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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399475/everyday-functional-ability-in-hiv-and-methamphetamine-dependence
#1
Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Scott L Letendre, Robert K Heaton, William Perry
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) use is a risk factor for the transmission of HIV. Each is associated with neurocognitive impairment and subsequent problems in everyday functioning, yet additive effects of HIV and METH are not consistently observed. This study used the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-2) to assess whether METH use disorder and HIV together resulted in poorer functional outcome than either condition alone. METHOD: Participants in the Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC) cohort were stratified based upon HIV infection and METH use disorder: HIV-/METH- (n=49), HIV-/METH+ (n=48), HIV+/METH- (n=37), and HIV+/METH+ (n=38)...
March 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368180/predictors-of-response-to-cognitive-remediation-in-service-recipients-with-severe-mental-illness
#2
Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Veronica Anna Ozog, Anzalee Khan, Isidora Ljuri, Samantha Fregenti, Susan R McGurk
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive challenges are prominent features of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, impairing occupational, social, and economic functioning. These challenges are predictive of social and work outcomes. Cognitive remediation has been shown to be effective in improving both cognitive and social functions. However, cognitive remediation does not produce improvement in all participants. We investigated demographic, neurocognitive, and psychopathological predictors associated with improvement following cognitive remediation interventions in service recipients with severe mental illnesses...
March 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358733/plasma-dickkopf-related-protein-1-an-antagonist-of-the-wnt-pathway-is-associated-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-impairment
#3
Chunjiang Yu, Melanie Seaton, Scott Letendre, Robert Heaton, Lena Al-Harthi
OBJECTIVE: DKK1 is a soluble antagonist of the Wnt pathway. It binds to and sequesters LRP5/6 away from Wnts. Because the Wnt pathway regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity, we hypothesized that increased DKK1 would increase the risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV+ individuals. We evaluated here the relationship between plasma DKK1 and global NCI. METHODS: Plasma samples and data from 41 HIV+ and 42 HIV- adults were obtained from the University of California, San Diego...
March 29, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358552/determinants-of-risk-taking-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#4
Daniela Gomez, Christopher Power, M John Gill, Esther Fujiwara
OBJECTIVE: Decision-making involves fronto-striatal brain areas that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of HIV infection. Some studies report impaired decision-making in people with HIV/AIDS with past or present addictions and/or accompanying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The authors investigated risk-based decision-making in HIV/AIDS, separating individuals with or without accompanying HAND. METHOD: A total of 288 HIV-infected persons underwent standardized neuropsychological testing...
March 30, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328547/predictors-and-impact-of-self-reported-suboptimal-effort-on-estimates-of-prevalence-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#5
Andrew J Levine, Eileen Martin, Ned Sacktor, Cynthia Munro, James Becker
BACKGROUND: Prevalence estimates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) may be inflated. Estimates are determined via cohort studies in which participants may apply suboptimal effort on neurocognitive testing, thereby inflating estimates. Additionally, fluctuating HAND severity over time may be related to inconsistent effort. To address these hypotheses, we characterized effort in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS: After neurocognitive testing, 935 participants (525 HIV-, 410 HIV+) completed the Visual Analogue Effort Scale (VAES), rating their effort from 0-100%...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294530/the-association-between-physical-activity-and-cognition-in-men-with-and-without-hiv-infection
#6
A K Monroe, L Zhang, L P Jacobson, M W Plankey, T T Brown, E N Miller, E Martin, J T Becker, A J Levine, A Ragin, N C Sacktor
OBJECTIVES: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are highly prevalent, and physical activity (PA) is a modifiable behaviour that may affect neurocognitive function. Our objective was to determine the association between PA and neurocognitive function and the effect of HIV on this association. METHODS: PA was assessed in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A neuropsychological test battery assessed global impairment and domain-specific impairment (executive function, speed of processing, working memory, learning, memory, and motor function) every 2 years...
