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Aids,neurocognitive impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777462/a-composite-of-multisystem-injury-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infection-association-with-everyday-functioning
#1
María J Marquine, Ilse Flores, Rujvi Kamat, Neco Johnson, Anya Umlauf, Scott Letendre, Dilip Jeste, Igor Grant, David Moore, Robert K Heaton
The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is a composite marker of multisystem injury among HIV-infected persons. We aimed to examine its cross-sectional association with functional outcomes, after considering neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and other well-established correlates of everyday functioning among HIV-infected persons. Participants included 670 HIV-infected adults (ages 18-76; 88% male; 63% non-Hispanic White; median current CD4 = 404 cells/mm3 ; 67% on antiretroviral therapy; AIDS = 63%) enrolled in observational studies at the University of California San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762344/use-of-nonantiretroviral-medications-that-may-impact-neurocognition-patterns-and-predictors-in-a-large-long-term-hiv-cohort-study
#2
Kendra K Radtke, Peter Bacchetti, Kathryn Anastos, Daniel Merenstein, Howard Crystal, Roksana Karim, Kathleen M Weber, Andrew Edmonds, Anandi N Sheth, Margaret A Fischl, David Vance, Ruth M Greenblatt, Leah H Rubin
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment is a frequent and often disabling comorbidity of HIV infection. In addition to antiretroviral therapies, individuals with HIV infection may commonly use nonantiretroviral medications that are known to cause neurocognitive adverse effects (NC-AE). The contribution of NC-AE to neurocognitive impairment is rarely considered in the context of HIV and could explain part of the variability in neurocognitive performance among individuals with HIV. SETTING: Women's Interagency HIV Study, a prospective, multisite, observational study of US women with and without HIV...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742062/global-perspective-of-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-management-of-neuroaids
#3
Swatantra Kumar, Vimal K Maurya, Himanshu R Dandu, Madan Lb Bhatt, Shailendra K Saxena
Among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, around two-thirds of patients present with neuroAIDS, where HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) are the most prevailing neurological complications. The neuropathology of neuroAIDS can be characterized by the presence of HIV infected macrophages and microglia in the brain, with the formation of multinucleated giant cells. Global predominant subtypes of HIV-1 clade B and C infections influence the differential effect of immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to clade-specific clinical variation in neuroAIDS patient cohorts...
May 8, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582356/no-reliable-gene-expression-biomarkers-of-current-or-impending-neurocognitive-impairment-in-peripheral-blood-monocytes-of-persons-living-with-hiv
#4
Austin Quach, Steve Horvath, Natasha Nemanim, Dimitrios Vatakis, Mallory D Witt, Eric N Miller, Roger Detels, Peter Langfelder, Paul Shapshak, Elyse J Singer, Andrew J Levine
Events leading to and propagating neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV-1-infected (HIV+) persons are largely mediated by peripheral blood monocytes. We previously identified expression levels of individual genes and gene networks in peripheral blood monocytes that correlated with neurocognitive functioning in HIV+ adults. Here, we expand upon those findings by examining if gene expression data at baseline is predictive of change in neurocognitive functioning 2 years later. We also attempt to validate the original findings in a new sample of HIV+ patients and determine if the findings are HIV specific by including HIV-uninfected (HIV-) participants as a comparison group...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526406/morphine-potentiated-cognitive-deficits-correlate-to-suppressed-hippocampal-inos-rna-expression-and-an-absent-type-1-interferon-response-in-lp-bm5-murine-aids
#5
Virginia D McLane, Saurabh Kumar, Reno Leeming, Sanjay Rau, Colin L Willis, Ling Cao
Opioid use accelerates neurocognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS patients. We assessed the effect of chronic morphine treatment and LP-BM5/murine AIDS (MAIDS) infection on cognition, cytokine production, and type 1 interferon (IFN) expression in the murine CNS. Morphine treatment decreased expression of pro-inflammatory factors (CCL5, iNOS) and reduced cognitive performance in LP-BM5-infected mice, correlating to increased hippocampal viral load and a blunted type 1 IFN response. In the striatum, morphine reduced viral load while increasing IFN-α RNA expression...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504063/serious-non-aids-conditions-in-hiv-benefit-of-early-art
#6
REVIEW
Jens D Lundgren, Alvaro H Borges, James D Neaton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal control of HIV can be achieved by early diagnosis followed by the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Two large randomised trials (TEMPRANO and START) have recently been published documenting the clinical benefits to HIV-positive adults of early ART initiation. Main findings are reviewed with a focus on serious non-AIDS (SNA) conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from the two trials demonstrated that initiating ART early in the course of HIV infection resulted in marked reductions in the risk of opportunistic diseases and invasive bacterial infections...
