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Behavioral traits and biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911941/copper-oxide-nanoparticles-impact-several-toxicological-endpoints-and-cause-neurodegeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Michael J Mashock, Tyler Zanon, Anthony D Kappell, Lisa N Petrella, Erik C Andersen, Krassimira R Hristova
Engineered nanoparticles are becoming increasingly incorporated into technology and consumer products. In 2014, over 300 tons of copper oxide nanoparticles were manufactured in the United States. The increased production of nanoparticles raises concerns regarding the potential introduction into the environment or human exposure. Copper oxide nanoparticles commonly release copper ions into solutions, which contribute to their toxicity. We quantified the inhibitory effects of both copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate on C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883293/psychological-mislabeling-of-chronic-pain-lessons-from-migraine-in-the-20th-century
#2
Howard B Pikoff
Starting with Freud, psychoanalytically oriented practitioners described a complex of unconscious conflicts, desires and personality traits they believed to be the primary cause of a wide range of medical disorders. This was the psychogenic model. With the advance of basic research and pharmacotherapy, the psychogenic model was gradually replaced by a biopsychobehavioral model. This model treats chronic pain as a biologically based disorder that can be influenced by psychological factors and lifestyle. The present paper argues that many patients with chronic pain may not be significantly impacted by psychological factors, and that for those who are, cognitive-behavioral therapy is the treatment of choice...
November 24, 2016: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875322/tree-based-quantitative-trait-mapping-in-the-presence-of-external-covariates
#3
Katherine L Thompson, Catherine R Linnen, Laura Kubatko
A central goal in biological and biomedical sciences is to identify the molecular basis of variation in morphological and behavioral traits. Over the last decade, improvements in sequencing technologies coupled with the active development of association mapping methods have made it possible to link single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative traits. However, a major limitation of existing methods is that they are often unable to consider complex, but biologically-realistic, scenarios. Previous work showed that association mapping method performance can be improved by using the evolutionary history within each SNP to estimate the covariance structure among randomly-sampled individuals...
December 1, 2016: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874836/whole-genome-sequence-snp-chips-and-pedigree-structure-building-demographic-profiles-in-domestic-dog-breeds-to-optimize-genetic-trait-mapping
#4
Dayna L Dreger, Maud Rimbault, Brian W Davis, Adrienne Bhatnagar, Heidi G Parker, Elaine A Ostrander
In the decade following publication of the draft genome sequence of the domestic dog, extraordinary advances with application to several fields have been credited to the canine genetic system. Taking advantage of closed breeding populations and the subsequent selection for aesthetic and behavioral characteristics, researchers have leveraged the dog as an effective natural model for the study of complex traits, such as disease susceptibility, behavior, and morphology, generating unique contributions to human health and biology...
November 17, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871027/trauma-exposure-relates-to-heightened-stress-altered-amygdala-morphology-and-deficient-extinction-learning-implications-for-psychopathology
#5
Raffaele Cacciaglia, Frauke Nees, Oliver Grimm, Stephanie Ridder, Sebastian T Pohlack, Slawomira J Diener, Claudia Liebscher, Herta Flor
Stress exposure causes a structural reorganization in neurons of the amygdala. In particular, animal models have repeatedly shown that both acute and chronic stress induce neuronal hypertrophy and volumetric increase in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. These effects are visible on the behavioral level, where stress enhances anxiety behaviors and provokes greater fear learning. We assessed stress and anxiety levels in a group of 18 healthy human trauma-exposed individuals (TR group) compared to 18 non-exposed matched controls (HC group), and related these measurements to amygdala volume...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867359/physiology-and-evolution-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-early-diverging-animal-phyla-cnidaria-placozoa-porifera-and-ctenophora
#6
Adriano Senatore, Hamad Raiss, Phuong Le
Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling), gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling), pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling), regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca(2+)-sensitive ion channels...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867304/relationships-of-reproductive-traits-with-the-phylogeny-of-the-african-noctuid-stem-borers
#7
Paul-André Calatayud, Stéphane Dupas, Brigitte Frérot, Gilles Genestier, Peter Ahuya, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Bruno Le Ru
The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861851/infant-social-attention-an-endophenotype-of-asd-related-traits
#8
Emily J H Jones, Kaitlin Venema, Rachel K Earl, Rachel Lowy, Sara J Webb
BACKGROUND: As a neurodevelopmental disorder, symptoms of ASD likely emerge from a complex interaction between preexisting genetic vulnerabilities and the child's environment. One way to understand causal paths to ASD is to identify dimensional ASD-related traits that vary in the general population and that predispose individuals with other risk factors toward ASD. Moving beyond behavioral traits to explore underlying neurocognitive processes may further constrain the underlying genetics...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855737/genetic-basis-of-chronotype-in-humans-insights-from-three-landmark-gwas
#9
David A Kalmbach, Logan D Schneider, Joseph Cheung, Sarah J Bertrand, Thiruchelvam Kariharan, Allan I Pack, Philip R Gehrman
Chronotype, or diurnal preference, refers to behavioral manifestations of the endogenous circadian system that governs preferred timing of sleep and wake. As variations in circadian timing and system perturbations are linked to disease development, the fundamental biology of chronotype has received attention for its role in the regulation and dysregulation of sleep and related medical and psychiatric illnesses. Twin and family studies have shown that chronotype is a heritable trait, thus directing attention toward its genetic basis...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#10
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825355/seahorses-in-focus-local-ecological-knowledge-of-seahorse-watching-operators-in-a-tropical-estuary
#11
Maria L F Ternes, Leopoldo C Gerhardinger, Alexandre Schiavetti
