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Nutrition in icu

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#1
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224108/implementation-of-enteral-feeding-protocol-in-an-intensive-care-unit-before-and-after-study
#2
Martin Padar, Gerli Uusvel, Liis Starkopf, Joel Starkopf, Annika Reintam Blaser
AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population Registry and the hospital's Infection Control Service...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224105/nutrient-stimulation-of-mesenteric-blood-flow-implications-for-older-critically-ill-patients
#3
REVIEW
Thu An Nguyen, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Liza K Phillips, Leeanne S Chapple, Michael Horowitz, Karen L Jones, Adam M Deane
Nutrient ingestion induces a substantial increase in mesenteric blood flow. In older persons (aged ≥ 65 years), particularly those with chronic medical conditions, the cardiovascular compensatory response may be inadequate to maintain systemic blood pressure during mesenteric blood pooling, leading to postprandial hypotension. In older ambulatory persons, postprandial hypotension is an important pathophysiological condition associated with an increased propensity for syncope, falls, coronary vascular events, stroke and death...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208965/long-term-outcomes-of-kangaroo-mother-care-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#4
Sunil Gavhane, Deepak Eklare, Haseeb Mohammad
INTRODUCTION: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) has been gaining acceptance as an effective alternative to incubator based Conventional Medical Care (CMC) in preterm or Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants especially in resource scarce developing countries. AIM: To report and analyse the long-term effects of KMC for relatively stable Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants on nutritional indicators and feeding conditions at 6-12 months of corrected age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was done at a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of a teaching institution in southern India...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207960/improving-nutritional-practices-in-premature-infants-can-increase-their-growth-velocity-and-the-breastfeeding-rates
#5
Salvador Piris Borregas, María López Maestro, María José Torres Valdivieso, José Carlos Martínez Ávila, Gerardo Bustos Lozano, Carmen Rosa Pallás Alonso
AIM: This study analysed the changes in growth velocity (GV) of preterm infants weighing less than 1,500g based on different nutritional practices over a 24-year period. METHODS: A retrospective study with prospectively collected data was performed in a level three Spanish neonatal intensive care unit. Data on birth weight, gestational age (GA) and GV were collected from 1990 to 2013 and breastfeeding data was gathered from 2000. A generalised linear model corrected by GA and small for gestational age was applied...
February 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203330/risk-factors-for-health-care-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#6
Sabahattin Ertugrul, Fesih Aktar, Ilyas Yolbas, Ahmet Yilmaz, Bilal Elbey, Ahmet Yildirim, Kamil Yilmaz, Recep Tekin
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HCA-BSI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the causative organisms and risk factors of HCA-BSIs in NICUs. METHODS: This study was performed between January 2011 and December 2014 in the neonatal intensive care unit of Dicle university, Turkey. The study consisted of 126 patients (infected group) with positive blood culture and 126 randomly selected patients (uninfected control group) with negative blood culture after four days of hospitalization...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199797/nutritional-risk-screening-2002-short-nutritional-assessment-questionnaire-malnutrition-screening-tool-and-malnutrition-universal-screening-tool-are-good-predictors-of-nutrition-risk-in-an-emergency-service
#7
Estela Iraci Rabito, Aline Marcadenti, Jaqueline da Silva Fink, Luciane Figueira, Flávia Moraes Silva
BACKGROUND: There is an international consensus that nutrition screening be performed at the hospital; however, there is no "best tool" for screening of malnutrition risk in hospitalized patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) the accuracy of the MUST (Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool), MST (Malnutrition Screening Tool), and SNAQ (Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire) in comparison with the NRS-2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening 2002) to identify patients at risk of malnutrition and (2) the ability of these nutrition screening tools to predict morbidity and mortality...
