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Meital Zur, Racheli Magnezi, Shirley Portuguese, Inbal Reuveni, Ron Kedem, Eyal Fruchter
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in 5.9-7.1% of children and adolescents, and 5% of adults. It results in poor academic, occupational, and social functioning. Pharmacotherapy improves core symptoms; however, average adherence levels are low and decrease at 16-17 years of age, just before the recruitment age to Israel Defense Forces (IDF). This study evaluated the effect of adherence to ADHD pharmacotherapy on occupational performance among soldiers...
July 11, 2018: Military Medicine
Ole Jakob Storebø, Erlend Faltinsen, Morris Zwi, Erik Simonsen, Christian Gluud
Much remains unclear about the benefits and harms of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Between 2012 and 2018, we conducted two Cochrane systematic reviews on methylphenidate for ADHD. This article explores the main findings in relation to evidence-based practice and our current understanding of ADHD.
July 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Meng Shi, Li Liu, Xiao Sun, Lie Wang
BACKGROUND: Research on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in medical students is rather scant. Studying the disorder in this population, especially its associations with positive psychological constructs can further the understanding of mental health in future physicians. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in medical students, to examine the relationships between ADHD symptoms and life satisfaction, and to explore the mediating role of resilience on the associations...
July 13, 2018: BMC Medical Education
E Ahnemark, M Di Schiena, A-C Fredman, E Medin, J K Söderling, Y Ginsberg
BACKGROUND: This observational, cross-sectional, retrospective chart review aimed to identify factors determining health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with newly diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Sweden. METHODS: Adult participants with a new clinical diagnosis of ADHD were enrolled from two specialist outpatient clinics in Stockholm, Sweden, from 2013 to 2015. Data extracted from patient records included demographics, clinical characteristics and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
July 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Gabry W Mies, Ili Ma, Erik de Water, Jan K Buitelaar, Anouk Scheres
OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents with ADHD have a relatively strong preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards (steep delay discounting). It is unknown whether such steep discounting of rewards is specific for delayed rewards, i.e., supporting the delay aversion account of ADHD, or whether it is also present for effortful rewards, i.e., representing general reward insensitivity. Therefore, this study examined behavioral and BOLD responses during delay discounting (DD) and effort discounting (ED) in ADHD...
June 7, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Andrea E Spencer, Natalie Plasencia, Ying Sun, Cara Lucke, Haregnesh Haile, Rebecca Cronin, Stephen V Faraone, Michael Jellinek, J Michael Murphy, Joseph Biederman
We tested the accuracy of 2 parent-report tools, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-35) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), to identify attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and distinguish complex (highly comorbid) cases in an urban, largely Latino pediatric practice. Spanish- and English-speaking parents of children aged 6 to 10 years completed a PSC-35 and CBCL at well visits. Those with CBCL Attention Problems Subscale (CBCL-APS) T scores ≥60 plus controls completed the diagnostic MINI-KID (Miniature International Neuropsychiatric Interview) for Children...
July 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
Juan Pablo Lucchelli, Gilles Bertschy
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined by the copresence of two core symptoms: alteration in social communication and repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. In ASD children and adults, irritability, self-injurious behavior (SIB), and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders- (ADHD-) like symptoms are regularly observed. In these situations, pharmacological treatments are sometimes used. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors- (SSRI-) based treatments have been the subject of several publications: case reports and controlled studies, both of which demonstrate efficacy on the symptoms mentioned above, even if no consensus has been reached concerning their usage...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Kati Rantanen, Elina Vierikko, Pirkko Nieminen
This is a clinical intervention study of children with executive function (EF) deficits. A neuropsychological multimodal group intervention called EXAT (rehabilitation of EXecutive function and ATtention) was developed at the Psychology Clinic of the University of Tampere. Based on the principles of neuropsychological rehabilitation and behavioral modification, EXAT combines child group training, parent training, and teacher consultations. The aims of this study were to investigate behavior problems before and after the intervention in children attending EXAT and in controls, and to compare intervention effects in hyperactive, inattentive, and EF subgroups based on the primary deficit described in the referral...
July 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Alexandra Zimmermann, Lukas Tittmann, Wolfgang Lieb, Stefan Schreiber, Lioba Baving, Annegret Fischer
ADHD is a psychiatric disorder which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention problems. Due to recent findings of microbial involvement in other psychiatric disorders like autism and depression, a role of the gut microbiota in ADHD pathogenesis is assumed but has not yet been investigated. In this study, the gut microbiota of 14 male ADHD patients (mean age: 11.9 yrs.) and 17 male controls (mean age: 13.1 yrs.) was examined via next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA and analyzed for diversity and biomarkers...
2018: PloS One
Megan R Schaefer, Scott T Wagoner, Margaret E Young, Alana Resmini Rawlinson, Jan Kavookjian, Steven K Shapiro, Wendy N Gray
OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency of medication nonadherence using both objective and subjective data and to compare the differences between these measures in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Fifty-four participants enrolled. Frequency (mean percent of prescribed doses not taken) of nonadherence was measured using subjective (visual analog scale) and objective (pill count and electronic monitoring) methods...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Emma L Peterson, Anne E Pidano, Lisa Honigfeld
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) play an increasingly important role in addressing mental health concerns. Yet PPCPs are limited in the services they can provide because of constraints in training, time, and reimbursement. Whereas some patients may be appropriately treated in primary care, others require referrals to mental health specialists. The current study evaluated patient, clinician, and situational factors associated with PPCPS' reported likelihood to refer hypothetical patients with mental health concerns to mental health specialists...
