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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340340/selective-chemical-inhibition-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-gluconeogenic-activity-ameliorates-type-2-diabetes
#1
Kfir Sharabi, Hua Lin, Clint D J Tavares, John E Dominy, Joao Paulo Camporez, Rachel J Perry, Roger Schilling, Amy K Rines, Jaemin Lee, Marc Hickey, Melissa Bennion, Michelle Palmer, Partha P Nag, Joshua A Bittker, José Perez, Mark P Jedrychowski, Umut Ozcan, Steve P Gygi, Theodore M Kamenecka, Gerald I Shulman, Stuart L Schreiber, Patrick R Griffin, Pere Puigserver
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic with a medical need for additional targeted therapies. Suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) effectively ameliorates diabetes and can be exploited for its treatment. We hypothesized that targeting PGC-1α acetylation in the liver, a chemical modification known to inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis, could be potentially used for treatment of T2D. Thus, we designed a high-throughput chemical screen platform to quantify PGC-1α acetylation in cells and identified small molecules that increase PGC-1α acetylation, suppress gluconeogenic gene expression, and reduce glucose production in hepatocytes...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339968/optimization-of-dietary-zinc-for-egg-production-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-chinese-egg-laying-ducks-fed-a-diet-based-on-corn-wheat-bran-and-soybean-meal
#2
W Chen, S Wang, H X Zhang, D Ruan, W G Xia, Y Y Cui, C T Zheng, Y C Lin
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production <80%), egg production, daily egg mass, and FCR increased quadratically with increasing dietary Zn levels (P < 0...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335101/prevalence-and-incidence-of-depression-during-interferon-based-antiviral-therapy-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-in-the-republic-of-korea
#3
Joo Yeong Baeg, In Hee Kim, Seung Young Seo, Young Seok Kim, Eun Uk Jung, Junhyeon Cho, Jung Wha Chung, Eun Sun Jang, Jin Wook Kim, Sook-Hyang Jeong
Background/Aims: The association between depression and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or pegylated interferon α and ribavirin therapy (PR therapy) has not been extensively studied in Korea. We aimed to clarify the prevalence of depression and its incidence during PR therapy in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter study, 114 CHC patients were screened for depression using two self-reported scales, the Beck Depression Inventory-I (BDI-I) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS)...
March 24, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333769/the-incidence-of-low-seroimmunity-to-hepatitis-b-virus-in-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Abhishek Watts, William E Bennett, Jean P Molleston, Sandeep K Gupta, Joseph M Croffie, Shamaila Waseem, Brian A McFerron, Steven J Steiner, Sanjay Kumar, Charles P Vanderpool, Emily C Hon, Molly A Bozic, Girish C Subbarao, Marian D Pfefferkorn
OBJECTIVES: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often receive immunosuppressive therapy which may make them vulnerable to infections such as hepatitis B. We hypothesized that hepatitis B virus (HBV) titers are low in the vaccinated pediatric IBD population. The aims of our study were to identify the incidence of lower titers of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) and determine which patient factors may be associated with lower HBsAb titers. METHODS: Patients with diagnosis of IBD, ages 5-18 years, were prospectively enrolled...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333617/yellow-fever-in-a-traveller-returning-from-suriname-to-the-netherlands-march-2017
#6
Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjolein Knoester, Aad P van den Berg, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Marion Pg Koopmans, Coretta Van Leer-Buter, Bob Oude Velthuis, Suzan D Pas, Wilhelmina Lm Ruijs, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Stephen Gs Vreden, Tjip S van der Werf, Chantal Bem Reusken, Wouter Fw Bierman
A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the intensive care. Although yellow fever has not been reported in the last four decades in Suriname, vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization for visitors to this country.
March 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332306/impact-of-iatrogenic-iron-overload-on-the-course-of-hepatitis-c-in-dialysis-population-a-plea-for-caution
#7
Guy Rostoker, Nosratola D Vaziri
About 2.5% of the world population, corresponding to about 177 million individuals, are infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV), a small, single-stranded RNA virus. The prevalence of HCV infection among dialysis patients in Japan, Europe, and North America during the 2012 to 2015 period was found to be 8.7% in the DOPPS study. Nosocomial HCV spread in hemodialysis facilities still occurs. Increased hepatic tissue iron has been shown to play a deleterious role in the course of hepatitis C, favor development of fibrosis and cirrhosis and possibly increase the risk of liver cancer in the general population...
