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Behavioral traits and biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764437/caring-for-parents-an-evolutionary-rationale
#1
J Garay, S Számadó, Z Varga, E Szathmáry
BACKGROUND: The evolutionary roots of human moral behavior are a key precondition to understanding human nature. Investigations usually start with a social dilemma and end up with a norm that can provide some insight into the origin of morality. We take the opposite direction by investigating whether the cultural norm that promotes helping parents and which is respected in different variants across cultures and is codified in several religions can spread through Darwinian competition...
May 15, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756547/well-being-correlates-of-perceived-positivity-resonance-evidence-from-trait-and-episode-level-assessments
#2
Brett C Major, Khoa D Le Nguyen, Kristjen B Lundberg, Barbara L Fredrickson
Positivity resonance is a type of interpersonal connection characterized by shared positivity, mutual care and concern, and behavioral and biological synchrony. Perceived positivity resonance is hypothesized to be associated with well-being. In three studies ( N = 175, N = 120, N = 173), perceived positivity resonance was assessed at the trait level (Study 1) or the episode level, using the Day Reconstruction Method (Studies 2 and 3). Primary analyses reveal that perceived positivity resonance is associated with flourishing mental health, depressive symptoms, loneliness, and illness symptoms...
May 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745849/pathway-based-approach-using-hierarchical-components-of-rare-variants-to-analyze-multiple-phenotypes
#3
Sungyoung Lee, Yongkang Kim, Sungkyoung Choi, Heungsun Hwang, Taesung Park
BACKGROUND: As one possible solution to the "missing heritability" problem, many methods have been proposed that apply pathway-based analyses, using rare variants that are detected by next generation sequencing technology. However, while a number of methods for pathway-based rare-variant analysis of multiple phenotypes have been proposed, no method considers a unified model that incorporate multiple pathways. RESULTS: Simulation studies successfully demonstrated advantages of multivariate analysis, compared to univariate analysis, and comparison studies showed the proposed approach to outperform existing methods...
May 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743249/cancer-stem-cells-cscs-metabolic-strategies-for-their-identification-and-eradication
#4
REVIEW
Ernestina M De Francesco, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity is one of the most relevant features of cancer cells within different tumor types and is responsible for treatment failure. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a population of cells with stem cell-like properties that are considered to be the root cause of tumor heterogeneity, because of their ability to generate the full repertoire of cancer cell types. Moreover, CSCs have been invoked as the main drivers of metastatic dissemination and therapeutic resistance. As such, targeting CSCs may be a useful strategy to improve the effectiveness of classical anticancer therapies...
May 9, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725624/organizing-biochemistry-in-space-and-time-using-prion-like-self-assembly
#5
Christopher M Jakobson, Daniel F Jarosz
Prion-like proteins have the capacity to adopt multiple stable conformations, at least one of which can recruit proteins from the native conformation into the alternative fold. Although classically associated with disease, prion-like assembly has recently been proposed to organize a range of normal biochemical processes in space and time. Organisms from bacteria to mammals use prion-like mechanisms to (re)organize their proteome in response to intracellular and extracellular stimuli. Prion-like behavior is an economical means to control biochemistry and gene regulation at the systems level, and prions can act as protein-based genes to facilitate quasi-Lamarckian inheritance of induced traits...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725317/psychopathy-to-altruism-neurobiology-of-the-selfish-selfless-spectrum
#6
REVIEW
James W H Sonne, Don M Gash
The age-old philosophical, biological, and social debate over the basic nature of humans as being "universally selfish" or "universally good" continues today highlighting sharply divergent views of natural social order. Here we analyze advances in biology, genetics and neuroscience increasing our understanding of the evolution, features and neurocircuitry of the human brain underlying behavior in the selfish-selfless spectrum. First, we examine evolutionary pressures for selection of altruistic traits in species with protracted periods of dependence on parents and communities for subsistence and acquisition of learned behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707239/falls-mobility-and-physical-activity-after-spinal-cord-injury-an-exploratory-study-using-photo-elicitation-interviewing
#7
Kristin E Musselman, Catherine Arnold, Clara Pujol, Kaylea Lynd, Sarah Oosman
Study design: Exploratory qualitative study using photo-elicitation interviews. Objectives: To identify contributors to falls, as perceived by individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury, and describe the impact of perceived fall risk on mobility and physical activity. Setting: Participants' home and community environments. Methods: Eight individuals with chronic motor incomplete spinal cord injury participated. Participants took photographs of situations that increased/decreased their risk of falling, or depicted how this risk impacted mobility and physical activity...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706517/liverwort-mimesis-in-a-cretaceous-lacewing-larva
#8
Xingyue Liu, Gongle Shi, Fangyuan Xia, Xiumei Lu, Bo Wang, Michael S Engel
Camouflage and mimicry are staples among predator-prey interactions, and evolutionary novelties in behavior, anatomy, and physiology that permit such mimesis are rife throughout the biological world [1, 2]. These specializations allow for prey to better evade capture or permit predators to more easily approach their prey, or in some cases, the mimesis can serve both purposes. Despite the importance of mimesis and camouflage in predator-avoidance or hunting strategies, the long-term history of these traits is often obscured by an insufficient fossil record...