March 13, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052738/determining-optimal-impairment-rating-methodology-for-a-new-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-screening-procedure
#7
Jody Kamminga, Mark Bloch, Trina Vincent, Angela Carberry, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
INTRODUCTION: The current study sought to determine the optimal impairment rating definition for a new HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) screening procedure as compared to standard neuropsychological testing. METHOD: A total of 55 HIV-infected (HIV+; 19% AIDS; 87% on combination antiretroviral therapy, cART; 80% plasma undetectable) and 22 demographically comparable HIV-uninfected (HIV-) control adults (all male) enrolled in an urban Australian primary care cohort study completed the CogState computerized cognitive screen, a standard independence in activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaire, and a standard neuropsychological test battery...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005574/clinical-and-viro-immunological-correlates-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-hand-in-a-cohort-of-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-patients
#8
Francesca Bai, Francesca Iannuzzi, Esther Merlini, Lidia Borghi, Camilla Tincati, Mattia Trunfio, Teresa Bini, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti
The multifactorial pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders may explain the inconsistent association between neurocognitive impairment and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA. Clinical and viro-immunological (CSF and plasma HIV RNA, CSF/plasma HIV RNA ratio, circulating T-cell phenotypes) parameters were investigated in 155 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve, asymptomatic study participants undergoing a neuropsychological evaluation. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) was independently associated with AIDS events and a CSF/plasma ratio of at least one, after adjustment for CD4 nadir of less than 200 cells/mmc, suggesting a role for active central nervous system (CNS) viral replication in the pathogenesis of neurocognitive impairment...
January 14, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921220/increased-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-is-a-marker-of-ongoing-inflammation-and-better-neurocognitive-function-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals
#9
Josué Pérez-Santiago, Michelli F De Oliveira, Susanna R Var, Tyler R C Day, Steven P Woods, Sara Gianella, Sanjay R Mehta
Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly immunogenic molecule that is associated with several inflammatory conditions and with neurocognitive impairment during untreated HIV infection. Here, we investigate how cell-free mtDNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with inflammation, neuronal damage, and neurocognitive functioning in the context of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We quantified the levels of cell-free mtDNA in the CSF from 41 HIV-infected individuals with completely suppressed HIV RNA levels in blood plasma (<50 copies/mL) by droplet digital PCR...
April 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869500/lower-frailty-is-associated-with-successful-cognitive-aging-among-older-adults-with-hiv
#10
Lindsay M K Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in a sample of older adults with HIV. One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load. SCA was defined as the absence of neurocognitive impairment (as defined by deficits in tasks of episodic learning, information processing speed, executive function, and motor skills) depression, and functional impairment (instrumental activities of daily living)...
February 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856673/associations-of-memory-and-executive-functioning-with-academic-and-adaptive-functioning-among-youth-with-perinatal-hiv-exposure-and-or-infection
#11
Patricia A Sirois, Miriam C Chernoff, Kathleen M Malee, Patricia A Garvie, Lynnette L Harris, Paige L Williams, Steven P Woods, Molly L Nozyce, Betsy L Kammerer, Cenk Yildirim, Sharon L Nichols
BACKGROUND: Perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) confers risk for neurocognitive impairment, which potentially affects school performance and functional independence of infected children. In this study, we examined the associations of 2 key neurocognitive domains, memory and executive function (EF), with academic and adaptive skills among youth with PHIV and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. METHODS: Participants ages 9 to <19 years enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study's Memory and Executive Functioning Study completed standardized measures of reading and math...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789283/aging-neurocognitive-impairment-and-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#12
Cezar Arthur Tavares Pinheiro, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Janaína Vieira Dos Santos Motta, Evelin Franco Kelbert, Clarissa de Souza Ribeiro Martins, Marília Silva de Souza, Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro, Fábio Monteiro da Cunha Coelho, Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is an increasing number of older patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection due to the success of antiretroviral therapy, the improved prognosis and life expectancy of patients, and the higher number of new infections among older individuals. The main objective of the present study was to compare the characteristics of older human immunodeficiency virus patients with those of younger patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who were treated at the Specialized Care Service (Serviço de Assistência Especializada) for human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in the city of Pelotas, South Brazil...
