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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088123/antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-and-influenza-virus
#1
REVIEW
Hillary A Vanderven, Sinthujan Jegaskanda, Adam K Wheatley, Stephen J Kent
Antibodies are a key defence against influenza infection and disease, but neutralizing antibodies are often strain-specific and of limited utility against divergent or pandemic viruses. There is now considerable evidence that influenza-specific antibodies with Fc-mediated effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), can assist in the clearance of influenza infection in vitro and in animal models. Further, ADCC-mediating antibodies that recognize a broad array of influenza strains are common in humans, likely as a result of being regularly exposed to influenza infections...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088013/delineating-hierarchy-of-selenotranscriptome-expression-and-their-response-to-selenium-status-in-chicken-central-nervous-system
#2
Xiu-Qing Jiang, Chang-Yu Cao, Zhao-Yang Li, Wei Li, Cong Zhang, Jia Lin, Xue-Nan Li, Jing-Long Li
Selenium (Se) incorporated in selenoproteins as selenocysteine and supports various important cellular and organismal functions. We recently reported that chicken brain exhibited high priority for Se supply and retention under conditions of dietary Se deficiency and supernutrition Li et al. (2012) . However, the selenotranscriptome expressions and their response to Se status in chicken central nervous system (CNS) are unclear. To better understand the relationship of Se homeostasis and selenoproteins expression in chicken CNS, 1day-old HyLine White chickens were fed a low Se diet (Se-L, 0...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087981/humanized-chondroitinase-abc-sensitizes-glioblastoma-cells-to-temozolomide
#3
Alena Cristina Jaime-Ramirez, Nina Dmitrieva, Ji Young Yoo, Yeshavanth Banasavadi-Siddegowda, Jianying Zhang, Theresa Relation, Chelsea Bolyard-Blessing, Jeffrey Wojton, Balveen Kaur
INTRODUCTION: Malignant gliomas (GBMs) are extremely aggressive and have a median survival of approximately 15 months. Current treatment modalities, which include surgical resection, radiation and chemotherapy, have done little to prolong the lives of GBM patients. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) are critical for cell-cell and cell-extra cellular matrix (ECM) interactions and are implicated in glioma growth and invasion. Chondroitinase (Chase) ABC is a bacterial enzyme that cleaves chondroitin sulfate disaccharide chains from CSPGs in the tumor ECM...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087980/the-significance-of-glypican-3-expression-profiling-in-the-tumor-cellular-origin-theoretical-system-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression
#4
Ran Xue, Jiliang Feng, Qinghua Meng, Fudong Lv, Yueke Zhu, Hongwei Yu, Shijie Zhang, Chenzhao Song, Lin Sun, Zhujun Yue, Shuai Feng, Ruiwen Che, Qian Xiang, Xiaodan Jing
AIMS: Glypican-3(GPC3) expression is correlated with poor prognosis and progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC progression can be associated with the differentiation status of tumor cell before malignant transformation. Our aim was to investigate the dynamic expression of GPC3 during tumor cells differentiation and to explore the role and theoretical significance of GPC3 in malignant essence of HCC. METHODS: The expressions of tissue GPC3 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were detected by immunohistochemical staining...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087948/regulation-of-immunity-to-tuberculosis
#5
Susanna Brighenti, Diane J Ordway
Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a balance between adaptive immune responses to constrain bacterial replication and the prevention of potentially damaging immune activation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells express the transcription factor Foxp3+ and constitute an essential counterbalance of inflammatory Th1 responses and are required to maintain immune homeostasis. The first reports describing the presence of Foxp3-expressing CD4+ Treg cells in tuberculosis (TB) emerged in 2006. Different Treg cell subsets, most likely specialized for different tissues and microenvironments, have been shown to expand in both human TB and animal models of TB...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087945/innate-immune-responses-to-tuberculosis
#6
Jeffrey S Schorey, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely adapted to humans and is a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the primary conduit of infection and disease. However, M. tuberculosis bacilli interact with and are affected by several soluble and cellular components of the innate immune system which dictate the outcome of primary infection, most commonly a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response within the confines of tissue granuloma, the host histopathologic hallmark...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087942/the-mutualistic-interaction-between-plants-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#7
Luisa Lanfranco, Paola Bonfante, Andrea Genre
Mycorrhizal fungi belong to several taxa and develop mutualistic symbiotic associations with over 90% of all plant species, from liverworts to angiosperms. While descriptive approaches have dominated the initial studies of these fascinating symbioses, the advent of molecular biology, live cell imaging, and "omics" techniques have provided new and powerful tools to decipher the cellular and molecular mechanisms that rule mutualistic plant-fungus interactions. In this article we focus on the most common mycorrhizal association, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), which is formed by a group of soil fungi belonging to Glomeromycota...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087941/interplay-between-myeloid-cells-and-humoral-innate-immunity
