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Hepatitis D

Beth E Meyerson, Alissa Davis, Jon D Agley, David J Shannon, Carrie A Lawrence, Priscilla T Ryder, Karleen Ritchie, Ruth Gassman
BACKGROUND: Pharmacies have much to contribute to the health of people who inject drugs (PWID) and to community efforts in HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) prevention through syringe access. However, little is known about what predicts pharmacy syringe sales without a prescription. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors predicting pharmacy syringes sales to PWID. METHODS: A hybrid staggered online survey of 298 Indiana community pharmacists occurred from July-September 2016 measuring pharmacy policy, practice, and pharmacist perceptions about syringe sales to PWID...
March 17, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Bilon Khambu, Nazmul Huda, Xiaoyun Chen, Daniel J Antoine, Yong Li, Guoli Dai, Ulrike A Köhler, Wei-Xing Zong, Satoshi Waguri, Sabine Werner, Tim D Oury, Zheng Dong, Xiao-Ming Yin
Autophagy is important for liver homeostasis and the deficiency leads to injury, inflammation, ductular reaction (DR), fibrosis, and tumorigenesis. It is not clear how these events are mechanistically linked to autophagy deficiency. Here we reveal the role of highmobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in two of these processes. First, HMGB1 was required for DR, which represents the expansion of hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) implicated in liver repair and regeneration. DR caused by hepatic toxic diets (DDC or CDE) also depended on HMGB1, indicating that HMGB1 may be generally required for DR in various injury scenarios...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Lee Ena, Jong Seung Lim, Ji Yeon Son, Yu Jin Park, Yong Hee Lee, Ji Yeong Kim, Seung Jun Kwack, Byung Mu Lee, Mee-Young Ahn, Hyung Sik Kim
Triclosan (TCS), a common antimicrobial ingredient, is present in many consumer products, including soaps, shampoos, and toothpaste. Owing to its widespread use, potential adverse effects on animals and humans may arise from lifetime exposure, but data on chronic prepubertal exposure of TCS are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of subchronic TCS exposure (0.25, 25, 250, or 750 mg/kg) on target organ toxicity in prepubertal male rats. After daily administration of TCS to rats by oral gavage for 60 d, a significant reduction in body weight and relative weights of liver, kidneys, testes, and adrenal glands was observed in the 750-mg/kg (high dose) group...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Ji Su Kim, Ji Yeon Son, Kyeong Seok Kim, Hyun Jung Lim, Mee-Young Ahn, Seung Jun Kwack, Young-Mi Kim, Kwang Youl Lee, Jaewon Lee, Byung Mu Lee, Hyung Sik Kim
The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of hepatic damage on cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Thioacetamide (TAA, 150 mg/kg), a hepatotoxicant, was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 3 d prior to CDDP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. All animals were sacrificed 5 d after CDDP treatment, and urine or blood was obtained to measure various parameters. No significant changes in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity were observed after CDDP treatment...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Alina M Suciu, Dana A Crisan, Bogdan D Procopet, Corina I Radu, Carmen Socaciu, Marcel V Tantau, Horia O Stefanescu, Mircea Grigorescu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current management of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), especially for alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is still driven by liver biopsy. Therefore, the identification of novel and accurate noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis and assessment of severity is important. Metabolomics, because it unravels changes closest to the phenotype, may represent the key for novel biomarkers. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize potential metabolomic biomarkers for diagnosis, staging and severity assessment of ALD...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Qingxia Yao, Karl P Fischer, D Lorne Tyrrell, Klaus S Gutfreund
Programmed death-1 (PD-1), upon engagement by its ligands, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed death ligand-2 (PD-L2), provides signals that attenuate adaptive immune responses. Here we describe the identification of the Pekin duck PD-L2 (duPD-L2) and its gene structure. The duPD-L2 cDNA encodes a 321 amino acid protein that has an amino acid identity of 76% and 35% with chicken and human PD-L2, respectively. Mapping of the duPD-L2 cDNA with duck genomic sequences revealed an exonic structure similar to that of the human P dcd1lg2 gene...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Nagraj Mani, Andrew G Cole, Janet R Phelps, Andrzej Ardzinski, Kyle D Cobarrubias, Andrea Cuconati, Bruce D Dorsey, Ellen Evangelista, Kristi Fan, Fang Guo, Haitao Guo, Ju-Tao Guo, Troy O Harasym, Salam Kadhim, Steven G Kultgen, Amy C H Lee, Alice H L Li, Quanxin Long, Sara A Majeski, Richeng Mao, Kevin D McClintock, Stephen P Reid, Rene Rijnbrand, Nicholas M Snead, Holly M Micolochick Steuer, Kim Stever, Sunny Tang, Xiaohe Wang, Qiong Zhao, Michael J Sofia
