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Behavioral traits and biology

Daphne Stam, Yun-An Huang, Jan Van den Stock
Personality reflects the set of psychological traits and mechanisms characteristic for an individual. Geno-neuro-biologically inspired personality accounts have proposed a set of temperaments and characters that jointly compose personality profiles. The present study addresses the link between neurobiology and personality and investigates the association between temperament traits and regional gray matter volume. Furthermore, the specificity of these associations as well as the underlying components that drive the association are addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Assal Habibi, Antonio Damasio, Beatriz Ilari, Matthew Elliott Sachs, Hanna Damasio
Evidence suggests that learning to play music enhances musical processing skills and benefits other cognitive abilities. Furthermore, studies of children and adults indicate that the brains of musicians and nonmusicians are different. It has not been determined, however, whether such differences result from pre-existing traits, musical training, or an interaction between the two. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on children's brain and cognitive development...
March 6, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
M Constanza Mannino, M Patricia Juárez, Nicolás Pedrini
The chemical control of Triatoma infestans, the major Chagas disease vector in southern South America, has been threatened in the last years by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant bug populations. As an alternative approach, the efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to control T. infestans populations (regardless their pyrethroid susceptibility) has been demonstrated. Growing research efforts on the interaction between T. infestans and B. bassiana by molecular, ecological, biochemical and behavioral traits has allowed framing such interaction as an evolutionary arms race...
February 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Eve Udino, Margot Perez, Claudio Carere, Patrizia d'Ettorre
An intriguing question in behavioral biology is whether consistent individual differences (called animal personalities) relate to variation in cognitive performance because commonly measured personality traits may be associated with risk-reward trade-offs. Social insects, whose learning abilities have been extensively characterized, show consistent behavioral variability, both at colony and at individual level. We investigated the possible link between personality traits and learning performance in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops ...
October 2017: Current Zoology
Eric Muraille
Diversity is widely known to fuel adaptation and evolutionary processes and increase robustness at the population, species and ecosystem levels. The Neo-Darwinian paradigm proposes that the diversity of biological entities is the consequence of genetic changes arising spontaneously and randomly, without regard for their usefulness. However, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that the evolutionary process has shaped mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, meiosis and the adaptive immune system, which has resulted in the regulated generation of diversity among populations...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Antônio Geraldo da Silva, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz, Marina Saraiva Garcia, Carlos Guilherme Silva Figueiredo, Renata Nayara Figueiredo, Alexandre Paim Diaz, António Pacheco Palha
The current considerations about completed suicides and suicide attempts in different cultures call the attention of professionals to this serious public health problem. Integrative approaches have shown that the confluence of multiple biological and social factors modulate various psychopathologies and dysfunctional behaviors, such as suicidal behavior. Considering the level of intermediate analysis, personality traits and cognitive functioning are also of great importance for understanding the suicide phenomenon...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Chitra Narayanan, David N Bernard, Khushboo Bafna, Donald Gagné, Chakra S Chennubhotla, Nicolas Doucet, Pratul K Agarwal
Enzyme superfamily members that share common chemical and/or biological functions also share common features. While the role of structure is well characterized, the link between enzyme function and dynamics is not well understood. We present a systematic characterization of intrinsic dynamics of over 20 members of the pancreatic-type RNase superfamily, which share a common structural fold. This study is motivated by the fact that the range of chemical activity as well as molecular motions of RNase homologs spans over 105 folds...
February 13, 2018: Structure
Ovi Chris Rouly
This article describes simulation research based on the Hamiltonian theory of gene-based altruism. It investigates the origin of semipermanent breeding bonds during hominin evolution. The research framework is based on a biologically detailed, ecologically situated, multi-agent microsimulation of emergent sociality. The research question tested is whether semipermanent breeding bonds (an emergent homoplastic social construct) might emerge among primate-like agents as the consequence of a mutation capable of supporting involuntary prosocial behavior...
March 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Giulia Pascolini, Emanuele Agolini, Silvia Majore, Antonio Novelli, Paola Grammatico, Maria Cristina Digilio
A recent syndromic condition with craniofacial dysmorphisms, comprising congenital ocular defect and neurodevelopmental delay named Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome (HVDAS) (OMIM#615873), has been described and molecularly defined, identifying pathogenic mutations in the ADNP gene (OMIM#611386) as biological cause. We report on two children, displaying intellectual disability (ID) and peculiar congenital eyes anomalies, both carrying a de novo nonsense mutation in the ADNP gene. The review of present and literature reports, suggests that the diagnosis of HVDAS should be suspected in patients with ID accompanied by behavioral features in the Autism Spectrum Disorder and distinctive craniofacial phenotype...