February 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198203/enteral-administration-of-twice-daily-dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-as-a-part-of-a-triple-therapy-regimen-in-a-critically-ill-patient-with-hiv
#8
Sarah Lynn Turley, Patricia Pecora Fulco
The administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in intubated critically ill patients may be challenging. Limited pharmacokinetic data exist characterizing the effects of crushed ART with subsequent enteral administration on antiretroviral drug concentrations or the clinical impact on HIV virologic suppression. We report a case of a 27-year-old HIV-positive male with presumed multidrug-resistant HIV and a diagnosis of lymphoma who required enteral ART administration after intensive care unit admission. Crushed twice-daily dolutegravir (separated from enteral nutrition by 2 hours) and rilpivirine (concurrently with a bolus feed) were administered via an orogastric tube...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196568/human-milk-management-redesign-improving-quality-and-safety-and-reducing-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-nurse-stress
#9
Margaret Doyle Settle, Amanda Bulette Coakley, Christine Donahue Annese
Human milk provides superior nutritional value for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit and is the enteral feeding of choice. Our hospital used the system engineering initiative for patient safety model to evaluate the human milk management system in our neonatal intensive care unit. Nurses described the previous process in a negative way, fraught with opportunities for error, increased stress for nurses, and the need to be away from the bedside and their patients. The redesigned process improved the quality and safety of human milk management and created time for the nurses to spend with their patients...
February 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196328/adherence-to-a-nurse-driven-feeding-protocol-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#10
Carmen A Cunningham, Lindsay B Gervais, Vera C Mazurak, Vijay Anand, Daniel Garros, Katelynn Crick, Bodil M K Larsen
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) often experience prolonged periods without nutrition support, which may result in hospital-induced malnutrition and longer length of stay. Nurse-driven feeding protocols have been developed to prevent unnecessary interruptions or delays to nutrition support. The primary objective of this study was to identify compliance and reasons for noncompliance to a feeding protocol at a tertiary care hospital PICU in Canada...
February 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187812/family-discussions-on-life-sustaining-interventions-in-neurocritical-care
#11
M M Adil, D Larriviere
Approximately 20% of all deaths in the USA occur in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the majority of ICU deaths involves decision of de-escalation of life-sustaining interventions. Life-sustaining interventions may include intubation and mechanical ventilation, artificial nutrition and hydration, antibiotic treatment, brain surgery, or vasoactive support. Decision making about goals of care can be defined as an end-of-life communication and the decision-making process between a clinician and a patient (or a surrogate decision maker if the patient is incapable) in an institutional setting to establish a plan of care...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166447/nutrition-support-for-persistent-inflammation-immunosuppression-and-catabolism-syndrome
#12
Frederick A Moore, Stuart Phillips, Craig McClain, Jayshil J Patel, Robert Martindale
Despite tremendous advances in critical care, multiple-organ failure continues to be a significant problem. However, in recent years, far fewer patients with multiple-organ failure die early, but many experience ongoing immune dysregulation and are developing persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS). Most PICS patients are discharged to nonhome destinations, fail to rehabilitate, and succumb to indolent death. From a nutrition perspective, patients with PICS experience persistent inflammation-induced cachexia despite evidenced-based recommended intensive care unit nutrition support...
February 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162192/-the-454th-case-a-29-week-pregnant-woman-with-abdominal-pain-hyperlipemia-and-multiorgan-dysfunction
#13
D Wu, J Xu, J M Peng, L K Ma, S Chen, X G Li, T P Zhang, J M Qian
A 32 year-old woman in the third trimester of pregnancy was admitted for severe acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia. During hospitalization she developed multiorgan dysfunction, infected pancreatic necrosis, abdominal compartment syndrome and intrauterine fetal death. She was successfully treated by multidisciplinary team including department of emergency medicine, ICU, gastroenterology, obstetrics, endocrinology, ultrasonography, radiology, infectious disease, nutrition and surgery.