March 23, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331807/transmission-of-hepatitis-d-virus-between-spouses-a-longitudinal-study-of-the-first-reported-canadian-case
#8
Carla Osiowy, Anton Andonov, Kevin Fonseca, Ken Swidinsky, Elizabeth Giles, Andrew Mason, Carla S Coffin
In chronic hepatitis B (CHB), hepatitis D virus (HDV) superinfection can lead to acute liver failure. The incidence of HDV superinfection is unknown, but is often detected in immigrants from HDV endemic countries. In this report, we characterize long-term clinical and virological outcomes in a hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected carrier before and after HDV superinfection, acquired from their spouse having HBV/HDV co-infection. A 38 year-old Mongolian male with CHB on anti-HBV therapy developed acute liver failure following HDV superinfection...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330995/hepatic-fcrn-regulates-albumin-homeostasis-and-susceptibility-to-liver-injury
#9
Michal Pyzik, Timo Rath, Timothy T Kuo, Sanda Win, Kristi Baker, Jonathan J Hubbard, Rosa Grenha, Amit Gandhi, Thomas D Krämer, Adam R Mezo, Zachary S Taylor, Kevin McDonnell, Vicki Nienaber, Jan Terje Andersen, Atsushi Mizoguchi, Laurence Blumberg, Shalaka Purohit, Susan D Jones, Greg Christianson, Wayne I Lencer, Inger Sandlie, Neil Kaplowitz, Derry C Roopenian, Richard S Blumberg
The neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn) is responsible for maintaining the long half-life and high levels of the two most abundant circulating proteins, albumin and IgG. In the latter case, the protective mechanism derives from FcRn binding to IgG in the weakly acidic environment contained within endosomes of hematopoietic and parenchymal cells, whereupon IgG is diverted from degradation in lysosomes and is recycled. The cellular location and mechanism by which FcRn protects albumin are partially understood...
March 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330766/water-metabolism-dysfunction-via-renin-angiotensin-system-activation-caused-by-liver-damage-in-mice-treated-with-microcystin-rr
#10
Qing Zhong, Feng Sun, Weiguang Wang, Wenqing Xiao, Xiaoni Zhao, Kangding Gu
Microcystins (MCs) are a group of monocyclic heptapeptide toxins that have been shown to act as potent hepatotoxins. However, the observed symptoms of water metabolism disruption induced by microcystin-RR (MC-RR) or MCs have rarely been reported, and a relatively clear mechanism has not been identified. In the present study, male mice were divided into 4 groups (A: 140μg/kg, B: 70μg/kg,C: 35μg/kg, and D: 0μg/kg) and administered MC-RR daily for a month. On day 8 of treatment, an increase in water intake and urine output was observed in the high-dose group compared with the control, and the symptoms worsened with the repeated administration of the toxin until day 30...
March 19, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329932/-an-investigation-on-immunological-effect-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-amongst-adult-population-in-high-labor-export-rural-regions-under-4-different-strategies
#11
X Y Zheng, Z H Ji, Z W Guo, Y W Liu, Z J Shao, Y P Yan
Objective: To grope for an ideal immune strategy in grown-ups via comparison of immunological effects under 4 different vaccination schemes. Methods: Study population was selected by stratified random cluster sampling. A total of 4 different vaccination proposals, including Strategy A (3 doses, 10 μg, administrated repeatedly into the unilateral deltoid muscle at 0-1-6 months), Strategy B (2 doses, 20 μg, administrated into the bilateral deltoid muscles simultaneously), Strategy C (3 doses, 10 μg, administrated repeatedly into the unilateral deltoid muscle at 0-1-2 months) and Strategy D (2 doses, 10 μg, administrated to the bilateral deltoid muscles at the same time), were conducted in Liangzhou, Minqin Gulang, and the Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomic county respectively, in Wuwei city, Gansu province...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329108/increased-mortality-among-persons-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-moderate-or-severe-liver-disease-a-cohort-study
#12
Javier A Cepeda, David L Thomas, Jacquie Astemborski, Mark S Sulkowski, Gregory D Kirk, Shruti H Mehta
Background: Despite the availability of curative treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, because of cost, treatment is often denied until liver fibrosis has progressed to at least moderate fibrosis and in some cases cirrhosis. That practice is justified on assumptions that there are no medical consequences to having moderate disease and that disease stage transitions can be anticipated. Methods: We performed transient elastography on 964 people chronically infected with HCV with a history of injection drug use living in Baltimore, Maryland...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327585/estimated-daily-intake-and-cumulative-risk-assessment-of-phthalates-in-the-general-taiwanese-after-the-2011-dehp-food-scandal
#13
Jung-Wei Chang, Ching-Chang Lee, Wen-Harn Pan, Wei-Chun Chou, Han-Bin Huang, Hung-Che Chiang, Po-Chin Huang
A food scandal occurred in Taiwan in 2011 because the DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) had been intentionally used in food products. We assessed the daily intakes (DIs) and cumulative risk of phthalates in Taiwan's general population after the scandal. The DIs of 6 phthalates, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and DEHP, were evaluated using urinary phthalate metabolites. Hazard quotients of phthalates classified as affecting the reproductive (HQrep) and hepatic (HQhep) systems were assessed using cumulative approach...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323973/how-to-measure-adipose-tissue-insulin-sensitivity
#14
Esben Søndergaard, Ana Elena Espinosa De Ycaza, Maria Morgan-Bathke, Michael D Jensen