February 3, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Andrea Spence-Aizenberg, Bruce A Kimball, Lawrence E Williams, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
Broadening our knowledge of olfactory communication in strictly monogamous systems can inform our understanding of how chemosignals may facilitate social and reproductive behavior between the sexes. Compared to other social and mating systems, relatively little is known about olfactory communication in strictly monogamous non-human primates. Furthermore, platyrrhines are not well represented in chemical analyses of glandular secretions. We conducted semi-quantitative headspace gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to investigate the chemical components of glandular secretions from the subcaudal and pectoral glands of a strictly pair-living platyrrhine, the owl monkey (Aotus spp...
February 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Rheanna J Remmel, Andrea L Glenn, Jennifer Cox
Research on the biological factors influencing criminal behavior is increasingly being introduced into court, necessitating research on how such evidence is perceived and influences decision makers. Research on how this evidence influences sentencing recommendations is inconclusive. In this study, we focus on biological evidence related to psychopathy, a construct commonly associated with criminal behavior. Approximately 800 community members were presented with a case vignette detailing an individual who is described as having a high level of psychopathic traits...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Yun J Sung, Thomas W Winkler, Lisa de Las Fuentes, Amy R Bentley, Michael R Brown, Aldi T Kraja, Karen Schwander, Ioanna Ntalla, Xiuqing Guo, Nora Franceschini, Yingchang Lu, Ching-Yu Cheng, Xueling Sim, Dina Vojinovic, Jonathan Marten, Solomon K Musani, Changwei Li, Mary F Feitosa, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Melissa A Richard, Raymond Noordam, Stella Aslibekyan, Hugues Aschard, Traci M Bartz, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Yongmei Liu, Alisa K Manning, Tuomo Rankinen, Albert Vernon Smith, Salman M Tajuddin, Bamidele O Tayo, Helen R Warren, Wei Zhao, Yanhua Zhou, Nana Matoba, Tamar Sofer, Maris Alver, Marzyeh Amini, Mathilde Boissel, Jin Fang Chai, Xu Chen, Jasmin Divers, Ilaria Gandin, Chuan Gao, Franco Giulianini, Anuj Goel, Sarah E Harris, Fernando Pires Hartwig, Andrea R V R Horimoto, Fang-Chi Hsu, Anne U Jackson, Mika Kähönen, Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Brigitte Kühnel, Karin Leander, Wen-Jane Lee, Keng-Hung Lin, Jian 'an Luan, Colin A McKenzie, He Meian, Christopher P Nelson, Rainer Rauramaa, Nicole Schupf, Robert A Scott, Wayne H H Sheu, Alena Stančáková, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Peter J van der Most, Tibor V Varga, Heming Wang, Yajuan Wang, Erin B Ware, Stefan Weiss, Wanqing Wen, Lisa R Yanek, Weihua Zhang, Jing Hua Zhao, Saima Afaq, Tamuno Alfred, Najaf Amin, Dan Arking, Tin Aung, R Graham Barr, Lawrence F Bielak, Eric Boerwinkle, Erwin P Bottinger, Peter S Braund, Jennifer A Brody, Ulrich Broeckel, Claudia P Cabrera, Brian Cade, Yu Caizheng, Archie Campbell, Mickaël Canouil, Aravinda Chakravarti, Ganesh Chauhan, Kaare Christensen, Massimiliano Cocca, Francis S Collins, John M Connell, Renée de Mutsert, H Janaka de Silva, Stephanie Debette, Marcus Dörr, Qing Duan, Charles B Eaton, Georg Ehret, Evangelos Evangelou, Jessica D Faul, Virginia A Fisher, Nita G Forouhi, Oscar H Franco, Yechiel Friedlander, He Gao, Bruna Gigante, Misa Graff, C Charles Gu, Dongfeng Gu, Preeti Gupta, Saskia P Hagenaars, Tamara B Harris, Jiang He, Sami Heikkinen, Chew-Kiat Heng, Makoto Hirata, Albert Hofman, Barbara V Howard, Steven Hunt, Marguerite R Irvin, Yucheng Jia, Roby Joehanes, Anne E Justice, Tomohiro Katsuya, Joel Kaufman, Nicola D Kerrison, Chiea Chuen Khor, Woon-Puay Koh, Heikki A