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Mizuki Ikeda, Junji Deguchi, Shota Fukushima, Ai Qingyu, Norihiro Katayama, Hajime Miura, Yasuo Oyama
Chlorothalonil, a polychlorinated aromatic fungicide, is considered non-toxic to small mammals. However, chlorothalonil inactivates sulfhydryl enzymes and depletes cellular glutathione. Chlorothalonil increases intracellular Zn2+ concentration ([Zn2+ ]i) in mammalian cells possibly because intracellular Zn2+ is released via zinc-thiol/disulfide interchange. The effects of chlorothalonil at sublethal concentrations on the cellular content of nonprotein thiols ([NPT]i) and [Zn2+ ]i were examined using flow cytometry in rat thymocytes...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Stefano Magni, François Gagné, Chantale André, Camilla Della Torre, Joëlle Auclair, Houda Hanana, Camilla Carla Parenti, Francesco Bonasoro, Andrea Binelli
Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×105 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×105 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×106 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×106 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Claudio Gariazzo, Massimo Stafoggia, Silvia Bruzzone, Armando Pelliccioni, Francesco Forastiere
Use of mobile phones while driving is known to cause crashes with possible fatalities. Different habits of mobile phone use might be distracting forces and display differential impacts on accident risk; the assessment of the relative importance is relevant to implement prevention, mitigation, and control measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the use of mobile phones at population level and road crash fatalities in large urban areas. Data on road crashes with fatalities were collected from seven Italian metropolitan areas and matched in time and space with high resolution mobile phone traffic volume data about calls, texts, Internet connections and upload/download data...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Irena Branyikova, Monika Filipenska, Katerina Urbanova, Marek C Ruzicka, Martin Pivokonsky, Tomas Branyik
Alkaline flocculation has been studied due to its potential as a low-cost harvesting method for microalgae. However, surface properties (zeta potential, contact angles) as inputs into physicochemical interaction models have not yet been applied systematically. In this work, forced alkaline flocculation of the freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris induced by calcium phosphate precipitates was studied as a model system. Response surface methodology was used to quantify the effect of independent variables (concentration of Ca2+ (0...
March 6, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Markus Basan
Elucidating strategies of resource allocation and metabolism is crucial for a better understanding of microbial phenotypes. In particular, uncovering the governing principles underlying these processes would be a crucial step for achieving a central aim of systems microbiology, which is to quantitatively predict phenotypes of microbial cells or entire populations in diverse conditions. Here, some of the key concepts for understanding cellular resource allocation and metabolism that have been suggested over the past years are reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Sara Sigismund, Giorgio Scita
An explosive growth in knowledge, in the last two decades, has conferred a new dimension to the process of endocytosis. Endocytic circuitries have come into focus as a pervasive system that controls virtual all aspects of cell biology. A few years ago, we proposed the term 'endocytic matrix' to define a cellular network of signalling wiring that is at the core of the cellular blueprint. A primary role of the endocytic matrix is the delivery of space-resolved and time-resolved signals to the cell in an interpretable format, and, as such, it has profound consequences on polarized cellular and supra-cellular functions, first and foremost, cell motility...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Yasmine Baktash, Anisha Madhav, Kelly E Coller, Glenn Randall
