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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921220/increased-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-is-a-marker-of-ongoing-inflammation-and-better-neurocognitive-function-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals
#1
Josué Pérez-Santiago, Michelli F De Oliveira, Susanna R Var, Tyler R C Day, Steven P Woods, Sara Gianella, Sanjay R Mehta
Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly immunogenic molecule that is associated with several inflammatory conditions and with neurocognitive impairment during untreated HIV infection. Here, we investigate how cell-free mtDNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with inflammation, neuronal damage, and neurocognitive functioning in the context of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We quantified the levels of cell-free mtDNA in the CSF from 41 HIV-infected individuals with completely suppressed HIV RNA levels in blood plasma (<50 copies/mL) by droplet digital PCR...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869500/lower-frailty-is-associated-with-successful-cognitive-aging-among-older-adults-with-hiv
#2
Lindsay Mk Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David J Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in sample of older adults with HIV. METHODS: One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least one year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load...
November 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856673/associations-of-memory-and-executive-functioning-with-academic-and-adaptive-functioning-among-youth-with-perinatal-hiv-exposure-and-or-infection
#3
Patricia A Sirois, Miriam C Chernoff, Kathleen M Malee, Patricia A Garvie, Lynnette L Harris, Paige L Williams, Steven P Woods, Molly L Nozyce, Betsy L Kammerer, Cenk Yildirim, Sharon L Nichols
BACKGROUND: Perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) confers risk for neurocognitive impairment, which potentially affects school performance and functional independence of infected children. In this study, we examined the associations of 2 key neurocognitive domains, memory and executive function (EF), with academic and adaptive skills among youth with PHIV and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. METHODS: Participants ages 9 to <19 years enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study's Memory and Executive Functioning Study completed standardized measures of reading and math...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789283/aging-neurocognitive-impairment-and-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#4
Cezar Arthur Tavares Pinheiro, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Janaína Vieira Dos Santos Motta, Evelin Franco Kelbert, Clarissa de Souza Ribeiro Martins, Marília Silva de Souza, Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro, Fábio Monteiro da Cunha Coelho, Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is an increasing number of older patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection due to the success of antiretroviral therapy, the improved prognosis and life expectancy of patients, and the higher number of new infections among older individuals. The main objective of the present study was to compare the characteristics of older human immunodeficiency virus patients with those of younger patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who were treated at the Specialized Care Service (Serviço de Assistência Especializada) for human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in the city of Pelotas, South Brazil...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712105/normative-data-for-evaluating-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-with-a-handheld-neurocognitive-assessment-tool
#5
Andrea S Vincent, Christopher M Bailey, Charles Cowan, Eugenia Cox-Fuenzalida, Jeff Dyche, Kim A Gorgens, Daniel C Krawcyzk, Leanne Young
The BrainScope Ahead 300 is designed for use by health care professionals to aid in the assessment of patients suspected of a mild traumatic brain injury. The purpose of the current study was to establish normative data for the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system and to evaluate the role of demographic factors on test performance. Healthy, community-dwelling adults between the ages of 18 and 80 recruited from five geographically distributed sites were administered Android versions of the ANAM Matching to Sample and Procedural Reaction Time tests that comprise the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system by trained personnel...
August 11, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709330/microvascular-function-in-aging-among-women-living-with-hiv
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643907/hiv-associated-neurologic-disorders-and-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-in-hiv
#7
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626305/depression-and-diagnosis-of-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-positive-patients
#8
C A T Pinheiro, L D M Souza, J V S Motta, E F Kelbert, M S Souza, C S R Martins, F M C Coelho, K A T Pinheiro, R T Pinheiro
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is frequently observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and results from the compromise of subcortical brain structures by the virus. The manifestations of NCI range from asymptomatic impairment to dementia. In addition to cognitive impairment resulting from HIV infection, other factors such as depression are associated with the loss of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of NCI in HIV-positive patients in a city in southern Brazil and to establish possible associations for the prevalence of NCI with HIV-related and other risk factors...
