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Behavioral traits and biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809826/high-throughput-screening-for-protein-based-inheritance-in-s-cerevisiae
#1
James S Byers, Daniel F Jarosz
The encoding of biological information that is accessible to future generations is generally achieved via changes to the DNA sequence. Long-lived inheritance encoded in protein conformation (rather than sequence) has long been viewed as paradigm-shifting but rare. The best characterized examples of such epigenetic elements are prions, which possess a self-assembling behavior that can drive the heritable manifestation of new phenotypes. Many archetypal prions display a striking N/Q-rich sequence bias and assemble into an amyloid fold...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805927/the-relationship-between-different-measures-of-feed-efficiency-and-feeding-behavior-traits-in-duroc-pigs
#2
D Lu, S Jiao, F Tiezzi, M Knauer, Y Huang, K A Gray, C Maltecca
Utilization of feed in livestock species consists of a wide range of biological processes, and therefore, its efficiency can be expressed in various ways, including direct measurement, such as daily feed intake, as well as indicator measures, such as feeding behavior. Measuring feed efficiency is important to the swine industry, and its accuracy can be enhanced by using automated feeding systems, which record feed intake and associated feeding behavior of individual animals. Each automated feeder space is often shared among several pigs and therefore raises concerns about social interactions among pen mates with regard to feeding behavior...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769746/triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-investigating-associations-with-genetic-variation-in-the-vasopressin-receptor-1a-gene
#3
Robert D Latzman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
Vasopressin is a neuropeptide known to be associated with the development and evolution of complex socio-emotional behaviors including those relevant to psychopathic personality. In both humans and chimpanzees, recent research suggests a strong genetic contribution to individual variation in psychopathic traits. To date, however, little is known concerning specific genes that might explain the observed heritability of psychopathy. In a relatively large sample of captive chimpanzees (N = 164), the current study thus sought to investigate gene-environment associations between triarchic psychopathy dimensions (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769743/neural-response-to-biological-motion-in-healthy-adults-varies-as-a-function-of-autistic-like-traits
#4
Meghan H Puglia, James P Morris
Perception of biological motion is an important social cognitive ability that has been mapped to specialized brain regions. Perceptual deficits and neural differences during biological motion perception have previously been associated with autism, a disorder classified by social and communication difficulties and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviors. However, the traits associated with autism are not limited to diagnostic categories, but are normally distributed within the general population and show the same patterns of heritability across the continuum...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768209/borderline-personality-disorder-in-men-a-literature-review-and-illustrative-case-vignettes
#5
Adam Bayes, Gordon Parker
The aim is to review the salient literature on borderline personality disorder (BPD) in men and link those findings with case vignettes. We provide a literature review and then report case examples of those who met DSM and clinical BPD criteria, and consider the extent to which the small male sub-set corresponded developmentally and phenomenologically with prototypic BPD in women. The review considered phenomenological, epidemiological, biological and developmental BPD factors, finding BPD men evidence elevated substance abuse, and 'externalising' patterns of behavior, antisocial personality traits, violent self-harm and interpersonal aggression, whereas women display more 'internalising' strategies...
July 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755145/mosquito-control-with-green-nanopesticides-towards-the-one-health-approach-a-review-of-non-target-effects
#6
Giovanni Benelli, Filippo Maggi, Roman Pavela, Kadarkarai Murugan, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Riccardo Petrelli, Loredana Cappellacci, Suresh Kumar, Anders Hofer, Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Akon Higuchi
The rapid spread of highly aggressive arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria along with the development of resistance in the pathogens and parasites, as well as in their arthropod vectors, represents a huge challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Eco-friendly vector control programs are crucial to fight, besides malaria, the spread of dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika virus, as well as other arboviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. However, research efforts on the control of mosquito vectors are experiencing a serious lack of eco-friendly and highly effective pesticides, as well as the limited success of most biocontrol tools currently applied...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752995/bioinspired-polymer-systems-with-stimuli-responsive-mechanical-properties
#7
Lucas Montero de Espinosa, Worarin Meesorn, Dafni Moatsou, Christoph Weder
Materials with switchable mechanical properties are widespread in living organisms and endow many species with traits that are essential for their survival. Many of the mechanically morphing materials systems found in nature are based on hierarchical structures, which are the basis for mechanical robustness and often also the key to responsive behavior. Many "operating principles" involve cascades of events that translate cues from the environment into changes of the overall structure and/or the connectivity of the constituting building blocks at various levels...