April 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705841/psychoneuroimmunology-the-experiential-dimension
#9
Elling Ulvestad
Accumulating evidence has made clear that experience-the knowledge an individual acquires during a lifetime of sensing and acting-is of fundamental biological relevance. Experience makes an impact on all adaptive systems, including the endocrine, immune, and nerve systems, and is of the essence, not only for the unfolding of an organisms' healthy status, but also for the development of malfunctional traits. Nevertheless, experience is often excluded from empirical approaches. A variety of complex interactions that influence life histories are thereby neglected...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685168/role-of-bmi1-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-investigated-via-the-crispr-cas9-system-and-rna-sequencing
#10
Qianying Zhao, Qiuhong Qian, Dongyan Cao, Jiaxin Yang, Ting Gui, Keng Shen
BACKGROUND: B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) might be an appropriate biomarker in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the biological role of BMI1 and its relevant molecular mechanism needs further elaboration. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is an excellent genome-editing tool and is scarcely used in EOC studies. METHODS: We first applied CRISPR/Cas9 technique to silence BMI1 in EOC cells; thereafter we accomplished various in vivo and in vitro experiments to detect biological behaviors of ovarian cancer cells, including MTT, flow cytometry, Transwell, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays, etc...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684142/impact-of-corn-earworm-lepidoptera-noctuidae-on-field-corn-poales-poaceae-yield-and-grain-quality
#11
Jenny L Bibb, Donald Cook, Angus Catchot, Fred Musser, Scott D Stewart, Billy Rogers Leonard, G David Buntin, David Kerns, Tom W Allen, Jeffrey Gore
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), commonly infests field corn, Zea mays (L.). The combination of corn plant biology, corn earworm behavior in corn ecosystems, and field corn value renders corn earworm management with foliar insecticides noneconomical. Corn technologies containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were introduced that exhibit substantial efficacy against corn earworm and may reduce mycotoxin contamination in grain. The first generation Bt traits in field corn demonstrated limited activity on corn earworm feeding on grain...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607043/how-scientists-perceive-the-evolutionary-origin-of-human-traits-results-of-a-survey-study
#12
Hanna Tuomisto, Matleena Tuomisto, Jouni T Tuomisto
Various hypotheses have been proposed for why the traits distinguishing humans from other primates originally evolved, and any given trait may have been explained both as an adaptation to different environments and as a result of demands from social organization or sexual selection. To find out how popular the different explanations are among scientists, we carried out an online survey among authors of recent scientific papers in journals covering relevant fields of science (paleoanthropology, paleontology, ecology, evolution, human biology)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607037/temperature-and-water-stress-affect-plant-pollinator-interactions-in-borago-officinalis-boraginaceae
#13
Charlotte Descamps, Muriel Quinet, Aurélie Baijot, Anne-Laure Jacquemart
Climate change alters the abiotic constraints faced by plants, including increasing temperature and water stress. These changes may affect flower development and production of flower rewards, thus altering plant-pollinator interactions. Here, we investigated the consequences of increased temperature and water stress on plant growth, floral biology, flower-reward production, and insect visitation of a widespread bee-visited species, Borago officinalis . Plants were grown for 5 weeks under three temperature regimes (21, 24, and 27°C) and two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stressed)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596647/male-reproductive-behavior-sensory-signaling-in-the-brain-of-low-performing-domestic-rams
#14
Brenda M Alexander