Koistinen, Pirjo Komulainen, Charles Kooperberg, Jose E Krieger, Michiaki Kubo, Johanna Kuusisto, Carl D Langefeld, Claudia Langenberg, Lenore J Launer, Benjamin Lehne, Cora E Lewis, Yize Li, Sing Hui Lim, Shiow Lin, Ching-Ti Liu, Jianjun Liu, Jingmin Liu, Kiang Liu, Yeheng Liu, Marie Loh, Kurt K Lohman, Jirong Long, Tin Louie, Reedik Mägi, Anubha Mahajan, Thomas Meitinger, Andres Metspalu, Lili Milani, Yukihide Momozawa, Andrew P Morris, Thomas H Mosley, Peter Munson, Alison D Murray, Mike A Nalls, Ubaydah Nasri, Jill M Norris, Kari North, Adesola Ogunniyi, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Walter R Palmas, Nicholette D Palmer, James S Pankow, Nancy L Pedersen, Annette Peters, Patricia A Peyser, Ozren Polasek, Olli T Raitakari, Frida Renström, Treva K Rice, Paul M Ridker, Antonietta Robino, Jennifer G Robinson, Lynda M Rose, Igor Rudan, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Babatunde L Salako, Kevin Sandow, Carsten O Schmidt, Pamela J Schreiner, William R Scott, Sudha Seshadri, Peter Sever, Colleen M Sitlani, Jennifer A Smith, Harold Snieder, John M Starr, Konstantin Strauch, Hua Tang, Kent D Taylor, Yik Ying Teo, Yih Chung Tham, André G Uitterlinden, Melanie Waldenberger, Lihua Wang, Ya X Wang, Wen Bin Wei, Christine Williams, Gregory Wilson, Mary K Wojczynski, Jie Yao, Jian-Min Yuan, Alan B Zonderman, Diane M Becker, Michael Boehnke, Donald W Bowden, John C Chambers, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Ulf de Faire, Ian J Deary, Tõnu Esko, Martin Farrall, Terrence Forrester, Paul W Franks, Barry I Freedman, Philippe Froguel, Paolo Gasparini, Christian Gieger, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Yi-Jen Hung, Jost B Jonas, Norihiro Kato, Jaspal S Kooner, Markku Laakso, Terho Lehtimäki, Kae-Woei Liang, Patrik K E Magnusson, Anne B Newman, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Alexandre C Pereira, Susan Redline, Rainer Rettig, Nilesh J Samani, James Scott, Xiao-Ou Shu, Pim van der Harst, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, David R Weir, Ananda R Wickremasinghe, Tangchun Wu, Wei Zheng, Yoichiro Kamatani, Cathy C Laurie, Claude Bouchard, Richard S Cooper, Michele K Evans, Vilmundur Gudnason, Sharon L R Kardia, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Daniel Levy, Jeff R O'Connell, Bruce M Psaty, Rob M van Dam, Mario Sims, Donna K Arnett, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Tanika N Kelly, Ervin R Fox, Caroline Hayward, Myriam Fornage, Charles N Rotimi, Michael A Province, Cornelia M van Duijn, E Shyong Tai, Tien Yin Wong, Ruth J F Loos, Alex P Reiner, Jerome I Rotter, Xiaofeng Zhu, Laura J Bierut, W James Gauderman, Mark J Caulfield, Paul Elliott, Kenneth Rice, Patricia B Munroe, Alanna C Morrison, L Adrienne Cupples, Dabeeru C Rao, Daniel I Chasman
Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic and diastolic BP incorporating gene-smoking interactions in 610,091 individuals. Stage 1 analysis examined ∼18.8 million SNPs and small insertion/deletion variants in 129,913 individuals from four ancestries (European, African, Asian, and Hispanic) with follow-up analysis of promising variants in 480,178 additional individuals from five ancestries...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Laura Hyesung Yang, Barbara A Han
BACKGROUND: With the resurgence of tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease and the emergence of new tick-borne pathogens such as Powassan virus, understanding what distinguishes vectors from non-vectors, and predicting undiscovered tick vectors is a crucial step towards mitigating disease risk in humans. We aimed to identify intrinsic traits that predict which Ixodes tick species are confirmed or strongly suspected to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens. METHODS: We focused on the well-studied tick genus Ixodes from which many species are known to transmit zoonotic diseases to humans...