AB-423 is a sulfamoylbenzamide (SBA) class of HBV capsid inhibitor in Phase 1 clinical trials. In cell culture models AB-423 showed potent inhibition of HBV replication (EC50 /EC90 = 0.08-0.27 μM/0.33-1.32 μM) with no significant cytotoxicity (CC50 >10 μM). Addition of 40% human serum resulted in a 5-fold increase in the EC50 values. AB-423 inhibited HBV genotypes A through D and nucleos/tide-resistant variants in vitro Treatment of HepDES19 cells with AB-423 resulted in capsid particles devoid of encapsidated pgRNA and rcDNA indicating it is a class II capsid inhibitor...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
H Boyd-Carson, G Irving, A P Navarro, I C Cameron, D Gomez
AIM: To evaluate the impact of anti-platelet therapy on the outcomes of patients undergoing liver resection for CRLM. Secondary aim was to determine whether anti-platelet therapy influenced histo-pathological changes in CRLM. METHODS: Patients treated with liver resection for CRLM were identified from a prospectively maintained hepatobiliary database during an 11-year period. Collated data included demographics, primary tumour treatment, surgical data, histopathology analysis and clinical outcome...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Margrit M Ayoub, Neveen G Elantouny, Hanan M El-Nahas, Fakhr El-Din S Ghazy
For patient convenience, sustained release Adefovir Poly-d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres were formulated to relieve the daily use of the drug which is a problem for patients treated from chronic hepatitis-B. PLGA microspheres were prepared and characterized by entrapment efficiency, particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In-vitro release and in-vivo studies were carried out. Factors such as drug: polymer ratio, polymer viscosity and polymer lactide content were found to be important variables for the preparation of PLGA Adefovir microspheres...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yuhong Li, Qi Ren, Lingyan Zhu, Yingshu Li, Jinfeng Li, Yiyang Zhang, Guoying Zheng, Tiesheng Han, Shufeng Sun, Fumin Feng
BACKGROUND: This investigation aimed to evaluate the role of methylation in the regulation of microRNA (miR)-122, miR-125b and miR-106b gene expression and the expression of their target genes during isoniazid (INH)-induced liver injury. METHODS: Rats were given INH 50 mg kg- 1 ·d- 1 once per day for 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days and were sacrificed. Samples of blood and liver were obtained. RESULTS: We analysed the methylation and expression levels of miR-122, miR-125b and miR-106b and their potential gene targets in livers...
March 20, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Jun He, Heyang Zheng, Daodong Pan, Tao Liu, Yangying Sun, Jinxuan Cao, Zhen Wu, Xiaoqun Zeng
Sheldrake is a duck breed widely used for its meat and eggs. In this study, the quantities of abdominal fat, sebum, intramuscular fat and liver fat, meat quality (pH, cooking loss, drip loss, and shear force), and expression and activity of several enzymes at different ages were determined. The results showed that the fat content increased (P < 0.05) during the aging process (90 d, 180 d, 270 d, and 360 d). Fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were chosen to represent the activity of lipid biosynthesis in Sheldrake ducks...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Ritu S Sharma, David J Harrison, Dorothy Kisielewski, Diane M Cassidy, Alison D McNeilly, Jennifer R Gallagher, Shaun V Walsh, Tadashi Honda, Rory J McCrimmon, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Michael L J Ashford, John F Dillon, John D Hayes
Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with oxidative stress. We surmised that pharmacologic activation of NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) using the acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyano enone) TBE-31 would suppress NASH because Nrf2 is a transcriptional master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis. Methods: Nrf2 +/+ and Nrf2 -/- C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat plus fructose (HFFr) or regular chow diet for 16 weeks or 30 weeks, and then treated for the final 6 weeks, while still being fed the same HFFr or regular chow diets, with either TBE-31 or dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Nashwa M Samra, Shaimaa Emad El Abrak, Hanaa H El Dash, Mona El Said El Raziky, Manal A El Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Hepatic osteodystrophy caused by vitamin D and calcium malabsorption is thought to develop in children with cholestatic liver disease leading to secondary hyperparathyroidism and rickets or osteomalacia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental and bone mineral densities and the serum level of vitamin D in cholestatic infants and children and to correlate this process with clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that include 50 patients presenting with cholestasis...