April 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458297/-r-fluoxetine-enhances-cognitive-flexibility-and-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-in-mice
#7
Subhi Marwari, Gavin S Dawe
Fluoxetine is a clinically successful antidepressant. It is a racemic mixture of (R) and (S) stereoisomers. In preclinical studies, chronic treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) had antidepressant effects correlated with increased hippocampal cell proliferation in adult rodents. However, the contribution of the enantiomers of fluoxetine is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of treatment with (R)- and (S)-fluoxetine on cognitive behavioral paradigms and examined cell proliferation in the hippocampus of C57BL/6J female mice...
April 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458114/severity-dependent-influence-of-isocapnic-hypoxia-on-reaction-time-is-independent-of-neurovascular-coupling
#8
Hannah G Caldwell, Geoff B Coombs, Michael M Tymko, Daniela Nowak-Flück, Philip N Ainslie
With exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia, global cerebral oxygen delivery is maintained via increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF); therefore, regional and localized changes in oxygen tension may explain neurocognitive impairment. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the close temporal and regional relationship of CBF to changes in neural activity and may aid in explaining the localized CBF response with cognitive activation. High-altitude related cognitive impairment is likely affected by hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction that may influence regional CBF regulation independent of hypoxia...
May 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430124/incidental-global-hypometabolism-in-the-brain-of-patient-with-aids-related-dementia-seen-on-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#9
Priyanka Verma, Ramesh V Asopa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related dementia is the most severe form of neurocognitive disorder in patients with AIDS. It is relatively uncommon in postantiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and is associated with a high cerebrospinal fluid CSF/plasma viral load. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in malignancies, infections, and central nervous system lesions in HIV-infected patients and has been used to explore regional cerebral glucose metabolism patterns in HIV-positive patients with and without cognitive impairment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411628/neuropsychological-performance-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-hiv-1-infection
#10
Martha Martínez-Banfi, Jorge I Vélez, M Victoria Perea, Ricardo García, Pedro J Puentes-Rozo, Moises Mebarak Chams, Valentina Ladera
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) lead to neurocognitive disorders; however, there is still much knowledge to be gained regarding HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive performance, instrumental activities of daily living, depression, and anxiety in patients with asymptomatic HIV-1 infections compared with seronegative participants without neurocognitive impairment. We studied a sample consisted of 60 patients with asymptomatic HIV-1 infections and 60 seronegative participants without neurocognitive impairment from the city of Barranquilla, Colombia, with a mean age of 36...
May 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385834/association-between-frailty-and-hiv-associated-neurodegenerative-disorders-among-older-adults-living-with-hiv
#11
Alfonso Zamudio-Rodríguez, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Juan G Sierra-Madero, Jennifer Cuellar-Rodríguez, Brenda E Crabtree-Ramírez, Juan Luis Alcala-Zermeno, Hélène Amieva, José Alberto Avila-Funes
The population of aging adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is growing worldwide and evidence suggests that frailty occurs prematurely among them. In turn, frailty has been associated with cognitive decline. It is unknown, however, if people with both frailty and HIV infection have a higher risk of cognitive impairment compared with nonfrail HIV-infected persons. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the association between the phenotype of frailty and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) among adults aged 50 years or older living with HIV/AIDS...
March 13, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228820/associations-between-depressive-symptomatology-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-aids
#12
Sarah Tymchuk, Daniela Gomez, Noshin Koenig, M John Gill, Esther Fujiwara, Christopher Power
OBJECTIVE: Mood disorders and neurocognitive impairments are debilitating conditions among patients with HIV/AIDS. How these comorbidities interact and their relationships to systemic factors remain uncertain. Herein, we investigated factors contributing to depressive symptomatology (DS) in a prospective cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS in active care that included neuropsychological assessment. METHODS: Among patients with HIV/AIDS receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and ongoing clinical assessments including measures of sleep, health-related quality of life (HQoL), neuropsychological testing, and mood evaluation (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9]) were performed...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224583/nutrients-for-neurocognition-in-health-and-disease-measures-methodologies-and-mechanisms
#13
Andrew Scholey
Effective pharmaceutical treatments for age-related cognitive decline have proved elusive. There is, however, compelling evidence that nutritional status and supplementation could play crucial roles in modifying the expression of cognitive change through the lifespan. Subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment can be harbingers of dementia but this is by no means inevitable. Neurocognitive change is influenced by a variety of processes, many of which are involved in other aspects of systemic health, including cardiovascular function...