#8
Sébastien Jaillon, Eduardo Bonavita, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani
The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against pathogens and comprises both a cellular and a humoral arm. Fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs), which include collectins, ficolins, and pentraxins, are key components of the humoral arm of innate immunity and are expressed by a variety of cells, including myeloid, epithelial, and endothelial cells, mainly in response to infectious and inflammatory conditions. Soluble PRMs share basic multifunctional properties including activation and regulation of the complement cascade, opsonization of pathogens and apoptotic cells, regulation of leukocyte extravasation, and fine-tuning of inflammation...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087939/dendritic-cells-in-the-immune-system-history-lineages-tissues-tolerance-and-immunity
#9
Jonathan M Austyn
The aim of this review is to provide a coherent framework for understanding dendritic cells (DCs). It has seven sections. The introduction provides an overview of the immune system and essential concepts, particularly for the nonspecialist reader. Next, the "History" section outlines the early evolution of ideas about DCs and highlights some sources of confusion that still exist today. The "Lineages" section then focuses on five different populations of DCs: two subsets of "classical" DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, monocyte-derived DCs, and Langerhans cells...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087925/host-responses-to-urinary-tract-infections-and-emerging-therapeutics-sensation-and-pain-within-the-urinary-tract
#10
Lori A Birder, David J Klumpp
Urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogenesis is understood increasingly at the level of the uropathogens and the cellular and molecular mediators of host inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the mediators of symptoms during UTI and what distinguishes symptomatic events from asymptomatic bacteriuria. Here, we review bladder physiology and sensory pathways in the context of an emerging literature from murine models dissecting the host and pathogen factors mediating pain responses during UTI. The bladder urothelium is considered a mediator of sensory responses and appears to play a role in UTI pain responses...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087900/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-and-bioinformatics-study-of-proteins-in-pterygia
#11
Dandan Linghu, Lili Guo, Yinghua Zhao, Zhiming Liu, Mingwei Zhao, Lvzhen Huang, Xiaoxin Li
PURPOSE: To analysis proteins in the tissue of pterygia, and to investigate their potential roles in pterygia, using the comparative proteomic technique of Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with offline 2DLC-MS/MS, Western-bolt. METHOD: The tissues of pterygia and healthy conjunctiva were collected from 10 pterygia patients (6 females, 4 males; average age was 52 years old; average course of disease was 6 years) in our hospital from September, 2015 to March, 2016...
January 13, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087837/off-target-effects-of-neuroleptics-and-antidepressants-on-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
M Caldara, S Graziano, M Gullì, S Cadonici, Nelson Marmiroli
Over the past years, the use of antidepressants and neuroleptics has steadily increased. Although incredibly useful to treat disorders like depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, or mental retardation, these drugs display many side effects. Toxicogenomic studies aim to limit this problem by trying to identify cellular targets and off-targets of medical compounds. The baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be a key player in this approach, as it represents an incredible toolbox for the dissection of complex biological processes...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087833/dysregulation-of-map-kinase-signaling-pathways-including-p38mapk-sapk-jnk-and-erk1-2-in-cultured-rat-cerebellar-astrocytes-exposed-to-diphenylarsinic-acid
#13
Takayuki Negishi, Mami Matsumoto, Yayoi Kobayashi, Mikiya Kojima, Fumika Sakaguchi, Kazuaki Takahata, Tomoko Kanehira, Rina Arakaki, Yohei Aoyama, Hikari Yoshida, Rena Yamada, Nobutaka Sumiyoshi, Tomoko Tashiro, Seishiro Hirano, Kenji Yoshida, Kazunori Yukawa
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was a major compound found in the arsenic poisoning incident that occurred in Kamisu, Ibaraki, Japan in 2003. People exposed to DPAA via contaminated well water suffered from several neurological disorders, including cerebellar symptoms. We previously reported that DPAA induces cellular activation in cultured rat cerebellar astrocytes, dose-dependent promotion of cell growth (low DPAA), cell death (high DPAA), and increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (p38MAPK, SAPK/JNK, and ERK1/2)...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087810/akt1-lkb1-and-yap1-revealed-as-myc-interactors-with-nanoluc-based-protein-fragment-complementation-assay
#14
Xiu-Lei Mo, Qi Qi, Andrei A Ivanov, Qiankun Niu, Yin Luo, Jonathan Havel, Russell Goetze, Sydney Bell, Carlos S Moreno, Lee A D Cooper, Margaret A Johns, Fadlo R Khuri, Yuhong Du, Haian Fu
