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Aids,neurocognitive impairment

Andrea S Vincent, Christopher M Bailey, Charles Cowan, Eugenia Cox-Fuenzalida, Jeff Dyche, Kim A Gorgens, Daniel C Krawcyzk, Leanne Young
The BrainScope Ahead 300 is designed for use by health care professionals to aid in the assessment of patients suspected of a mild traumatic brain injury. The purpose of the current study was to establish normative data for the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system and to evaluate the role of demographic factors on test performance. Healthy, community-dwelling adults between the ages of 18 and 80 recruited from five geographically distributed sites were administered Android versions of the ANAM Matching to Sample and Procedural Reaction Time tests that comprise the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system by trained personnel...
August 11, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
October 5, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
C A T Pinheiro, L D M Souza, J V S Motta, E F Kelbert, M S Souza, C S R Martins, F M C Coelho, K A T Pinheiro, R T Pinheiro
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is frequently observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and results from the compromise of subcortical brain structures by the virus. The manifestations of NCI range from asymptomatic impairment to dementia. In addition to cognitive impairment resulting from HIV infection, other factors such as depression are associated with the loss of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of NCI in HIV-positive patients in a city in southern Brazil and to establish possible associations for the prevalence of NCI with HIV-related and other risk factors...
September 12, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Rachael N Kinuthia, Benson N Gakinya, Joseph M Thigiti
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is associated with cognitive impairment which affects psychomotor speed. Psychomotor slowing is a predictor of dementia and death in people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between psychomotor speed neurocognitive score and the HIV disease stage in adults at initiation of care...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Ina S Santos, Diego G Bassani, Alicia Matijasevich, Camila S Halal, Bianca Del-Ponte, Suélen Henriques da Cruz, Luciana Anselmi, Elaine Albernaz, Michelle Fernandes, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues, Mariangela F Silveira, Pedro C Hallal
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems in childhood have been found to be associated with memory and learning impairments, irritability, difficulties in mood modulation, attention and behavioral problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Short sleep duration has been found to be associated with overweight and obesity in childhood. This paper describes the protocol of a behavioral intervention planned to promote healthier sleep in infants. METHODS: The study is a 1:1 parallel group single-blinded randomized controlled trial enrolling a total of 552 infants at 3 months of age...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are frequently associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI). However, few studies have examined the interrelationship between gender and NCI in the HIV and AIDS population. This cross-sectional study examined the neurocognitive (NC) functioning of HIV-infected male and female adults from urban Zambia. The participants included 266 HIV seropositive (HIV+) adults (males [n=107] and females [n=159]). Participants completed NC assessment by means of a comprehensive test battery using normative data from 324 HIV-seronegative (HIV-) controls...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Andréa L Hobkirk, Sheri L Towe, Puja Patel, Christina S Meade
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the United States (US) have disproportionately high rates of food insecurity (FI). In the general population, FI has been associated with cognitive impairment among older adults and may exacerbate HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The current study assessed the effects of FI and HIV infection on the neuropsychological performance of 61 HIV-positive and 36 HIV-negative adults in the US. While the main effects were minimal, the interactive effects revealed that FI was related to deficits in speed of information processing, learning, memory, motor function, and overall cognitive impairment for the HIV-positive group, but not the HIV-negative group...
August 4, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Tim I M Korevaar, Daan Nieboer, Peter H L T Bisschop, Mariette Goddijn, Marco Medici, Layal Chaker, Yolanda B de Rijke, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Theo J Visser, Ewout W Steyerberg, Henning Tiemeier, Tanja G Vrijkotte, Robin P Peeters
BACKGROUND: Low maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes including impaired neurocognitive development of the offspring, premature delivery and abnormal birth weight. AIM: To aid doctors in the risk assessment of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy, we set out to investigate clinical risk factors and derive a prediction model based on easily obtainable clinical variables. METHODS: 9767 women during early pregnancy (≤ 18 week) were selected from two population-based prospective cohorts: the Generation R Study (N=5985) and the ABCD study (N=3782)...
July 7, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Sydney A Rowson, Constance S Harrell, Mandakh Bekhbat, Apoorva Gangavelli, Matthew J Wu, Sean D Kelly, Renuka Reddy, Gretchen N Neigh
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved prognosis for people living with HIV (PLWH) and dramatically reduced the incidence of AIDS. However, even when viral load is controlled, PLWH develop psychiatric and neurological disorders more frequently than those living without HIV. Adolescents with HIV are particularly susceptible to the development of psychiatric illnesses and neurocognitive impairments. While both psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders have been found to be exacerbated by stress, the extent to which chronic stress and HIV-1 viral proteins interact to impact behavior and relevant neuroinflammatory processes is unknown...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
This is a study of neuroAIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, involving 266 Zambian adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), clade C. All HIV+ participants were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), and were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) test battery covering seven ability domains that are frequently affected by neuroAIDS. The battery was developed in the U.S. but has been validated in other international settings and has demographically-corrected normative standards based upon 324 healthy Zambian adults...