February 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187813/a-mirna-signature-for-cognitive-deficits-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-persons-living-with-hiv-aids
#14
Dorota Wyczechowska, Hui-Yi Lin, Andrea LaPlante, Duane Jeansonne, Adam Lassak, Christopher H Parsons, Patricia E Molina, Francesca Peruzzi
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) affects more than half of persons living with HIV-1/AIDS (PLWHA). Identification of biomarkers representing the cognitive status of PLWHA is a critical step for implementation of successful cognitive, behavioral and pharmacological strategies to prevent onset and progression of HAND. However, the presence of co-morbidity factors in PLWHA, the most common being substance abuse, can prevent the identification of such biomarkers. We have optimized a protocol to profile plasma miRNAs using quantitative RT-qPCR and found a miRNA signature with very good discriminatory ability to distinguish PLWHA with cognitive impairment from those without cognitive impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172053/associations-of-neurofunctional-morphometric-and-metabolic-abnormalities-with-clinical-symptom-severity-and-recognition-deficit-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Chung-Man Moon, Gwang-Woo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) causes neural dysfunction associated with cognitive deficit and emotional dysregulation. This study assessed the associations of the neurofunctional changes, gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in conjunction with in vivo metabolic changes on the working memory tasks in patients with OCD. METHODS: Eighteen patients with OCD and 18 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and educational levels underwent high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), event-related functional MRI (fMRI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) at 3T...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#16
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
January 1, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121259/exercise-ameliorates-neurocognitive-impairments-in-a-translational-model-of-pediatric-radiotherapy
#17
Iman Sahnoune, Taeko Inoue, Shelli R Kesler, Shaefali P Rodgers, Omaima M Sabek, Steen E Pedersen, Janice A Zawaski, Katharine H Nelson, M Douglas Ris, J Leigh Leasure, M Waleed Gaber
Background: While cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed, and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality of life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. Methods: We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits...
April 9, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080122/sex-differences-in-select-non-communicable-hiv-associated-comorbidities-exploring-the-role-of-systemic-immune-activation-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Avanthi Raghavan, Dodie E Rimmelin, Kathleen V Fitch, Markella V Zanni
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The goals of this review are to (1) explore HIV-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD), neurocognitive impairment, and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC) as heterogeneous model disease states fuelled in part by systemic immune activation/inflammation; (2) consider sex differences in the epidemiology of these diseases in both high-resource and lower-resource settings; and (3) examine biological and environmental factors which may contribute to heightened systemic immune activation/inflammation specifically among women living with HIV (WLHIV)...
December 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075998/transgenic-mice-expressing-hiv-1-envelope-protein-gp120-in-the-brain-as-an-animal-model-in-neuroaids-research
#19
Victoria E Thaney, Ana B Sanchez, Jerel A Fields, Arpi Minassian, Jared W Young, Ricky Maung, Marcus Kaul
HIV-1 infection causes injury to the central nervous system (CNS) and is often associated with neurocognitive disorders. One model for brain damage seen in AIDS patients is the transgenic (tg) mouse expressing a soluble envelope protein gp120 of HIV-1 LAV in the brain in astrocytes under the control of the promoter of glial fibrillary acidic protein. These GFAP-gp120tg mice manifest several key neuropathological features observed in AIDS brains, such as decreased synaptic and dendritic density, increased numbers of activated microglia, and pronounced astrocytosis...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067312/a-multicenter-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-for-cilostazol-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-the-comcid-study-protocol
#20
Satoshi Saito, Shinsuke Kojima, Naoya Oishi, Ryosuke Kakuta, Takakuni Maki, Fumihiko Yasuno, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka, Haruko Yamamoto, Hidenao Fukuyama, Masanori Fukushima, Masafumi Ihara
INTRODUCTION: There are currently no effective treatments preventing conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease. Cilostazol is a selective type-3 phosphodiesterase inhibitor that ameliorates accumulation of amyloid-β and has prevented cognitive decline in rodent models. Furthermore, cilostazol is known to suppress platelet aggregation, protect vascular endothelia, dilate vessels, and increase cerebral blood flow. Beneficial effects have also been shown in observational cohort studies, demonstrating the need for a prospective clinical trial...
November 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
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