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters hepatocytes via various entry factors, including scavenger receptor BI (SR-B1), cluster of differentiation 81 (CD81), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), claudin-1 (CLDN1), and occludin (OCLN). As CLDN1 and OCLN are not readily accessible due to their tight junctional localization, HCV likely accesses them by either disrupting cellular polarity or migrating to the tight junction. In this study, we image HCV entry into a three-dimensional polarized hepatoma system and reveal that the virus sequentially engages these entry factors through actin-dependent mechanisms...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Thanh D Do, Joseph F Ellis, Elizabeth K Neumann, Troy J Comi, Emily G Tillmaand, Ashley E Lenhart, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan Sweedler
The mammalian dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are located on the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves and contain cell bodies of primary sensory neurons. DRG cells have been classified into subpopulations based on their size, morphology, intracellular markers, response to stimuli, and neuropeptides. To understand the connections between DRG chemical heterogeneity and cellular function, we performed optically guided, high-throughput single cell profiling using sequential matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) to detect lipids, peptides, and several proteins in individual DRG cells...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Anne Dommaschk, Lara F Lang, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Tobias Welte, Ulrich A Maus
Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is known to mount protective adaptive immune responses in rodents and humans. However, the cellular response of the nasopharyngeal compartment to pneumococcal colonization and its importance for the ensuing adaptive immune response is only partially defined. Here we show that nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae triggered substantial expansion of both integrin αE (CD103) positive dendritic cells (DC) and T lymphocytes in nasopharynx, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and cervical lymph nodes (CLN) of WT mice...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Christopher J Lambert, Briana C Freshner, Arlen Chung, Tamara J Stevenson, D Miranda Bowles, Raheel Samuel, Bruce K Gale, Joshua L Bonkowsky
Zebrafish are a valuable model organism in biomedical research. Their rapid development, ability to model human diseases, utility for testing genetic variants identified from next-generation sequencing, amenity to CRISPR mutagenesis, and potential for therapeutic compound screening, has led to their wide-spread adoption in diverse fields of study. However, their power for large-scale screens is limited by the absence of automated genotyping tools for live animals. This constrains potential drug screen options, limits analysis of embryonic and larval phenotypes, and requires raising additional animals to adulthood to ensure obtaining an animal of the desired genotype...
2018: PloS One
Aurore Quinault, Corinne Leloup, Geoffrey Denwood, Coralie Spiegelhalter, Marianne Rodriguez, Philippe Lefebvre, Nadia Messaddeq, Quan Zhang, Catherine Dacquet, Luc Pénicaud, Stephan C Collins
The rhythmic nature of insulin secretion over the 24h cycle in pancreatic islets has been mostly investigated using transcriptomics studies showing that modulation of insulin secretion over this cycle is achieved via distal stages of insulin secretion. We set out to measure β-cell exocytosis using in depth cell physiology techniques at several time points. In agreement with the activity and feeding pattern of nocturnal rodents, we find that C57/Bl6J islets in culture for 24h exhibit higher insulin secretion during the corresponding dark phase than in the light phase (Zeitgeber Time ZT20 and ZT8, respectively, in vivo)...
2018: PloS One
Céline Ronin, David Mendes Costa, Joana Tavares, Joana Faria, Fabrice Ciesielski, Paola Ciapetti, Terry K Smith, Jane MacDougall, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Iain K Pemberton
The de novo crystal structure of the Leishmania infantum Silent Information Regulator 2 related protein 1 (LiSir2rp1) has been solved at 1.99Å in complex with an acetyl-lysine peptide substrate. The structure is broadly commensurate with Hst2/SIRT2 proteins of yeast and human origin, reproducing many of the structural features common to these sirtuin deacetylases, including the characteristic small zinc-binding domain, and the larger Rossmann-fold domain involved in NAD+-binding interactions. The two domains are linked via a cofactor binding loop ordered in open conformation...