February 15, 2018: BMC Ecology
Kensuke Sakamoto, James J Crowley
Since it was first associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) in a 2011 genome-wide association study (GWAS), there have been over 100 publications focused on MIR137, the gene encoding microRNA-137. These studies have examined everything from its fundamental role in the development of mice, flies, and fish to the intriguing enrichment of its target gene network in SCZ. Indeed, much of the excitement surrounding MIR137 is due to the distinct possibility that it could regulate a gene network involved in SCZ etiology, a disease which we now recognize is highly polygenic...
March 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Zachary J Cannizzo, Sara R Dixon, Blaine D Griffen
Many species are shifting their ranges in response to the changing climate. In cases where such shifts lead to the colonization of a new ecosystem, it is critical to establish how the shifting species itself is impacted by novel environmental and biological interactions. Anthropogenic habitats that are analogous to the historic habitat of a shifting species may play a crucial role in the ability of that species to expand or persist in suboptimal colonized ecosystems. We tested if the anthropogenic habitat of docks, a likely mangrove analog, provides improved conditions for the range-shifting mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii within the colonized suboptimal salt marsh ecosystem...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Willem E Frankenhuis, Karthik Panchanathan, Andrew G Barto
This article focuses on the division of labor between evolution and development in solving sequential, state-dependent decision problems. Currently, behavioral ecologists tend to use dynamic programming methods to study such problems. These methods are successful at predicting animal behavior in a variety of contexts. However, they depend on a distinct set of assumptions. Here, we argue that behavioral ecology will benefit from drawing more than it currently does on a complementary collection of tools, called reinforcement learning methods...
February 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Yu Takagi, Yuki Sakai, Yoshinari Abe, Seiji Nishida, Ben J Harrison, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Carles Soriano-Mas, Jin Narumoto, Saori C Tanaka
Anxiety is one of the most common mental states of humans. Although it drives us to avoid frightening situations and to achieve our goals, it may also impose significant suffering and burden if it becomes extreme. Because we experience anxiety in a variety of forms, previous studies investigated neural substrates of anxiety in a variety of ways. These studies revealed that individuals with high state, trait, or pathological anxiety showed altered neural substrates. However, no studies have directly investigated whether the different dimensions of anxiety share a common neural substrate, despite its theoretical and practical importance...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
Lydia Whitaker, Stephen L Brown, Bridget Young, Richard Fereday, Sarah M Coyne, Pamela Qualter
Laboratory studies of alcohol-inexperienced adolescents show that aggression can be primed by alcohol-related stimuli, suggesting that alcohol-related aggression is partly socially learned. Script theory proposes that alcohol-related aggression 'scripts' for social behaviors are culturally-available and learned by individuals. The purpose of the study was to understand the content and origins of alcohol-related aggression scripts learned by adolescents. This qualitative focus group study of 40 adolescents (ages 14-16 years) examined alcohol-related aggression scripts...
2018: PloS One
A Fischer, R Delagarde, P Faverdin
Residual feed intake, which is usually used to estimate individual variation of feed efficiency, requires frequent and accurate measurements of individual feed intake to be carried out. Developing a breeding scheme based on residual feed intake in dairy cows is therefore complicated, especially because feed intake is not measurable for a large population. Another solution could be to focus on biological determinants of feed efficiency, which could potentially be directly and broadband measurable on farm. Several phenotypes have been identified in literature as being associated with differences in feed efficiency...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
T Manousaki, A Tsakogiannis, J Lagnel, D Kyriakis, N Duncan, A Estevez, C S Tsigenopoulos
Meagre (Argyrosomus regius), a teleost fish of the family Sciaenidae, is part of a group of marine fish species considered new for Mediterranean aquaculture representing the larger fish cultured in the region. Meagre aquaculture started ~25years ago in West Mediterranean, and the supply of juveniles has been dominated by few hatcheries. This fact has raised concerns on possible inbreeding, urging the need for genetic information on the species and for an assessment of the polymorphisms found in the genome. To that end we characterized the muscle and liver transcriptome of a pool of meagre individuals, from different families and phenotypic size, to obtain a backbone that can support future studies regarding physiology, immunology and genetics of the species...
January 21, 2018: Marine Genomics
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