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K Ganapathy
Until six decades ago, death was considered to be a specific point in time, referring to the moment at which life ends. With the availability of ventilators, even determining when death has occurred is becoming difficult, as cessation of life functions is often not simultaneous across organ systems. With increasing accessibility to intensive care units (ICUs) even in Tier II and Tier III cities, and the government making it mandatory to notify brain death to facilitate cadaveric organ transplants, it behooves the neurosurgeon and neurologist to totally understand the minutiae of brain death...
March 2018: Neurology India
Heeren Makanji, Andrew J Schoenfeld, Amandeep Bhalla, Christopher M Bono
PURPOSE: Lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders is among the most common spine surgical procedures performed. The purpose of this study was to analyze fusion, complications, and clinical success for lumbar fusion performed with various surgical techniques as reported in the literature from 2000 to 2015 and compare with previous critical analysis of outcomes from 1980 to 2000. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature to identify all studies of adult lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders published between January 1, 2000, and August 31, 2015, was performed adhering to PRISMA guidelines...
March 15, 2018: European Spine Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Jasper Braun, Lukas Nabergall, Rafik Neme, Laura F Landweber, Masahico Saito, Nataša Jonoska
Ciliates have two different types of nuclei per cell, with one acting as a somatic, transcriptionally active nucleus (macronucleus; abbr. MAC) and another serving as a germline nucleus (micronucleus; abbr. MIC). Furthermore, Oxytricha trifallax undergoes extensive genome rearrangements during sexual conjugation and post-zygotic development of daughter cells. These rearrangements are necessary because the precursor MIC loci are often both fragmented and scrambled, with respect to the corresponding MAC loci. Such genome architectures are remarkably tolerant of encrypted MIC loci, because RNA-guided processes during MAC development reorganize the gene fragments in the correct order to resemble the parental MAC sequence...
March 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Sven Karsten, Sergei D Ivanov, Sergey I Bokarev, Oliver Kühn
The framework to approach quasi-classical dynamics in the electronic ground state is well established and is based on the Kubo-transformed time correlation function (TCF), being the most classical-like quantum TCF. Here we discuss whether the choice of the Kubo-transformed TCF as a starting point for simulating vibronic spectra is as unambiguous as it is for vibrational ones. Employing imaginary-time path integral techniques in combination with the interaction representation allowed us to formulate a method for simulating vibronic spectra in the adiabatic regime that takes nuclear quantum effects and dynamics on multiple potential energy surfaces into account...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mario Fleischer, Alexander Mainka, Steffen Kürbis, Peter Birkholz
Recently, 3D printing has been increasingly used to create physical models of the vocal tract with geometries obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. These printed models allow measuring the vocal tract transfer function, which is not reliably possible in vivo for the vocal tract of living humans. The transfer functions enable the detailed examination of the acoustic effects of specific articulatory strategies in speaking and singing, and the validation of acoustic plane-wave models for realistic vocal tract geometries in articulatory speech synthesis...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan L Kuo, Chris Lorenc, Janine M Abuyuan, Jack R Norton
Radical cyclizations are most often achieved in the presence of a radical initiator and Bu3 SnH, but environmental considerations demand that alternative reagents be developed - ones that can serve as a synthetic equivalents to the hydrogen atom. We have revisited [CpV(CO)3 H]- , a known replacement for Bu3 SnH, and found that it can be used catalytically under H2 in the presence of a base. We have carried out the tin-free and catalytic radical cyclization of alkyl iodide substrates. The reactions are atom-efficient and the conditions are mild, with broad tolerance for functional groups...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jun Zhang, Alexander Sandberg, Audun Konsmo, Xiongyu Wu, Sofie Nyström, K Peter Nilsson, Peter Konradsson, Harry LeVine, Mikael Lindgren, Per Hammarström
We revisited the Congo red analogue 2,5-bis(4'-hydroxy-3'-carboxy-styryl)benzene (X-34) to develop this highly fluorescent amyloid dye for imaging Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology comprising Aβ and Tau fibrils. A selection of ligands with distinct optical properties were synthesized by replacing the central benzene unit of X-34, with other heterocyclic moieties. Full photophysical characterization was performed determining absorbance and fluorescence spectra, Stokes shift, quantum yield and fluorescence lifetimes...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
F Guégan, W Lamine, H Chermette, C Morell
In a recent article Polanco-Ramirez et al. proposed new definitions of local chemical potential and local hardness starting from the first derivative of the energy with respect to the number of electrons and a smart use of the chain rule. In this comment we show that this derivation appears naturally in the Taylor expansion of the energy, showing that the construction of Polanco-Ramirez et al. is not artificially built.
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Nancy L Segal
This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes...
