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Warfarin and vascular calcification

A Siltari, T Helin, N Wickholm, R Lassila, R Korpela, H Kautiainen, H Vapaatalo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Juan Shao, Panfeng Wu, Jiliang Wu, Mincai Li
Objective To investigate the effect of the angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1R) blocker losartan on vascular calcification in rat aortic artery and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods SD rats were divided randomly into control group, vascular calcification model group and treatment group. Vascular calcification models were made by subcutaneous injection of warfarin plus vitamin K1 for two weeks. Rats in the treatment group were subcutaneously injected with losartan (10 mg/kg) at the end of the first week and consecutively for one week...
August 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Julie Wuyts, Annemieke Dhondt
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are prone to vascular calcification. Pathogenetic mechanisms of vascular calcifications have been broadly studied and discussed such as the role of hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, parathormone, and vitamin D. In recent years, new insights have been gained pointing to vitamin K as a main actor. It has been discovered that vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the activation of matrix Gla protein (MGP), a calcification inhibitor in the vessel wall. Patients with CKD often suffer from vitamin K deficiency, resulting in low active MGP and eventually a lack of inhibition of vascular calcification...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Nadine Kaesler, Svenja Immendorf, Chun Ouyang, Marjolein Herfs, Nadja Drummen, Peter Carmeliet, Cees Vermeer, Jürgen Floege, Thilo Krüger, Georg Schlieper
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular calcifications can be prevented by vitamin K and are accelerated by vitamin K antagonists. These effects are believed to be mainly mediated by the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein. Another vitamin K-dependent protein, Gas6, is also expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In vitro Gas6 expression was shown to be regulated in VSMC calcification and apoptotic processes. METHODS: We investigated the role of Gas6 in vitro using VSMC cultures and in vivo in young and old Gas6-deficient (Gas6(-/-)) and wildtype (WT) mice...
2016: BMC Nephrology
Youssef Bennis, Subashini Vengadessane, Sandra Bodeau, Valérie Gras, Giampiero Bricca, Saïd Kamel, Sophie Liabeuf
Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA...
September 2016: Thérapie
Diego Brancaccio, Luca Neri, Francesco Bellocchio, Carlo Barbieri, Claudia Amato, Flavio Mari, Bernard Canaud, Stefano Stuard
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent clinical complication in dialysis patients, and warfarin therapy represents the most common approach for reducing the risk of stroke in this population. However, current evidence based on observational studies, offer conflicting results, whereas no randomized controlled trials have been carried out so far. Additionally, many clinicians are wary of the possible role of warfarin as vascular calcification inducer and its potential to increase the high risk of bleeding among patients on dialysis...
May 16, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Rogier Caluwé, Lotte Pyfferoen, Koen De Boeck, An S De Vriese
BACKGROUND: The extent and the progression of vascular calcification (VC) are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk in the haemodialysis population. Vitamin K is essential for the activation of matrix gla protein (MGP), a powerful inhibitor of tissue calcification. Functional vitamin K deficiency may contribute to the high VC burden in haemodialysis patients. In addition, haemodialysis patients are frequently treated with vitamin K antagonists, mainly to prevent stroke in atrial fibrillation, potentially compounding the cardiovascular risk in these already vulnerable patients...
April 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Guillaume Jean, Charles Chazot, Eric Bresson, Eric Zaoui, Etienne Cavalier
BACKGROUND: Sclerostin is an osteocyte hormone that decreases osteoblastogenesis. Sclerostin may play a key role in osteoporosis and also in vascular calcification (VC). In chronic kidney disease and haemodialysis (HD) patients, serum sclerostin levels are high. AIM: To assess the correlation of serum sclerostin levels with VC, bone mineral density (BMD), and survival rate in HD patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in prevalent HD patients to correlate serum sclerostin tertiles with the Kauppila aortic calcification score, BMD scores and survival rate...
2016: Nephron
Kum Hyun Han, W Charles O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of vascular calcification. Warfarin use is associated with increased breast arterial calcification, but whether this is reflective of other arteries or occurs in men is unclear. In this study, the prevalence of calcification in peripheral arteries was compared in patients with and without warfarin therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective matched cohort study assessed 430 patients with radiographs performed during or after warfarin therapy who were identified by a computerized search of medical records...
January 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Timothy J Poterucha, Samuel Z Goldhaber
The vitamin K antagonist, warfarin, is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant. Use of warfarin is associated with an increase in systemic calcification, including in the coronary and peripheral vasculature. This increase in vascular calcification is due to inhibition of the enzyme matrix gamma-carboxyglutamate Gla protein (MGP). MGP is a vitamin K-dependent protein that ordinarily prevents systemic calcification by scavenging calcium phosphate in the tissues. Warfarin-induced systemic calcification can result in adverse clinical effects...
June 2016: American Journal of Medicine
James Goya Heaf
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in the elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient. RESULTS: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is a major problem in the elderly PD patient, with its associated increased fracture risk, vascular calcification, and accelerated mortality fracture risk. Peritoneal dialysis, however, bears a lower risk than hemodialysis (HD)...
November 2015: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Sayaka Namba, Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, Takehiro Hashikata, Yuki Ikeda, Lisa Kitasato, Takuya Hashimoto, Takao Shimohama, Taiki Tojo, Naonobu Takahira, Takashi Masuda, Junya Ako
BACKGROUND: Stroke prevention by warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, has been an integral part in the management of atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP) has been known as a potent inhibitor of arterial calcification and osteoporosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that warfarin therapy affects bone mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, and vascular endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: We studied 42 atrial fibrillation patients at high-risk for atherosclerosis having one or more coronary risk factors...
