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Behavioral traits and biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441401/ancient-genes-establish-stress-induced-mutation-as-a-hallmark-of-cancer
#1
Luis Cisneros, Kimberly J Bussey, Adam J Orr, Milica Miočević, Charles H Lineweaver, Paul Davies
Cancer is sometimes depicted as a reversion to single cell behavior in cells adapted to live in a multicellular assembly. If this is the case, one would expect that mutation in cancer disrupts functional mechanisms that suppress cell-level traits detrimental to multicellularity. Such mechanisms should have evolved with or after the emergence of multicellularity. This leads to two related, but distinct hypotheses: 1) Somatic mutations in cancer will occur in genes that are younger than the emergence of multicellularity (1000 million years [MY]); and 2) genes that are frequently mutated in cancer and whose mutations are functionally important for the emergence of the cancer phenotype evolved within the past 1000 million years, and thus would exhibit an age distribution that is skewed to younger genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427115/personality-assessment-and-model-comparison-with-behavioral-data-a-statistical-framework-and-empirical-demonstration-with-bonobos-pan-paniscus
#2
Jordan S Martin, Scott A Suarez
Interest in quantifying consistent among-individual variation in primate behavior, also known as personality, has grown rapidly in recent decades. Although behavioral coding is the most frequently utilized method for assessing primate personality, limitations in current statistical practice prevent researchers' from utilizing the full potential of their coding datasets. These limitations include the use of extensive data aggregation, not modeling biologically relevant sources of individual variance during repeatability estimation, not partitioning between-individual (co)variance prior to modeling personality structure, the misuse of principal component analysis, and an over-reliance upon exploratory statistical techniques to compare personality models across populations, species, and data collection methods...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419598/biological-traits-rather-than-environment-shape-detection-curves-of-large-vertebrates-in-neotropical-rainforests
#3
Thomas Denis, Cécile Richard-Hansen, Olivier Brunaux, Marie-Pierre Etienne, Stéphane Guitet, Bruno Hérault
Line transect surveys are widely used in neotropical rainforests to estimate the population abundance of medium- and large-sized vertebrates. The use of indices such as Encounter Rate has been criticized because the probability of animal detection may fluctuate due to the heterogeneity of environmental conditions among sites. In addition, the morphological and behavioral characteristics (biological traits) of species affect their detectability. In this study, we compared the extent to which environmental conditions and species' biological traits bias abundance estimates in terra firme rainforests in French Guiana...
April 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406655/heterogeneity-in-externalizing-problems-at-age-3-association-with-age-15-biological-and-environmental-outcomes
#4
Kostas A Fanti, Eva Kimonis
Investigating heterogeneity in antisocial behavior early in life is essential for understanding the etiology, development, prognosis, and treatment of these problems. Data from the longitudinal National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) study of Early Child Care were used to identify homogeneous groups of young antisocial children differentiated on externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and callous-unemotional (CU) traits using latent profile analysis (LPA). We examined how identified subgroups were differentiated on adolescent social, biological, cognitive, and environmental outcomes, controlling for dispositional and contextual antecedents during the first 2 years of life...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394503/accounting-for-linkage-disequilibrium-in-genome-scans-for-selection-without-individual-genotypes-the-local-score-approach
#5
María Inés Fariello, Simon Boitard, Sabine Mercier, David Robelin, Thomas Faraut, Cécile Arnould, Julien Recoquillay, Olivier Bouchez, Gérald Salin, Patrice Dehais, David Gourichon, Sophie Leroux, Frédérique Pitel, Christine Leterrier, Magali SanCristobal
Detecting genomic footprints of selection is an important step in the understanding of evolution. Accounting for linkage disequilibrium in genome scans increases detection power, but haplotype-based methods require individual genotypes and are not applicable on pool-sequenced samples. We propose to take advantage of the local score approach to account for linkage disequilibrium in genome scans for selection, cumulating (possibly small) signals from single markers over a genomic segment, to clearly pinpoint a selection signal...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388833/cognitive-adaptive-trait-theory-a-shift-in-perspective-on-personality
#6
Gerald Matthews
Traditional, biologically based trait theories have deservedly gained broad acceptances, but some longstanding core issues of personality research remain unresolved. Recent research questions whether (1) there can be a single universal structural model of personality superfactors, (2) current theory adequately specifies the processes that mediate behavioral and emotional expressions of traits, and (3) brain-based accounts of traits adequately explain their role in real-world functioning and adaptation. This article reviews the perspective on these issues provided by cognitive-adaptive trait theory...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382466/using-a-system-of-differential-equations-that-models-cattle-growth-to-uncover-the-genetic-basis-of-complex-traits
#7
Mateus Castelani Freua, Miguel Henrique de Almeida Santana, Ricardo Vieira Ventura, Luis Orlindo Tedeschi, José Bento Sterman Ferraz