The c-Myc (MYC) transcription factor is a major cancer driver and a well-validated therapeutic target. However, directly targeting MYC has been challenging. Thus, identifying proteins that interact with and regulate MYC may provide alternative strategies to inhibit its oncogenic activity. Here we report the development of a NanoLuc®-based protein-fragment complementation assay (NanoPCA) and mapping of the MYC protein interaction hub in live mammalian cells. The NanoPCA system was configured to enable detection of protein-protein interactions (PPI) at the endogenous level, as shown with PRAS40 dimerization, and detection of weak interactions, such as PINCH1-NCK2...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087808/identification-of-a-novel-liver-x-receptor-agonist-that-regulates-the-expression-of-key-cholesterol-homeostasis-genes-with-distinct-pharmacological-characteristics
#15
Ni Li, Xiao Wang, Yanni Xu, Yuan Lin, Ningyu Zhu, Peng Liu, Duo Lu, Shuyi Si
Activation of Liver X receptor (LXR) is associated with cholesterol metabolism and anti-inflammatory processes, which makes beneficial to anti-atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, existing agonists which target LXR, for example TO901317, are related to unwanted side-effects. In the present study, using a screening method we identified IMB-808, which displayed potent dual LXRα/β agonistic activity. In vitro, IMB-808 effectively increased the expressing quantity of genes related to reverse cholesterol transport process as well as those associated with cholesterol metabolism pathway in multiple cell lines...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087774/the-origin-of-mitochondrial-cristae-from-alphaproteobacteria
#16
Sergio A Muñoz-Gómez, Jeremy G Wideman, Andrew J Roger, Claudio H Slamovits
Mitochondria are the respiratory organelles of eukaryotes and their evolutionary history is deeply intertwined with that of eukaryotes. The compartmentalization of respiration in mitochondria occurs within cristae, whose evolutionary origin has remained unclear. Recent discoveries, however, have revived the old notion that mitochondrial cristae could have had a pre-endosymbiotic origin. Mitochondrial cristae are likely homologous to the intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs) used by diverse alphaproteobacteria for harnessing energy...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087772/possible-roles-of-new-mutations-shared-by-asian-and-american-zika-viruses
#17
Shozo Yokoyama, William T Starmer
Originating in Africa, the Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread to Asia, Pacific Islands and now to the Americas and beyond. Since the first isolation in 1947, ZIKV strains have been sampled at various times in the last 69 years, but this history has not been reflected in studying the patterns of mutation accumulation in their genomes. Implementing the viral history, we show that the ZIKV ancestor appeared sometime in 1930-1945 and, at that point, its mutation rate was probably less than 0.2 x 10(-3)/nucleotide site/year and subsequently increased significantly in most of its descendants...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087714/dlg5-connects-cell-polarity-and-hippo-signaling-protein-networks-by-linking-par-1-with-mst1-2
#18
Julian Kwan, Anna Sczaniecka, Emad Heidary Arash, Liem Nguyen, Chia-Chun Chen, Srdjana Ratkovic, Olga Klezovitch, Liliana Attisano, Helen McNeill, Andrew Emili, Valeri Vasioukhin
Disruption of apical-basal polarity is implicated in developmental disorders and cancer; however, the mechanisms connecting cell polarity proteins with intracellular signaling pathways are largely unknown. We determined previously that membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein discs large homolog 5 (DLG5) functions in cell polarity and regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation via undefined mechanisms. We report here that DLG5 functions as an evolutionarily conserved scaffold and negative regulator of Hippo signaling, which controls organ size through the modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087698/inhibition-of-trpml1-by-lysosomal-adenosine-involved-in-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-diseases
#19
Xi Zoë Zhong, Yuanjie Zou, Xue Sun, Gaofeng Dong, Qi Cao, Aditya Pandey, Jan K Rainey, Xiaojuan Zhu, Xian-Ping Dong
Impaired adenosine homeostasis has been associated with numerous human diseases. Lysosomes are referred to as the cellular recycling centers which generate adenosine by breaking down nucleic acids or ATP. Recent studies have suggested that lysosomal adenosine overload causes lysosome defects which phenocopy patients with mutations in TRPML1, a lysosomal Ca2+ channel, suggesting that lysosomal adenosine overload may impair TRPML1 and then lead to subsequent lysosomal dysfunction. In this study, we demonstrate that lysosomal adenosine is elevated by deleting adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme responsible for adenosine degradation...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087697/development-of-high-affinity-and-high-specificity-inhibitors-of-metalloproteinase-14-through-computational-design-and-directed-evolution
#20
Valeria Arkadash, Gal Yosef, Jason Shirian, Itay Cohen, Yuval Horev, Moran Grossman, Irit Sagi, Evette S Radisky, Julia M Shifman, Niv Papo
Degradation of the extracellular matrices in the human body is controlled by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of more than 20 homologous enzymes. Imbalance in MMP activity can result in many diseases, such as arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, fibrosis, and cancers. Thus, MMPs present attractive targets for drug design and have been a focus for inhibitor design for as long as three decades. Yet, to date, all MMP inhibitors have failed in clinical trials because of their broad activity against numerous MMP family members and the serious side effects of the proposed treatment...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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