscle-energy-stores-with-fructose-or-glucose-in-mixed-meals
#13
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Karin Zwygart, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
BACKGROUND: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100217/variation-in-branchial-expression-among-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-proteins-igfbps-during-atlantic-salmon-smoltification-and-seawater-exposure
#14
Jason P Breves, Chelsea K Fujimoto, Silas K Phipps-Costin, Ingibjörg E Einarsdottir, Björn Thrandur Björnsson, Stephen D McCormick
BACKGROUND: In preparation for migration from freshwater to marine habitats, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) undergo smoltification, a transformation that includes the acquisition of hyposmoregulatory capacity. The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) axis promotes the development of branchial ionoregulatory functions that underlie ion secretion. Igfs interact with a suite of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) that modulate hormone activity. In Atlantic salmon smolts, igfbp4,-5a,-5b1,-5b2,-6b1 and-6b2 transcripts are highly expressed in gill...
January 18, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100063/evaluation-of-a-potential-interaction-between-new-regimens-to-treat-hepatitis-c-and-warfarin
#15
Douglas D DeCarolis, Yi-Chieh Chen, Anders D Westanmo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097102/mechanisms-of-accelerated-liver-fibrosis-progression-during-hiv-infection
#16
REVIEW
Jose D Debes, Paul R Bohjanen, Andre Boonstra
With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a dramatic reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality has been observed. However, it is now becoming increasingly clear that liver-related complications, particularly rapid fibrosis development from ART as well as from the chronic HIV infection itself, are of serious concern to HIV patients. The pathophysiology of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV is a multifactorial process whereby persistent viral replication, and bacterial translocation lead to chronic immune activation and inflammation, which ART is unable to fully suppress, promoting production of fibrinogenic mediators and fibrosis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097099/comparison-of-vitamin-d-levels-in-naive-treated-and-inactive-carriers-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus
#17
Shahnaz Sali, Soheil Tavakolpour, Baharan Farkhondemehr
Background and Aims: During recent years, the relationship between vitamin D levels and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection has attracted many researchers' attention. However, the results relating to the association of vitamin D levels and HBV infection have been conflicting and there remains a lack of knowledge about the effects of antiviral treatments on vitamin D level. Methods: Eighty-four patients with CHB were assessed and divided into three groups: inactive carriers (n = 28), treated (n = 34), and new (treatment-naïve) cases (n = 22)...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096363/an-rna-based-signature-enables-high-specificity-detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Mark Kalinich, Irun Bhan, Tanya T Kwan, David T Miyamoto, Sarah Javaid, Joseph A LiCausi, John D Milner, Xin Hong, Lipika Goyal, Srinjoy Sil, Melissa Choz, Uyen Ho, Ravi Kapur, Alona Muzikansky, Huidan Zhang, David A Weitz, Lecia V Sequist, David P Ryan, Raymond T Chung, Andrew X Zhu, Kurt J Isselbacher, David T Ting, Mehmet Toner, Shyamala Maheswaran, Daniel A Haber
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream by invasive cancers, but the difficulty inherent in identifying these rare cells by microscopy has precluded their routine use in monitoring or screening for cancer. We recently described a high-throughput microfluidic CTC-iChip, which efficiently depletes hematopoietic cells from blood specimens and enriches for CTCs with well-preserved RNA. Application of RNA-based digital PCR to detect CTC-derived signatures may thus enable highly accurate tissue lineage-based cancer detection in blood specimens...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096081/mice-with-hyperbilirubinemia-due-to-gilbert-s-syndrome-polymorphism-are-resistant-to-hepatic-steatosis-by-decreased-serine-73-phosphorylation-of-ppar%C3%AE
#19
Terry D Hinds, Peter A Hosick, Michael W Hankins, Andrea Nestor-Kalinoski, David E Stec
Gilbert's syndrome is derived from a polymorphism (TA repeat) in the hepatic UGT1A1 gene which results in decreased conjugation and increased levels of unconjugated bilirubin. Recently, we have shown that bilirubin binds directly to the fat burning nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Additionally, we have shown that serine 73 phosphorylation (Ser(P)(73)) of PPARα decreases activity by reducing its protein levels and transcriptional activity. The aim of this study was to determine if humanized mice with the Gilbert's polymorphism (HuUGT*28) have increased PPARα activation and reduced hepatic fat accumulation...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092416/persistence-of-antibody-to-hepatitis-a-virus-20-years-after-receipt-of-hepatitis-a-vaccine-in-alaska
#20
Ian D Plumb, Lisa R Bulkow, Michael G Bruce, Thomas W Hennessy, Julie Morris, Karen Rudolph, Philip Spradling, Mary Snowball, Brian J McMahon
Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for children ≥1 year old to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However the duration of vaccine-induced immunity is unknown. We evaluated a cohort of Alaska Native persons 20 years after HAV vaccination. Children aged 3-6 years had been previously randomized to receive 3 doses of HAV vaccine (360 ELISA units/dose) at: A) 0,1,2 months; B) 0,1,6 months; and C) 0,1,12 months. We measured anti-HAV antibody concentrations every 2-3 years; described geometric mean concentrations (GMC) and the proportion with protective antibody (≥20 mIU mL-1) over time; and modelled change in GMC using fractional polynomial regression...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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