March 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Thomas Erblich, Silvia Montoto
Advanced follicular lymphoma (FL) remains an incurable disease, at least with conventional therapy. Despite the long remission and disease-free periods that can be currently achieved with treatment, the disease will ultimately relapse in most of the patients. Areas covered: This article reviews the current spectrum of therapies for patients with relapsed FL in the rituximab area. It will revisit current therapies, approaches to therapeutic decision making and novel agents under investigation. Expert Commentary: At present, rituximab or second generation anti-CD20 antibodies either as single agent or in combination with chemotherapy, anti-CD20 maintenance therapy and stem cell transplant remain effective treatment options for relapsed patients...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
A Lang, G Wirth, H Gasse
The surface architecture of the equine telencephalon is far more complex and complicated than, for example, that of the carnivore's brain, and basic organization patterns are more difficult to recognize. This is due to species differences, to interindividual variations and even to asymmetries between right and left hemispheres. Moreover, a very heterogeneous anatomical terminology, especially in the pioneering older literature, does not allow easy access to a unanimous topographical orientation. This review article presents the key features of this heterogeneity and its anatomical and terminological backgrounds, focusing on the cerebral sulci...
March 14, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Ai Shimizu, Toshihiko Hoashi, Kasho Kataoka, Noriko Shirakawa, Nobuko Mayumi, Yoko Funasaka, Hidehisa Saeki
Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an uncommon, distinct type of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Here we present two cases of VC, one arising from the lower leg and the other from genital skin. Case 1, a female patient, aged 95 years, had a brownish verrucous plaque on her right lower leg. Histopathologically, epithelial tumor cells grew pushing the stroma, while the basement membrane was intact. No prominent cellular atypia or hyperchromatin was found. Case 2, a male patient, aged 53 years, had a verrucous plaque at the border between his scrotum and inner aspect of his thigh...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Tjip S van der Werf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hongjian Li, Jiangjun Peng, Yee Leung, Kwong-Sak Leung, Man-Hon Wong, Gang Lu, Pedro J Ballester
It has recently been claimed that the outstanding performance of machine-learning scoring functions (SFs) is exclusively due to the presence of training complexes with highly similar proteins to those in the test set. Here, we revisit this question using 24 similarity-based training sets, a widely used test set, and four SFs. Three of these SFs employ machine learning instead of the classical linear regression approach of the fourth SF (X-Score which has the best test set performance out of 16 classical SFs)...
March 14, 2018: Biomolecules
Ka Pang Chan, Deirdre B Fitzgerald, Y C Gary Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pleural infection remains an important pulmonary disease, causing significant morbidity and mortality. There is a resurgence of disease burden despite introduction of antibiotics and pneumococcal vaccines. A revisit of the pathogenesis and update on intervention may improve the care of pleural infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have uncovered the prognostic implication of the presence of a pleural effusion in patients with pneumonia. Identifying where the bacteria lives may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
I M Côté, N S Smith
This review revisits the traits thought to have contributed to the success of Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois sp. as an invader in the western Atlantic Ocean and the worst-case scenario about their potential ecological effects in light of the more than 150 studies conducted in the past 5 years. Fast somatic growth, resistance to parasites, effective anti-predator defences and an ability to circumvent predator recognition mechanisms by prey have probably contributed to rapid population increases of lionfish in the invaded range...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Xiang-Tian Yu, Lu Wang, Tao Zeng
Generally, machine learning includes many in silico methods to transform the principles underlying natural phenomenon to human understanding information, which aim to save human labor, to assist human judge, and to create human knowledge. It should have wide application potential in biological and biomedical studies, especially in the era of big biological data. To look through the application of machine learning along with biological development, this review provides wide cases to introduce the selection of machine learning methods in different practice scenarios involved in the whole biological and biomedical study cycle and further discusses the machine learning strategies for analyzing omics data in some cutting-edge biological studies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Guo Yu, Dan-Na Wu, Yan Gong, Guo-Fu Li, Hong-Hao Zhou
PURPOSE: The labeling information, authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA), is expected to guide the method of drug administration with reference to meal intake, aiming at ensuring favorable safety profile and achieving optimal drug exposure. However, interactions between meals and a specific oral anticancer medication are complicated in that could be strongly affected by inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics, meal compositions, and the timing of drug administration with respect to meal intake, which could lead to conflicting meal recommendations between regulatory authorities...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Jiyoung Bu, Sangmin Youn, Wooil Kwon, Kee Taek Jang, Sanghyup Han, Sunjong Han, Younghun You, Jin Seok Heo, Seong Ho Choi, Dong Wook Choi
Backgrounds/Aims: Various factors have been reported as prognostic factors of non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNETs). There remains some controversy as to the factors which might actually serve to successfully prognosticate future manifestation and diagnosis of NF-pNETs. As well, consensus regarding management strategy has never been achieved. The aim of this study is to further investigate potential prognostic factors using a large single-center cohort to help determine the management strategy of NF-pNETs...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
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