November 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712105/normative-data-for-evaluating-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-with-a-handheld-neurocognitive-assessment-tool
#13
Andrea S Vincent, Christopher M Bailey, Charles Cowan, Eugenia Cox-Fuenzalida, Jeff Dyche, Kim A Gorgens, Daniel C Krawczyk, Leanne Young
The BrainScope Ahead 300 is designed for use by health care professionals to aid in the assessment of patients suspected of a mild traumatic brain injury. The purpose of the current study was to establish normative data for the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system and to evaluate the role of demographic factors on test performance. Healthy, community-dwelling adults between the ages of 18 and 80 recruited from five geographically distributed sites were administered Android versions of the ANAM Matching to Sample and Procedural Reaction Time tests that comprise the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system by trained personnel...
August 11, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709330/microvascular-function-in-aging-among-women-living-with-hiv
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643907/hiv-associated-neurologic-disorders-and-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-in-hiv
#15
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626305/depression-and-diagnosis-of-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-positive-patients
#16
C A T Pinheiro, L D M Souza, J V S Motta, E F Kelbert, M S Souza, C S R Martins, F M C Coelho, K A T Pinheiro, R T Pinheiro
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is frequently observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and results from the compromise of subcortical brain structures by the virus. The manifestations of NCI range from asymptomatic impairment to dementia. In addition to cognitive impairment resulting from HIV infection, other factors such as depression are associated with the loss of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of NCI in HIV-positive patients in a city in southern Brazil and to establish possible associations for the prevalence of NCI with HIV-related and other risk factors...
September 12, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608675/relationship-between-hiv-stage-and-psychomotor-speed-neurocognitive-score-at-a-kenyan-sub-county-hospital
#17
Rachael N Kinuthia, Benson N Gakinya, Joseph M Thigiti
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is associated with cognitive impairment which affects psychomotor speed. Psychomotor slowing is a predictor of dementia and death in people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between psychomotor speed neurocognitive score and the HIV disease stage in adults at initiation of care...
August 31, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590170/infant-sleep-hygiene-counseling-sleep-trial-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Ina S Santos, Diego G Bassani, Alicia Matijasevich, Camila S Halal, Bianca Del-Ponte, Suélen Henriques da Cruz, Luciana Anselmi, Elaine Albernaz, Michelle Fernandes, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues, Mariangela F Silveira, Pedro C Hallal
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems in childhood have been found to be associated with memory and learning impairments, irritability, difficulties in mood modulation, attention and behavioral problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Short sleep duration has been found to be associated with overweight and obesity in childhood. This paper describes the protocol of a behavioral intervention planned to promote healthier sleep in infants. METHODS: The study is a 1:1 parallel group single-blinded randomized controlled trial enrolling a total of 552 infants at 3 months of age...
September 2, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570456/hiv-and-aids-associated-neurocognitive-functioning-in-zambia-a-perspective-based-on-differences-between-the-genders
#19
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are frequently associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI). However, few studies have examined the interrelationship between gender and NCI in the HIV and AIDS population. This cross-sectional study examined the neurocognitive (NC) functioning of HIV-infected male and female adults from urban Zambia. The participants included 266 HIV seropositive (HIV+) adults (males [n=107] and females [n=159]). Participants completed NC assessment by means of a comprehensive test battery using normative data from 324 HIV-seronegative (HIV-) controls...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492024/food-insecurity-is-associated-with-cognitive-deficits-among-hiv-positive-but-not-hiv-negative-individuals-in-a-united-states-sample
#20
Andréa L Hobkirk, Sheri L Towe, Puja Patel, Christina S Meade
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the United States (US) have disproportionately high rates of food insecurity (FI). In the general population, FI has been associated with cognitive impairment among older adults and may exacerbate HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The current study assessed the effects of FI and HIV infection on the neuropsychological performance of 61 HIV-positive and 36 HIV-negative adults in the US. While the main effects were minimal, the interactive effects revealed that FI was related to deficits in speed of information processing, learning, memory, motor function, and overall cognitive impairment for the HIV-positive group, but not the HIV-negative group...
August 4, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
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