February 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158232/the-effects-of-hospice-shared-care-for-gastric-cancer-patients
#14
Kun-Siang Huang, Shih-Ho Wang, Seng-Kee Chuah, Kun-Ming Rau, Yu-Hung Lin, Meng-Che Hsieh, Li-Hsueh Shih, Yen-Hao Chen
BACKGROUND: Hospice care has been proved to result in changes to the medical behaviors of terminally ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects and medical behavior changes of hospice-shared care intervention among terminally ill gastric cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 174 patients who died of gastric cancer between 2012 and 2014 were identified. These patients were divided into two groups: a hospice-shared care group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 81)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157669/waiting-2%C3%A2-minutes-after-sucrose-administration-unnecessary
#15
Naomi Meesters, Sinno Simons, Joost van Rosmalen, Irwin Reiss, John van den Anker, Monique van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, oral sucrose is standard of care in many neonatal intensive care units to relieve procedural pain in neonates. This study aims to determine if time interval between sucrose administration and heelstick correlates with pain scores. METHODS: Neonates were prospectively studied with variable time intervals and assessed with the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R). RESULTS: 150 neonates were included with a median gestational age of 30(+6) (IQR 27(+6)-33(+2)) weeks and a median time interval of 72 (IQR 39-115) seconds between sucrose administration and heelstick...
March 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153504/effect-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-derived-from-fish-oil-in-major-burn-patients-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#16
Serrana Tihista, Estrella Echavarría
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The burn patient is the clearest example of prolonged inflammatory response. Various nutrients, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), have been demonstrated as attenuating the inflammatory response, and reduce infectious complications. In absence of definitive evidence in major burns the study aimed at investigating the effect particularly on infectious complications of enteral nutrition enriched with ω-3 PUFAs. METHOD: Prospectively randomized controlled trial...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149146/antifungal-susceptibility-and-risk-factors-in-patients-with-candidemia
#17
Cigdem Mermutluoglu, Ozcan Deveci, Saim Dayan, Emel Aslan, Fatma Bozkurt, Recep Tekin
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the antifungal susceptibility, typology, and risk factors of candidemia among adult and pediatric inpatients at a university hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was designed, and data collected between December 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. The case group consisted of patients with candidemia. The control group was selected from the inpatients that did not develop candidemia but were admitted in the same clinic and during the same period as the candidemia group...
October 2016: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141600/preventing-pressure-injuries-in-neonates-undergoing-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-an-interprofessional-quality-improvement-project
#18
Alexandra Luton, Jae Hernandez, Clive Robert Patterson, Jill Nielsen-Farrell, Anita Thompson, Jeffrey R Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) can be caused by multiple factors including pressure, shear, friction, moisture/incontinence, device-related pressure, immobility, inactivity, and nutritional deficits. Along with immobility, medical device-related (MDR) HAPIs are a primary cause of pressure injury in neonates, as the clinical practice setting has become increasingly technologically advanced. It is estimated that up to 50% of HAPIs are MDR in pediatric patients. Neonates are at particular risk for HAPI because of their specific anatomical, physiological, and developmental vulnerabilities...
January 30, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133862/nurses-prioritization-of-enteral-nutrition-in-intensive-care-units-a-national-survey
#19
Melissa J Bloomer, Angelique B Clarke, Julia Morphet
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition is important in critically ill patients to improve patient outcomes, with nurses playing a pivotal role in the delivery and ongoing care of enteral nutrition. A significant deficit in nurses' knowledge and education relating to enteral nutrition has been identified, leading to iatrogenic malnutrition and potentially compromising patient care. Enteral nutrition appears to be prioritized lower than many other aspects of care. However, there is scant research to show how nurses prioritize enteral nutrition...
January 30, 2017: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124422/survival-of-two-dogs-with-pyothorax-secondary-to-perforating-oesophageal-foreign-body
#20
C Boyd, M Claus, G Hosgood, L Smart
CASE REPORT: Two dogs with an oesophageal foreign body (FB) were diagnosed with secondary pyothorax at the time of presentation. One dog was managed with surgical FB removal, pleural lavage and thoracostomy tube placement. Following surgery, it was admitted to the intensive care unit for oxygen therapy, antimicrobial and analgesic administration, fluid therapy, thoracic drainage and enteral nutrition. The other dog was managed with endoscopic FB removal, thoracostomy tube placement with continuous suction, and similar aftercare in the intensive care unit...
January 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
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