BACKGROUND: Seahorses are endangered teleost fishes under increasing human pressures worldwide. In Brazil, marine conservationists and policy-makers are thus often skeptical about the viability of sustainable human-seahorse interactions. This study focuses on local ecological knowledge on seahorses and the implications of their non-lethal touristic use by a coastal community in northeastern Brazil. Community-based seahorse-watching activities have been carried out in Maracaípe village since 1999, but remained uninvestigated until the present study...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814456/the-role-of-parental-psychopathology-and-personality-in-adolescent-non-suicidal-self-injury
#12
Molly A Gromatsky, Monika A Waszczuk, Greg Perlman, Katie Lee Salis, Daniel N Klein, Roman Kotov
Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a significant risk factor for suicidal behavior, is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and personality traits, particularly those characterized by poor self-regulation. Some parental psychopathology and personality traits have also been identified as risk factors for adolescent NSSI, but specific parental characteristics and mechanisms involved in this association have not been systematically examined. The current study comprehensively investigated the contribution of parental psychopathology and personality to adolescent NSSI using data from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Development of Emotion and Personality Traits (ADEPT) study of 550 adolescent girls (mean age = 14...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812410/evolution-of-genes-involved-in-feeding-preference-and-metabolic-processes-in-calliphoridae-diptera-calyptratae
#13
Gisele Antoniazzi Cardoso, Marco Antonio Tonus Marinho, Raquel Dietsche Monfardini, Ana Maria Lima de Azeredo Espin, Tatiana Teixeira Torres
BACKGROUND: The genotype-phenotype interactions among traits governing feeding preference are of fundamental importance to behavioral genetics and evolutionary biology. The genetic basis of behavioral traits has been explored in different taxa using different approaches. However, the complex nature of the genetic mechanisms undergirding behavior is poorly understood. Here, we present an evolutionary study of candidate genes related to parasitism in Calliphoridae (Diptera: Calyptratae)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812169/bryophyte-feeders-in-a-basal-brachyceran-lineage-diptera-rhagionidae-spaniinae-adult-oviposition-behavior-and-changes-in-the-larval-mouthpart-morphology-accompanied-with-the-diet-shifts
#14
Yume Imada, Makoto Kato
Dipteran larval morphology exhibits overwhelming variety, affected by their diverse feeding habits and habitat use. In particular, larval mouthpart morphology is associated with feeding behavior, providing key taxonomic traits. Despite most larval Brachycera being carnivorous, a basal brachyceran family, Rhagionidae, contains bryophyte-feeding taxa with multiple feeding habits. To elucidate the life history, biology, and morphological evolution of the bryophyte-feeding rhagionids, the larval feeding behavior and morphology, and the adult oviposition behavior of four species belonging to three genera of Spaniinae (Spania Meigen, Litoleptis Chillcott and Ptiolina Zetterstedt) are described...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810705/the-impact-of-daily-and-trait-loneliness-on-diurnal-cortisol-and-sleep-among-children-affected-by-parental-hiv-aids
#15
Samuele Zilioli, Richard B Slatcher, Peilian Chi, Xiaoming Li, Junfeng Zhao, Guoxiang Zhao
Dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis and disruptions of restorative processes (e.g., sleep) have been proposed as two key mechanisms through which loneliness leads to medical morbidity in adults and late adolescents. Whether loneliness acts through these biological and behavioral intermediaries in children as well remains unexplored. In a sample of 645 children aged 8-15 affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China, trait and state (i.e., daily) loneliness were measured in a 3-day diary study, wherein participants also provided cortisol samples and sleep measures...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788346/spatial-selection-and-local-adaptation-jointly-shape-life-history-evolution-during-range-expansion
#16
Katrien H P Van Petegem, Jeroen Boeye, Robby Stoks, Dries Bonte
In the context of climate change and species invasions, range shifts increasingly gain attention because the rates at which they occur in the Anthropocene induce rapid changes in biological assemblages. During range shifts, species experience multiple selection pressures. For poleward expansions in particular, it is difficult to interpret observed evolutionary dynamics because of the joint action of evolutionary processes related to spatial selection and to adaptation toward local climatic conditions. To disentangle the effects of these two processes, we integrated stochastic modeling and data from a common garden experiment, using the spider mite Tetranychus urticae as a model species...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777565/competitiveness-and-the-process-of-co-adaptation-in-team-sport-performance
#17
Pedro Passos, Duarte Araújo, Keith Davids
An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771272/stress-anxiety-and-depression-in-heart-disease-patients-a-major-challenge-for-cardiac-rehabilitation
#18
Jean-Christophe Chauvet-Gelinier, Bernard Bonin
Cardiovascular events and emotional disorders share a common epidemiology, thus suggesting fundamental pathways linking these different diseases. Growing evidence in the literature highlights the influence of psychological determinants in somatic diseases. A patient's socio-economic aspects, personality traits, health behavior and even biological pathways may contribute to the course of cardiovascular disease. Cardiac events often occur suddenly and the episode can be traumatic for people not prepared for such an event...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768087/delivery-of-nucleic-acids-through-embryo-microinjection-in-the-worldwide-agricultural-pest-insect-ceratitis-capitata
#19
Paolo Gabrieli, Francesca Scolari
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755751/trade-offs-between-accuracy-and-interpretability-in-von-bertalanffy-random-effects-models-of-growth
#20
Simone Vincenzi, Alain J Crivelli, Stephan Munch, Hans J Skaug, Marc Mangel
Better understanding of variation in growth will always be an important problem in ecology. Individual variation in growth can arise from a variety of processes; for example, individuals within a population vary in their intrinsic metabolic rates and behavioral traits, which may influence their foraging dynamics and access to resources. However, when adopting a growth model, we face trade-offs between model complexity, biological interpretability of parameters, and goodness of fit. We explore how different formulations of the von Bertalanffy growth function (vBGF) with individual random effects and environmental predictors affect these trade-offs...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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