September 12, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608675/relationship-between-hiv-stage-and-psychomotor-speed-neurocognitive-score-at-a-kenyan-sub-county-hospital
#9
Rachael N Kinuthia, Benson N Gakinya, Joseph M Thigiti
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is associated with cognitive impairment which affects psychomotor speed. Psychomotor slowing is a predictor of dementia and death in people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between psychomotor speed neurocognitive score and the HIV disease stage in adults at initiation of care...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590170/infant-sleep-hygiene-counseling-sleep-trial-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Ina S Santos, Diego G Bassani, Alicia Matijasevich, Camila S Halal, Bianca Del-Ponte, Suélen Henriques da Cruz, Luciana Anselmi, Elaine Albernaz, Michelle Fernandes, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues, Mariangela F Silveira, Pedro C Hallal
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems in childhood have been found to be associated with memory and learning impairments, irritability, difficulties in mood modulation, attention and behavioral problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Short sleep duration has been found to be associated with overweight and obesity in childhood. This paper describes the protocol of a behavioral intervention planned to promote healthier sleep in infants. METHODS: The study is a 1:1 parallel group single-blinded randomized controlled trial enrolling a total of 552 infants at 3 months of age...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570456/hiv-and-aids-associated-neurocognitive-functioning-in-zambia-a-perspective-based-on-differences-between-the-genders
#11
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are frequently associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI). However, few studies have examined the interrelationship between gender and NCI in the HIV and AIDS population. This cross-sectional study examined the neurocognitive (NC) functioning of HIV-infected male and female adults from urban Zambia. The participants included 266 HIV seropositive (HIV+) adults (males [n=107] and females [n=159]). Participants completed NC assessment by means of a comprehensive test battery using normative data from 324 HIV-seronegative (HIV-) controls...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492024/food-insecurity-is-associated-with-cognitive-deficits-among-hiv-positive-but-not-hiv-negative-individuals-in-a-united-states-sample
#12
Andréa L Hobkirk, Sheri L Towe, Puja Patel, Christina S Meade
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the United States (US) have disproportionately high rates of food insecurity (FI). In the general population, FI has been associated with cognitive impairment among older adults and may exacerbate HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The current study assessed the effects of FI and HIV infection on the neuropsychological performance of 61 HIV-positive and 36 HIV-negative adults in the US. While the main effects were minimal, the interactive effects revealed that FI was related to deficits in speed of information processing, learning, memory, motor function, and overall cognitive impairment for the HIV-positive group, but not the HIV-negative group...
August 4, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384268/risk-factors-and-a-clinical-prediction-model-for-low-maternal-thyroid-function-during-early-pregnancy-two-population-based-prospective-cohort-studies
#13
Tim I M Korevaar, Daan Nieboer, Peter H L T Bisschop, Mariette Goddijn, Marco Medici, Layal Chaker, Yolanda B de Rijke, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Theo J Visser, Ewout W Steyerberg, Henning Tiemeier, Tanja G Vrijkotte, Robin P Peeters
BACKGROUND: Low maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes including impaired neurocognitive development of the offspring, premature delivery and abnormal birthweight. AIM: To aid doctors in the risk assessment of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy, we set out to investigate clinical risk factors and derive a prediction model based on easily obtainable clinical variables. METHODS: In total, 9767 women during early pregnancy (≤18 week) were selected from two population-based prospective cohorts: the Generation R Study (N = 5985) and the ABCD study (N = 3782)...
December 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378953/neuroinflammation-and-behavior-in-hiv-1-transgenic-rats-exposed-to-chronic-adolescent-stress
#14
Sydney A Rowson, Constance S Harrell, Mandakh Bekhbat, Apoorva Gangavelli, Matthew J Wu, Sean D Kelly, Renuka Reddy, Gretchen N Neigh
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved prognosis for people living with HIV (PLWH) and dramatically reduced the incidence of AIDS. However, even when viral load is controlled, PLWH develop psychiatric and neurological disorders more frequently than those living without HIV. Adolescents with HIV are particularly susceptible to the development of psychiatric illnesses and neurocognitive impairments. While both psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders have been found to be exacerbated by stress, the extent to which chronic stress and HIV-1 viral proteins interact to impact behavior and relevant neuroinflammatory processes is unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278547/use-of-western-neuropsychological-test-battery-in-detecting-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-hand-in-zambia
#15
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
This is a study of neuroAIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, involving 266 Zambian adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), clade C. All HIV+ participants were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), and were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) test battery covering seven ability domains that are frequently affected by neuroAIDS. The battery was developed in the U.S. but has been validated in other international settings and has demographically-corrected normative standards based upon 324 healthy Zambian adults...