Rams are selected for genetic traits a producer desires to propagate in his flock. Even though practically all sheep are naturally bred, rams are rarely evaluated for expression of sexual interest or behavior. Research at the United States Sheep Experiment Station reported that the proportion of rams with limited interest in ewes was nearly 30% of the total number of breeding rams. Breeding soundness tested rams with low sexual-interest sire less than 16% of the lamb crop. While producers recognize the problem, their usual solution is to increase the number of rams in breeding flocks decreasing the risk of open ewes...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573219/predicting-loneliness-with-polygenic-scores-of-social-psychological-and-psychiatric-traits
#15
A Abdellaoui, M G Nivard, J-J Hottenga, I Fedko, K J H Verweij, B M L Baselmans, E A Ehli, G E Davies, M Bartels, D I Boomsma, J T Cacioppo
Loneliness is a heritable trait that accompanies multiple disorders. The association between loneliness and mental health indices may partly be due to inherited biological factors. We constructed polygenic scores for 27 traits related to behavior, cognition and mental health and tested their prediction for self-reported loneliness in a population-based sample of 8798 Dutch individuals. Polygenic scores for major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were significantly associated with loneliness...
March 23, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562636/should-we-keep-walking-along-the-trail-for-pancreatic-cancer-treatment-revisiting-tnf-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand-for-anticancer-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Anna-Laura Kretz, Silvia von Karstedt, Andreas Hillenbrand, Doris Henne-Bruns, Uwe Knippschild, Anna Trauzold, Johannes Lemke
Despite recent advances in oncology, diagnosis, and therapy, treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still exceedingly challenging. PDAC remains the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Poor prognosis is due to the aggressive growth behavior with early invasion and distant metastasis, chemoresistance, and a current lack of adequate screening methods for early detection. Consequently, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Many hopes for cancer treatment have been placed in the death ligand tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) since it was reported to induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo...
March 18, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558827/choosing-fighting-competitors-among-men-testosterone-personality-and-motivations
#17
Javier I Borráz-León, Ana Lilia Cerda-Molina, Markus J Rantala, Lilian Mayagoitia-Novales
Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558526/motivational-valence-alters-memory-formation-without-altering-exploration-of-a-real-life-spatial-environment
#18
Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552089/-i-don-t-have-to-know-why-it-snows-i-just-have-to-shovel-it-addiction-recovery-genetic-frameworks-and-biological-citizenship
#19
Molly J Dingel, Jenny Ostergren, Kathleen Heaney, Barbara A Koenig, Jennifer McCormick
The gene has infiltrated the way citizens perceive themselves and their health. However, there is scant research that explores the ways genetic conceptions infiltrate individuals' understanding of their own health as it relates to a behavioral trait, like addiction. Do people seeking treatment for addiction ground their self-perception in biology in a way that shapes their experiences? We interviewed 63 participants in addiction treatment programs, asking how they make meaning of a genetic understanding of addiction in the context of their recovery, and in dealing with the stigma of addiction...
December 2017: BioSocieties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535659/gray-matter-volume-of-a-region-in-the-thalamic-pulvinar-is-specifically-associated-with-novelty-seeking
#20
Daphne Stam, Yun-An Huang, Jan Van den Stock
Personality reflects the set of psychological traits and mechanisms characteristic for an individual. Geno-neuro-biologically inspired personality accounts have proposed a set of temperaments and characters that jointly compose personality profiles. The present study addresses the link between neurobiology and personality and investigates the association between temperament traits and regional gray matter volume. Furthermore, the specificity of these associations as well as the underlying components that drive the association are addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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