July 28, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743966/pupil-adaptation-corresponds-to-quantitative-measures-of-autism-traits-in-children
#8
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio, Vanessa Troiani
The pupil is known to reflect a range of psychological and physiological variables, including cognitive effort, arousal, attention, and even learning. Within autism spectrum disorder (ASD), some work has used pupil physiology to successfully classify patients with or without autism. As we have come to understand the heterogeneity of ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders, the relationship between quantitative traits and physiological markers has become increasingly more important, as this may lead us closer to the underlying biological basis for atypical responses and behaviors...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742107/analyzing-the-locomotory-gaitprint-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-on-the-basis-of-empirical-mode-decomposition
#9
Li-Chun Lin, Han-Sheng Chuang
The locomotory gait analysis of the microswimmer, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a commonly adopted approach for strain recognition and examination of phenotypic defects. Gait is also a visible behavioral expression of worms under external stimuli. This study developed an adaptive data analysis method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to reveal the biological cues behind intricate motion. The method was used to classify the strains of worms according to their gaitprints (i.e., phenotypic traits of locomotion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739941/cultural-evolutionary-theory-how-culture-evolves-and-why-it-matters
#10
Nicole Creanza, Oren Kolodny, Marcus W Feldman
Human cultural traits-behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals-can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Many of the first quantitative models of cultural evolution were modified from existing concepts in theoretical population genetics because cultural evolution has many parallels with, as well as clear differences from, genetic evolution...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739936/gene-culture-coevolution-in-whales-and-dolphins
#11
Hal Whitehead
Whales and dolphins (Cetacea) have excellent social learning skills as well as a long and strong mother-calf bond. These features produce stable cultures, and, in some species, sympatric groups with different cultures. There is evidence and speculation that this cultural transmission of behavior has affected gene distributions. Culture seems to have driven killer whales into distinct ecotypes, which may be incipient species or subspecies. There are ecotype-specific signals of selection in functional genes that correspond to cultural foraging behavior and habitat use by the different ecotypes...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738311/perception-is-key-does-perceptual-sensitivity-and-parenting-behavior-predict-children-s-reactivity-to-others-emotions
#12
Joyce Weeland, Alithe Van den Akker, Meike Slagt, Samuel Putnam
When interacting with other people, both children's biological predispositions and past experiences play a role in how they will process and respond to social-emotional cues. Children may partly differ in their reactions to such cues because they differ in the threshold for perceiving such cues in general. Theoretically, perceptual sensitivity (i.e., the amount of detection of slight, low-intensity stimuli from the external environment independent of visual and auditory ability) might, therefore, provide us with specific information on individual differences in susceptibility to the environment...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712365/psychoneurometric-assessment-of-dispositional-liabilities-for-suicidal-behavior-phenotypic-and-etiological-associations
#13
N C Venables, J R Yancey, M D Kramer, B M Hicks, R F Krueger, W G Iacono, T E Joiner, C J Patrick
BACKGROUND: Can core genetic liabilities for suicidal behavior be indexed using psychological and neural indicators combined? The current work addressed this question by examining phenotypic and genetic associations of two biobehavioral traits, threat sensitivity (THT) and disinhibition (DIS) - operationalized as psychoneurometric variables (i.e., composites of psychological-scale and neurophysiological measures) - with suicidal behaviors in a sample of adult twins. METHODS: Participants were 444 identical and fraternal twins recruited from an urban community...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696674/lasso-peptide-benenodin-1-is-a-thermally-actuated-1-rotaxane-switch
#14
Chuhan Zong, Michelle J Wu, Jason Z Qin, A James Link
Mechanically interlocked molecules that change their conformation in response to stimuli have been developed by synthetic chemists as building blocks for molecular machines. Here we describe a natural product, the lasso peptide benenodin-1, which exhibits conformational switching between two distinct threaded conformers upon actuation by heat. We have determined the structures of both conformers and have characterized the kinetics and energetics of the conformational switch. Single amino acid substitutions to benenodin-1 generate peptides that are biased to a single conformer, showing that the switching behavior is potentially an evolvable trait in these peptides...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685415/sublethal-and-hormesis-effects-of-beta-cypermethrin-on-the-biology-life-table-parameters-and-reproductive-potential-of-soybean-aphid-aphis-glycines
#15
Yanyan Qu, Da Xiao, Junjie Liu, Zhou Chen, Lifang Song, Nicolas Desneux, Giovanni Benelli, Xiwu Gao, Dunlun Song
Beta-cypermethrin has long been recommended as an effective pesticide to control the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, a serious pest in soybean crops. Besides acute toxicity, it leads to changes in life history traits of A. glycines, notably its reproductive potential. This study has assessed the effects of five sublethal concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 µg/L) of beta-cypermethrin on different life history traits of A. glycines. Exposure to these concentrations caused shorter oviposition period and reduced adult longevity...