Background: Adipose tissue insulin resistance may be a proximate cause of hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance by releasing excess FFA. However, no consensus exists on how to quantify adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We compared three methods for measuring adipose tissue insulin sensitivity ranging from the complex multistep pancreatic clamp technique to the simple adipose tissue insulin resistance index (Adipo-IR). Methods: We completed studies of 25 adults with a wide range of insulin sensitivity...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322747/quantitation-of-the-rates-of-hepatic-and-intestinal-cholesterol-synthesis-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficient-mice-before-and-during-treatment-with-ezetimibe
#15
Jen-Chieh Chuang, Adam M Lopez, Stephen D Turley
Esterified cholesterol (EC) and triglycerides, contained within lipoproteins taken up by cells, are hydrolysed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) in the late endosomal/lysosomal (E/L) compartment. The resulting unesterified cholesterol (UC) is transported via Niemann-Pick type C2 and C1 into the cytosolic compartment where it enters a putative pool of metabolically active cholesterol that is utilized in accordance with cellular needs. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene encoding LAL, result in dramatic increases in tissue concentrations of EC, a hallmark feature of Wolman Disease and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD)...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322704/transmission-of-hepatitis-a-virus-through-combined-liver-small-intestine-pancreas-transplantation
#16
Monique A Foster, Lauren M Weil, Sherry Jin, Thomas Johnson, Tonya R Hayden-Mixson, Yury Khudyakov, Pallavi D Annambhotla, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Saleem Kamili, Jana M Ritter, Noele Nelson, George Mazariegos, Michael Green, Ryan W Himes, David T Kuhar, Matthew J Kuehnert, Jeffrey A Miller, Rachel Wiseman, Anne C Moorman
Although transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) through blood transfusion has been documented, transmission through organ transplantation has not been reported. In August 2015, state health officials in Texas, USA, were notified of 2 home health nurses with HAV infection whose only common exposure was a child who had undergone multi-visceral organ transplantation 9 months earlier. Specimens from the nurses, organ donor, and all organ recipients were tested and medical records reviewed to determine a possible infection source...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322576/the-effects-of-exercise-on-abdominal-fat-and-liver-enzymes-in-pediatric-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Katherine González-Ruiz, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Mark D Peterson, Antonio García-Hermoso
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of obesity and the multiple position stands promoting exercise for the treatment of obesity and hepatic function, a meta-analytic approach has not previously been used to examine the effects in the pediatric population. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on abdominal fat, liver enzymes, and intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese youth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computerized search was made using three databases...
March 21, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322548/nanofluidic-devices-with-8-pores-in-series-for-real-time-resistive-pulse-analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-capsid-assembly
#18
Panagiotis Kondylis, Jinsheng Zhou, Zachary D Harms, Andrew R Kneller, Lye Siang Lee, Adam Zlotnick, Stephen C Jacobson
To improve the precision of resistive-pulse measurements, we have used a focused ion beam instrument to mill nanofluidic devices with 2, 4, and 8 pores in series and compared their performance. The in-plane design facilitates the fabrication of multiple pores in series, which, in turn, permits averaging of the series of pulses generated from each translocation event. The standard deviations (σ) of the pulse amplitude distributions decrease by 2.7-fold when the average amplitudes of eight pulses are compared to the amplitudes of single pulses...
March 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321328/effect-of-season-and-sunlight-on-viral-kinetics-during-hepatitis-c-virus-therapy
#19
Noemi Hernández-Alvarez, Juan Manuel Pascasio Acevedo, Enrique Quintero, Inmaculada Fernández Vázquez, María García-Eliz, Juan de la Revilla Negro, Javier Crespo García, Manuel Hernández-Guerra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rapid viral response (RVR) during antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) predicts sustained viral response (SVR). Recently, vitamin D levels have been associated with SVR. As sunlight is the most important source of vitamin D and shows seasonal variation, we evaluated the effect of season on viral kinetics during peginterferon/ribavirin-based therapy for HCV. METHODS: Consecutive HCV patients treated with peginterferon/ribavirin and boceprevir/ telaprevir (June 2011-July 2014) were included...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321284/gynaecomastia-in-two-men-on-stable-antiretroviral-therapy-who-commenced-treatment-for-tuberculosis
#20
Jeremy D Kratz, Ahmad Y El-Shazly, Santos G Mambuque, Elpidio Demetria, Peter Veldkamp, Timothy S Anderson
Gynaecomastia is a common clinical presentation that varies from benign presentations in stages of human development to hormonal pathology, mainly due to hepatic dysfunction, malignancy, and adverse pharmacologic effects. We describe the development of significant bilateral gynaecomastia after starting treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in two males with WHO stage III Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection on stable antiretroviral regimens. Emerging reports suggest that distinct hepatic impairment in efavirenz metabolism modulates oestrogenic activity, which may be potentiated by anti-tuberculosis therapy...
December 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
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