December 2015: BBA Clinical
Maria Fusaro, Maurizio Gallieni, Paola Rebora, Maria Antonietta Rizzo, Maria Carmen Luise, Hilary Riva, Silvio Bertoli, Ferruccio Conte, Andrea Stella, Patrizia Ondei, Emanuela Rossi, Maria Grazia Valsecchi, Antonio Santoro, Simonetta Genovesi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vascular calcifications (VCs) and fractures are major complications of chronic kidney disease. Hemodialysis patients have a high prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and an increased risk of thromboembolism, which should be prevented with warfarin, a drug potentially causing increased risk of VCs and fractures. Aim of this study is evaluating, in hemodialysis patients with and without AF, the prevalence of VCs and fractures, as well as identifying the associated risk factors...
June 2016: Journal of Nephrology
Vivencio Barrios, José Luis Górriz
Renal insufficiency increases the risk of stroke and bleeding in atrial fibrillation patients. Although vitamin K antagonists reduce the risk of stroke in patients with moderate renal dysfunction, this observation is less clear in patients with renal impairment. Moreover, the risk of bleeding with vitamin K antagonists increases as renal function worsens. Maintaining international normalized ratio values within therapeutic targets is more difficult in patients with renal dysfunction, and those agents may cause warfarin-related nephropathy and vascular calcification...
November 2015: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
Kum Hyun Han, Randolph A Hennigar, W Charles O'Neill
The presence of bone tissue in calcified arteries may provide insights into the pathophysiology and potential reversibility of calcification, but the prevalence, distribution, and determinants of bone and osteoclasts in calcified arteries are unknown. Specimens of 386 arteries from lower limb amputations in 108 patients were examined retrospectively. Calcification was present in 282 arteries from 89 patients, which was medial in 64%, intimal in 9%, and both in 27%. Bone was present in 6% of arteries, essentially all of which were heavily calcified...
December 2015: Vascular Medicine
Maria Fusaro, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Adriana Dusso, Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono, Maria Teresa Valenti, Andrea Aghi, Sabina Pasho, Maurizio Gallieni
BACKGROUND: Warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, is a vitamin K antagonist impairing the activity of vitamin K-dependent Bone Gla Protein (BGP or Osteocalcin) and Matrix Gla Protein (MGP). Because dabigatran, a new anticoagulant, has no effect on vitamin K metabolism, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of warfarin and dabigatran administration on bone structure and vascular calcification. METHODS: Rats with normal renal function received for 6 weeks warfarin, dabigatran or placebo...
2015: PloS One
Michael Böhm, Michael D Ezekowitz, Stuart J Connolly, John W Eikelboom, Stefan H Hohnloser, Paul A Reilly, Helmut Schumacher, Martina Brueckmann, Stephan H Schirmer, Mario T Kratz, Salim Yusuf, Hans-Christoph Diener, Ziad Hijazi, Lars Wallentin
BACKGROUND: Vitamin K-dependent factors protect against vascular and renovascular calcification, and vitamin K antagonists may be associated with a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed changes in GFR during long-term treatment with warfarin or dabigatran etexilate (DE) in patients enrolled in the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long Term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial. METHODS: Of the 18,113 patients in the RE-LY study randomized to receive DE (110 mg or 150 mg twice daily) or warfarin, 16,490 patients with atrial fibrillation had creatinine values measured at baseline and at least 1 follow-up visit...
June 16, 2015: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Boris Kudumija, Mladen Knotek, Drasko Pavlović, Sonja Dits
Calcific uremic arteriolopathy or alciphylaxis is a malignant form of calcification of small arteries and arterioles, usually present in patients with chronic kidney disease and dialysis therapy. It causes high mortality. Histological distinctive feature are calcium deposits lining vascular intima. Calcification of medial muscle layer, inflammation and necrosis of subcutaneous adipose tissue are frequent. The disease begins with painful violaceous mottling, resembling livedo reticularis. Ths skin lesion progresses to ulcers and eschars, sometimes it becomes very vulnerable to secondary infection which can often develop into fatal sepsis...
March 2015: Lijec̆nic̆ki Vjesnik
Eirinn W Mackay, Alexander Apschner, Stefan Schulte-Merker
The mineralisation disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is associated with mutations in the transporter protein ABCC6. Patients with PXE suffer from calcified lesions in the skin, eyes and vasculature, and PXE is related to a more severe vascular calcification syndrome called generalised arterial calcification of infancy (GACI). Mutations in ABCC6 are linked to reduced levels of circulating vitamin K. Here, we describe a mutation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) orthologue abcc6a, which results in extensive hypermineralisation of the axial skeleton...
March 15, 2015: Development
Surbhi Shah, Andrew Larson, Yvonne Datta
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by vascular thrombosis and presence of circulating autoantibodies. The presence of APS can predispose to macrovascular as well as microvascular thrombotic events. Renal involvement is a common occurrence especially in the background of systemic lupus erythematosus. Skin appears to be another frequent target organ and a significant proportion of patients may present with skin lesions at the time of diagnosis. We present the case of a patient who presented with skin necrosis secondary to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome despite being on therapeutic anticoagulation and then developed dystrophic calcification secondary to her renal insufficiency...
June 2015: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
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