July 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667696/phylogenetic-convergence-and-multiple-shell-shape-optima-for-gliding-scallops-bivalvia-pectinidae
#16
J M Serb, E Sherratt, A Alejandrino, D C Adams
An important question in evolutionary biology is how often, and to what extent, do similar ecologies elicit distantly related taxa to evolve towards the same phenotype? In some scenarios, the repeated evolution of particular phenotypes may be expected, for instance when species are exposed to common selective forces that result from strong functional demands. In bivalved scallops (Pectinidae), some species exhibit a distinct swimming behaviour (gliding), which requires specific biomechanical attributes to generate lift and reduce drag during locomotive events...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664328/timeline-of-intergenerational-child-maltreatment-the-mind-brain-body-interplay
#17
REVIEW
Marija Mitkovic Voncina, Milica Pejovic Milovancevic, Vanja Mandic Maravic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Still obscure mechanisms of intergenerational child maltreatment (ITCM) have been investigated partially, from various psychological and biological perspectives and from various time perspectives. This review is aimed at integrating the findings on different temporal ITCM pathways, emphasizing the mind-brain-body interplay. RECENT FINDINGS: Psychological mediators of ITCM involve attachment, mentalization, dissociation, social information processing, personality traits, and psychiatric disorders...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652263/ripening-transcriptomic-program-in-red-and-white-grapevine-varieties-correlates-with-berry-skin-anthocyanin-accumulation
#18
Mélanie Massonnet, Marianna Fasoli, Giovanni Battista Tornielli, Mario Altieri, Marco Sandri, Paola Zuccolotto, Paola Paci, Massimo Gardiman, Sara Zenoni, Mario Pezzotti
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berry development involves a succession of physiological and biochemical changes reflecting the transcriptional modulation of thousands of genes. Although recent studies have investigated the dynamic transcriptome during berry development, most have focused on a single grapevine variety, so there is a lack of comparative data representing different cultivars. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide transcriptional analysis of 120 RNA samples corresponding to 10 Italian grapevine varieties collected at four growth stages...
August 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617954/mind-the-movement-frontal-asymmetry-stands-for-behavioral-motivation-bilateral-frontal-activation-for-behavior
#19
Johannes Rodrigues, Mathias Müller, Andreas Mühlberger, Johannes Hewig
Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown...
June 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616126/autistic-traits-affect-interpersonal-motor-coordination-by-modulating-strategic-use-of-role-based-behavior
#20
Arianna Curioni, Ilaria Minio-Paluello, Lucia Maria Sacheli, Matteo Candidi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that deficits in social communication and interaction are at the core of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), no study has yet tested individuals on a continuum from neurotypical development to autism in an on-line, cooperative, joint action task. In our study, we aimed to assess whether the degree of autistic traits affects participants' ability to modulate their motor behavior while interacting in a Joint Grasping task and according to their given role. METHODS: Sixteen pairs of adult participants played a cooperative social interactive game in which they had to synchronize their reach-to-grasp movements...
2017: Molecular Autism
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