June 8, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
María J Marquine, Jessica L Montoya, Anya Umlauf, Pariya L Fazeli, Ben Gouaux, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Scott L Letendre, Igor Grant, David J Moore
BACKGROUND: The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index, a composite marker of disease severity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, has been associated with concurrent risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). The present study examined whether the VACS Index predicts longitudinal neurocognitive change. METHODS: Participants included 655 HIV-infected persons followed for up to 6 years in cohort studies at the University of California, San Diego, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program (mean age at baseline, 42...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lena Sagi-Dain, Shlomi Sagi, Martha Dirnfeld
IMPORTANCE: In recent decades, a trend toward delayed childbearing is noted in developed countries. Whereas the effects of maternal age on fertility, pregnancy complications, and postnatal outcomes have been thoroughly explored, consequences of advanced paternal age are less well known. Oocyte donation cycles can be used as an optimal model to analyze the association between male ageing and reproductive outcomes with minimal confounding. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to summarize the updated and relevant literature dealing with the effect of paternal age on oocyte donation outcomes...
May 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Linda M Skalski, Sheri L Towe, Kathleen J Sikkema, Christina S Meade
BACKGROUND: The most robust neurocognitive effect of marijuana use is memory impairment. Memory deficits are also high among persons living with HIV/AIDS, and marijuana is the most commonly used drug in this population. Yet research examining neurocognitive outcomes resulting from co-occurring marijuana and HIV is limited. OBJECTIVE: The primary objectives of this comprehensive review are to: (1) examine the literature on memory functioning in HIV-infected individuals; (2) examine the literature on memory functioning in marijuana users; (3) synthesize findings and propose a theoretical framework to guide future research...
May 2, 2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
T J Barber, G Moyle, A Hill, G Jagjit Singh, A Scourfield, H M Yapa, L Waters, D Asboe, M Boffito, M Nelson
BACKGROUND: Ongoing inflammation in controlled HIV infection contributes to non-AIDS comorbidities. High bilirubin appears to exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect in vivo. We therefore examined whether increased bilirubin in persons with HIV was associated with differences in markers of inflammation and cardiovascular, bone, renal disease, and neurocognitive (NC) impairment. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined inflammatory markers in individuals with stable HIV infection treated with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a boosted protease inhibitor...
May 2016: HIV Clinical Trials
Brittany D Rife, David J Nolan, Susanna L Lamers, Patrick Autissier, Tricia Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Marco Salemi
UNLABELLED: The emergence of a distinct subpopulation of human or simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) sequences within the brain (compartmentalization) during infection is hypothesized to be linked to AIDS-related central nervous system (CNS) neuropathology. However, the exact evolutionary mechanism responsible for HIV/SIV brain compartmentalization has not been thoroughly investigated. Using extensive viral sampling from several different peripheral tissues and cell types and from three distinct regions within the brain from two well-characterized rhesus macaque models of the neurological complications of HIV infection (neuroAIDS), we have been able to perform in-depth evolutionary analyses that have been unattainable in HIV-infected subjects...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Hea Won Ann, Suhnyoung Jun, Na-Young Shin, Sanghoon Han, Jin Young Ahn, Mi Young Ahn, Yong Duk Jeon, In Young Jung, Moo Hyun Kim, Woo Yong Jeong, Nam Su Ku, June Myung Kim, Davey M Smith, Jun Yong Choi
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) can occur in patients without prior AIDS defining illness and can be debilitating. This study aimed to evaluate the difference in the patterns of intrinsic brain activity between patients with or without HAND for deepening our understanding of HAND. METHODS: We evaluated 24 HIV-infected individuals, 12 with previously diagnosed HAND and 12 previously diagnosed without HAND, and 11 seronegative individuals...
2016: PloS One
Emanuele Focà, Paola Magro, Davide Motta, Silvia Compostella, Salvatore Casari, Andrea Bonito, Nigritella Brianese, Alice Ferraresi, Paola Rodari, Maria Chiara Pezzoli, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Francesco Castelli
Neurocognitive disorders are emerging, probably underestimated, complications in HIV-infected people. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive profiles of newly detected HIV-infected patients. We performed an observational retrospective single-cohort study. Illiterates and patients with neurologic symptoms or previous psychiatric diagnosis were excluded. Neuropsychological profiles were assessed using a validated battery of neuropsychological tests. We included 206 patients; with males representing the majority of them (85%)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shaily Malik, Eliseo A Eugenin
BACKGROUND: One of the major complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is the development of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HANDs) in approximately 50-60% of HIV/AIDS patients. Despite undetectable viral loads in the periphery owing to highly active anti-retroviral therapy, neuroinflammation and neurocognitive impairment are still prevalent in HIV/AIDS patients. Several studies indicate that the central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities observed in HIV infected individuals are not a direct effect of viral replication in the CNS, rather these neurological abnormalities are associated with amplification of HIV pathogenesis by unknown mechanisms...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
Yu Cai, Lu Yang, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
BACKGROUND: While the advancement of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS from a death sentence to a manageable chronic condition, the prevalence of a constellation of neurological disorders collectively termed as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continues to persist in these patients. HAND is characterized by cognitive dysfunction, depression, impaired memory and/or deficits in motor skills. The underlying factors leading to HAND have been the subject of extensive research and are thought to be associated with HIV infection in the CNS combined with robust immune activation of resident cells of the CNS...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
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