2018: PloS One
Núria Folguera-Blasco, Elisabet Cuyàs, Javier A Menéndez, Tomás Alarcón
Understanding the control of epigenetic regulation is key to explain and modify the aging process. Because histone-modifying enzymes are sensitive to shifts in availability of cofactors (e.g. metabolites), cellular epigenetic states may be tied to changing conditions associated with cofactor variability. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationships between cofactor fluctuations, epigenetic landscapes, and cell state transitions. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation, we generate an ensemble of epigenetic regulation (ER) systems whose heterogeneity reflects variability in cofactor pools used by histone modifiers...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Kamil E Barbour, Susan Moss, Janet B Croft, Charles G Helmick, Kristina A Theis, Teresa J Brady, Louise B Murphy, Jennifer M Hootman, Kurt J Greenlund, Hua Lu, Yan Wang
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
William R Critchley, Caroline Pellet-Many, Benjamin Ringham-Terry, Michael A Harrison, Ian C Zachary, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are membrane-based sensors that enable rapid communication between cells and their environment. Evidence is now emerging that interdependent regulatory mechanisms, such as membrane trafficking, ubiquitination, proteolysis and gene expression, have substantial effects on RTK signal transduction and cellular responses. Different RTKs exhibit both basal and ligand-stimulated ubiquitination, linked to trafficking through different intracellular compartments including the secretory pathway, plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes...
March 15, 2018: Cells
Yoshitoshi Kasuya, Hiroki Umezawa, Masahiko Hatano
Spinal cord injury (SCI) consists of three phases-acute, secondary, and chronic damages-and limiting the development of secondary damage possibly improves functional recovery after SCI. A major component of the secondary phase of SCI is regarded as inflammation-triggered events: induction of cytokines, edema, microglial activation, apoptosis of cells including oligodendrocytes and neurons, demyelination, formation of the astrocytic scar, and so on. Two major stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs)-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)-are activated in various types of cells in response to cellular stresses such as apoptotic stimuli and inflammatory waves...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael J Fay, Lauren A C Alt, Dominika Ryba, Ribhi Salamah, Ryan Peach, Alexander Papaeliou, Sabina Zawadzka, Andrew Weiss, Nil Patel, Asad Rahman, Zyaria Stubbs-Russell, Peter C Lamar, Joshua R Edwards, Walter C Prozialeck
Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule characterized by polyuria and proteinuria. Even though the effects of Cd on the kidney have been well-characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate cellular and physiologic function by modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The goal of the present study was to determine if Cd affects renal cortex miRNA expression in a well-established animal model of Cd-induced kidney injury...
March 15, 2018: Toxics
Nora Freyer, Selina Greuel, Fanny Knöspel, Florian Gerstmann, Lisa Storch, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Jennifer Foster Harris, Rashi Iyer, Frank Schubert, Katrin Zeilinger
The accurate prediction of hepatotoxicity demands validated human in vitro models that can close the gap between preclinical animal studies and clinical trials. In this study we investigated the response of primary human liver cells to toxic drug exposure in a perfused microscale 3D liver bioreactor. The cellularized bioreactors were treated with 5, 10, or 30 mM acetaminophen (APAP) used as a reference substance. Lactate production significantly decreased upon treatment with 30 mM APAP ( p < 0.05) and ammonia release significantly increased in bioreactors treated with 10 or 30 mM APAP ( p < 0...
March 15, 2018: Bioengineering
Karamat Mohammad, Paméla Dakik, Younes Medkour, Mélissa McAuley, Darya Mitrofanova, Vladimir I Titorenko
The concentrations of some key metabolic intermediates play essential roles in regulating the longevity of the chronologically aging yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . These key metabolites are detected by certain ligand-specific protein sensors that respond to concentration changes of the key metabolites by altering the efficiencies of longevity-defining cellular processes. The concentrations of the key metabolites that affect yeast chronological aging are controlled spatially and temporally. Here, we analyze mechanisms through which the spatiotemporal dynamics of changes in the concentrations of the key metabolites influence yeast chronological lifespan...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andrea D Olivas, Jerome Taxy, Rebecca Wolsky, Tatjana Antic
Phyllodes tumor of the prostate is a rare mesenchymal tumor conventionally regarded as a stromal tumor of undetermined malignant potential. While the initial presentation is that of urinary obstruction and/or hematuria, the subsequent clinical behavior is thought to be a function of stromal cellularity and cytologic changes of malignancy. Of histologic interest, the epithelial component of this tumor varies, including intestinal metaplasia, as seen in the present case.
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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