July 12, 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Kai Xiang Lim, Chao-Yu Liu, Tabea Schoeler, Charlotte A M Cecil, Edward D Barker, Essi Viding, Corina U Greven, Jean-Baptiste Pingault
BACKGROUND: Available evidence points towards lower birth weight as a risk factor for the development of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. We probed the causal nature of this putative effect of birth weight on ADHD symptoms using the twin differences design, which accounts for genetic and shared environmental confounds. METHOD: In a large population-based twin sample - 3,499 monozygotic (MZ) and 6,698 dizygotic (DZ) pairs - parents, teachers or twins rated the twins' ADHD symptoms at nine assessment waves (2-16 years)...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
S Van der Oord, B E Boyer, Lotte Van Dyck, K J Mackay, H De Meyer, D Baeyens
OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of a short (six session) individual cognitive behavioral planning intervention for college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was tested. METHOD: In three student counseling services in Flanders, individuals with ADHD ( N = 58) were randomized to the intervention or waitlist condition. Pre- and posttreatment assessments were conducted, and within the intervention group, a 4-month follow-up was conducted. Primary outcomes were ADHD symptoms and study skills; secondary outcomes were comorbid symptoms and planning skills on a neuropsychological task...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ronak Mihan, Zahra Shahrivar, Javad Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Alia Shakiba, Mostafa Hosseini
Objective: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in adulthood, and it is associated with different high- risk behaviors, particularly substance use. Evidence suggests a high prevalence of ADHD in adults who take methamphetamine (METH). This study aimed at comparing functional level, quality of life, and psychiatric comorbidities in METH users with and without adult ADHD (A-ADHD). Method : In this cross-sectional study, 134 patients who had a history of METH use (at least once in lifetime) were selected from among inpatient and outpatient referrals to a psychiatric hospital...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Lauren M Haack, Jocelyn Meza, Yuanyuan Jiang, Eva A Araujo, Linda Pfiffner
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The co-author, Dr. Araujo's name and the affiliation for Dr. Pfiffner was incorrect in the original version of the article. The correct information is given below.
July 11, 2018: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
Tuğba Şişmanlar Eyüboğlu, Ayşe Tana Aslan, Alper Ceylan, Azime Şebnem Soysal, Işıl İrem Budakoğlu, Tansu Ulukavak Çiftçi, Oğuz Köktürk
BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) patients have higher incidence of sleep disordered breathing which lead neurocognitive impairments such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It may effect academic performance of children and may cause impairment in emotional relationships. This study aim to evaluate hyperactivity and attention deficiency in PCD patients and investigate the relationship between sleep and hyperactivity and attention deficiency in PCD patients...
July 10, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Junhua Zhang, Amparo Díaz-Román, Samuele Cortese
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of meditation-based therapies for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of meditation-based therapies for ADHD core symptoms and associated neuropsychological dysfunctions in children/adolescents or adults with ADHD. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, PsycInfo, Embase+Embase Classic, Ovid Medline and Web of Knowledge with no language, date or type of document restriction, up to 5 May 2018...
July 10, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Debabrata Ghosh, Abigail M Petrecca, Abdul Latif Khuhro
A 9-year-old boy with primary myoclonus dystonia with comorbid severe attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) also had sleep onset and maintenance insomnia. Polysomnography showed features of non-rapid eye movement parasomnia. Daily bedtime clonidine helped sleep and hyperactivity. ADHD symptoms improved with 40 mg daily lisdexamphetamine mesylate. As the myoclonus and dystonia symptoms progressed, clonazepam was initiated at a dose of 0.5 mg daily at bedtime. It was anticipated that clonazepam would also improve parasomnia...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Zhou Zhou, Keith A Betts, Iryna Bocharova, David Kinrich, William M Spalding
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate annual concomitant psychotropic medication use among stimulant-treated children/adolescents with ADHD. METHOD: Children/adolescents with ≥1 primary ADHD diagnosis who had received ≥30 days of stimulant medication were identified from insurance claims for each calendar year (2011-2014). Use of 15 psychotropic medications concomitantly with stimulants was evaluated and their prevalence in each year was calculated overall and by medication category for children (6-12 years) and adolescents (13-17 years)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Kausar Sadia Fakhruddin, Hisham ElBatawi, Hatem M El-Damanhoury
Objective: The present study aimed to assess behavioral management using sequenced treatment approach and audiovisual distraction (AVD) with/without video eyewear during dental procedure in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and Methods: This clinical trial included 31 children ( n = 21 boys; n = 10 girls), aged between 6.5 and 8.1 years, distributed into Group A ( n = 17, children not on ADHD medication) and Group B ( n = 14, children taking medication for ADHD symptoms)...
April 2018: European Journal of Dentistry
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