June 8, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199461/the-veterans-aging-cohort-study-vacs-index-and-neurocognitive-change-a-longitudinal-study
#16
María J Marquine, Jessica L Montoya, Anya Umlauf, Pariya L Fazeli, Ben Gouaux, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Scott L Letendre, Igor Grant, David J Moore
BACKGROUND: The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index, a composite marker of disease severity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, has been associated with concurrent risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). The present study examined whether the VACS Index predicts longitudinal neurocognitive change. METHODS: Participants included 655 HIV-infected persons followed for up to 6 years in cohort studies at the University of California, San Diego, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program (mean age at baseline, 42...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182827/the-effect-of-paternal-age-on-oocyte-donation-outcomes
#17
Lena Sagi-Dain, Shlomi Sagi, Martha Dirnfeld
IMPORTANCE: In recent decades, a trend toward delayed childbearing is noted in developed countries. Whereas the effects of maternal age on fertility, pregnancy complications, and postnatal outcomes have been thoroughly explored, consequences of advanced paternal age are less well known. Oocyte donation cycles can be used as an optimal model to analyze the association between male ageing and reproductive outcomes with minimal confounding. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to summarize the updated and relevant literature dealing with the effect of paternal age on oocyte donation outcomes...
May 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138170/the-impact-of-marijuana-use-on-memory-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-hiv-and-marijuana-literatures
#18
Linda M Skalski, Sheri L Towe, Kathleen J Sikkema, Christina S Meade
BACKGROUND: The most robust neurocognitive effect of marijuana use is memory impairment. Memory deficits are also high among persons living with HIV/AIDS, and marijuana is the most commonly used drug in this population. Yet research examining neurocognitive outcomes resulting from co-occurring marijuana and HIV is limited. OBJECTIVE: The primary objectives of this comprehensive review are to: (1) examine the literature on memory functioning in HIV-infected individuals; (2) examine the literature on memory functioning in marijuana users; (3) synthesize findings and propose a theoretical framework to guide future research...
May 2, 2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125367/a-cross-sectional-study-to-evaluate-the-association-of-hyperbilirubinaemia-on-markers-of-cardiovascular-disease-neurocognitive-function-bone-mineral-density-and-renal-markers-in-hiv-1-infected-subjects-on-protease-inhibitors
#19
T J Barber, G Moyle, A Hill, G Jagjit Singh, A Scourfield, H M Yapa, L Waters, D Asboe, M Boffito, M Nelson
BACKGROUND: Ongoing inflammation in controlled HIV infection contributes to non-AIDS comorbidities. High bilirubin appears to exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect in vivo. We therefore examined whether increased bilirubin in persons with HIV was associated with differences in markers of inflammation and cardiovascular, bone, renal disease, and neurocognitive (NC) impairment. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined inflammatory markers in individuals with stable HIV infection treated with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a boosted protease inhibitor...
May 2016: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122578/evolution-of-neuroadaptation-in-the-periphery-and-purifying-selection-in-the-brain-contribute-to-compartmentalization-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-in-the-brains-of-rhesus-macaques-with-siv-associated-encephalitis
#20
Brittany D Rife, David J Nolan, Susanna L Lamers, Patrick Autissier, Tricia Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Marco Salemi
UNLABELLED: The emergence of a distinct subpopulation of human or simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) sequences within the brain (compartmentalization) during infection is hypothesized to be linked to AIDS-related central nervous system (CNS) neuropathology. However, the exact evolutionary mechanism responsible for HIV/SIV brain compartmentalization has not been thoroughly investigated. Using extensive viral sampling from several different peripheral tissues and cell types and from three distinct regions within the brain from two well-characterized rhesus macaque models of the neurological complications of HIV infection (neuroAIDS), we have been able to perform in-depth evolutionary analyses that have been unattainable in HIV-infected subjects...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
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