March 15, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Takashi Mizuno, Jordan M Cloyd, Diego Vicente, Kiyohiko Omichi, Yun Shin Chun, Scott E Kopetz, Dipen Maru, Claudius Conrad, Ching-Wei D Tzeng, Steven H Wei, Thomas A Aloia, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey
INTRODUCTION: Dorsophilia protein, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) is a key mediator in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway and SMAD4 gene mutations are thought to play a critical role in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, little is known about its influence on survival in patients undergoing resection for colorectal liver metastases (CLM). METHODS: Between 2005 and 2015, all patients with known SMAD4 mutation status who underwent resection of CLM were identified...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
M Clara F do Amaral, James Frisbie, David L Goldstein, Carissa M Krane
Cope's gray treefrog (Dryophytes chrysoscelis) is one of few freeze-tolerant frogs that mobilize glycerol as a cryoprotectant, yet cold and freezing-induced accumulation of this and other osmolytes has received little attention in this species. This study investigated the development of freeze tolerance in D. chrysoscelis, analyzing the response of the cryoprotectant system to cold acclimation, freezing, and thawing. Glycerol production was low and unresponsive to acclimation temperature, or duration of acclimation to 5 °C, except for one cold-acclimated frog that presented elevated glycerol in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
A Sonpar, K Brown, J Chen, D Megran, M Sabo, C Cervera, S Girgis, D Kabbani
Mycoplasma hominis is part of the genitourinary flora in sexually active people and can cause disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients. We describe a rare case of an immunocompetent pregnant woman with simultaneous necrotizing HSV hepatitis and disseminated M. hominis infection. Detection of M. hominis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this fastidious organism in the clinical laboratory is discussed.
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Yibeltal Assefa, Peter S Hill, Owain D Williams
At September's 2017 United Nations General Assembly, a state-of-the-art HIV medicine was announced to be made available at just $75 per person per year. There have been a number of strategies that the global AIDS community and countries have utilized to reduce prices and make antiretrovirals (ARVs) accessible for people living with HIV/AIDS. There appears to be an opportunity for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to benefit from the often painful and laboured history of driving down the prices of ARVs...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Aisha Mansoor Ali, Abdulaziz Alobaid, Tasnim Nidal Malhis, Ahmad Fawzi Khattab
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays pivotal role in decidualization and implantation of the placenta. Recent researches have shown that low level of vitamin D3 "25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)" in serum is a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. Latest evidence supports role of vitamin D3 deficiency treatment in reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of antenatal supplementation of vitamin D3 on the risk of pre-eclampsia and to explore the dose effect in attaining the vitamin D3 normal level...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Audrey M Neyrinck, Sophie Hiel, Caroline Bouzin, Vicenta Garcia Campayo, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
BACKGROUND: Non-digestible carbohydrates present in cereals such as fructans and arabinoxylans represent promising prebiotic nutrients to prevent the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:  The aim of this study was to determine the corrective effects of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides in obese mice fed a western diet (WD). WD was given for 4 weeks before wheat bran extract (WBE) supplementation (5%) for an additional 4 weeks, whereas a control group received the standard diet...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Tetyana Kobets, Jian-Dong Duan, Klaus D Brunnemann, Michael J Iatropoulos, Sylvain Etter, Christina Hickey, Benjamin Smith, Gary M Williams
Genotoxicity of flavor and fragrance materials was assessed in Turkey Egg Genotoxicity Assay (TEGA) using32 P-nucleotide postlabeling (NPL) and comet assays to detect hepatic DNA adducts and strand breaks. Twenty materials having results in GADD45a-Gluc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, and standard in vitro and in vivo tests, were selected to evaluate the accuracy of TEGA. Quinoline (QUI) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) served as positive comparators. Two materials, p-tert-butyldihydrocinnamaldehyde (BDHCA) and methyl eugenol (MEU) produced DNA adducts...
March 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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