The interplay between dynamic models of biological systems and genomics is based on the assumption that genetic variation of the complex trait (i.e., outcome of model behavior) arises from component traits (i.e., model parameters) in lower hierarchical levels. In order to provide a proof of concept of this statement for a cattle growth model, we ask whether model parameters map genomic regions that harbor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) already described for the complex trait. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a Bayesian hierarchical LASSO method in two parameters of the Davis Growth Model, a system of three ordinary differential equations describing DNA accretion, protein synthesis and degradation, and fat synthesis...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380536/satiety-splits-drinking-behavior-into-bouts-organization-of-drinking-in-turkeys
#8
J Rusakovica, T Plötz, V D Kremer, P Rohlf, I Kyriazakis
The regulation of the drinking behavior of animals is usually overlooked, and the traits associated with it are not well defined. We used a unique data set of measurements of individual drinking behavior in turkeys 1) to validate the system of data generation, 2) to develop a methodology to allow clustering of drinking events and splitting behavior into bouts, and 3) to develop traits related to drinking behavior and its regulation and investigate how these traits may be affected by bird genotype. Visits to drinkers were generated by an electronic, custom-made equipment that automatically measures the individual drinking behavior of a large number of turkeys from 3 different genetic lines...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380517/surface-wetting-strategy-prevents-acute-heat-exposure-induced-alterations-of-hypothalamic-stress-and-metabolic-related-genes-in-broiler-chickens
#9
H Rajaei-Sharifabadi, E Greene, A Piekarski, D Falcon, L Ellestad, A Donoghue, W Bottje, T Porter, Y Liang, S Dridi
Heat stress (HS) is devastating to poultry production worldwide, yet its biology and molecular responses are not well defined. Although advances in management strategy have partially alleviated the negative impact of HS, productivity still continues to decline when the ambient temperature rises. Therefore, identifying mechanism-based approaches to decrease HS susceptibility while improving production traits is critical. Recently, we made a breakthrough by applying a surface wetting strategy and showing that it improves growth performance compared with the current conventional cooling system...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373833/the-biological-function-of-the-prion-protein-a-cell-surface-scaffold-of-signaling-modules
#10
Rafael Linden
The prion glycoprotein (PrP(C)) is mostly located at the cell surface, tethered to the plasma membrane through a glycosyl-phosphatydil inositol (GPI) anchor. Misfolding of PrP(C) is associated with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), whereas its normal conformer serves as a receptor for oligomers of the β-amyloid peptide, which play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). PrP(C) is highly expressed in both the nervous and immune systems, as well as in other organs, but its functions are controversial...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369611/attacking-heterogeneity-in-schizophrenia-by-deriving-clinical-subgroups-from-widely-available-symptom-data
#11
Dwight Dickinson, Danielle N Pratt, Evan J Giangrande, MeiLin Grunnagle, Jennifer Orel, Daniel R Weinberger, Joseph H Callicott, Karen F Berman
Previous research has identified (1) a "deficit" subtype of schizophrenia characterized by enduring negative symptoms and diminished emotionality and (2) a "distress" subtype associated with high emotionality-including anxiety, depression, and stress sensitivity. Individuals in deficit and distress categories differ sharply in development, clinical course and behavior, and show distinct biological markers, perhaps signaling different etiologies. We tested whether deficit and distress subtypes would emerge from a simple but novel data-driven subgrouping analysis, based on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative and distress symptom dimensions, and whether subgrouping was informative regarding other facets of behavior and brain function...
March 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369244/targeted-sequencing-of-chromosome-15q25-identified-novel-variants-associated-with-risk-of-lung-cancer-and-smoking-behavior-in-chinese
#12
Yang Cheng, Cheng Wang, Meng Zhu, Juncheng Dai, Yuzhuo Wang, Liguo Geng, Zhihua Li, Jiahui Zhang, Hongxia Ma, Guangfu Jin, Dongxin Lin, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European descent identified a lung cancer susceptibility locus at 15q25 that was biologically associated with nicotine addiction. However, the allele frequency of susceptibility variants identified in this region varied dramatically across European and Asian populations, suggesting that additional risk SNPs in Asians need to be identified. Thus, we conducted a fine-mapping study of chromosome 15q25 using targeted resequencing of 200 lung cancer cases and 300 controls of Chinese descent...
March 27, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364486/genetic-basis-of-chronotype-in-humans-insights-from-three-landmark-gwas
#13
David A Kalmbach, Logan D Schneider, Joseph Cheung, Sarah J Bertrand, Thiruchelvam Kariharan, Allan I Pack, Philip R Gehrman
Study Objectives: Chronotype, or diurnal preference, refers to behavioral manifestations of the endogenous circadian system that governs preferred timing of sleep and wake. As variations in circadian timing and system perturbations are linked to disease development, the fundamental biology of chronotype has received attention for its role in the regulation and dysregulation of sleep and related illnesses. Family studies indicate that chronotype is a heritable trait, thus directing attention toward its genetic basis...
February 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362316/cancer-testis-antigens-smart-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-prostate-and-other-cancers
#14
Prakash Kulkarni, Vladimir N Uversky
A clinical dilemma in the management of prostate cancer (PCa) is to distinguish men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men who may not require immediate intervention. Accurate prediction of disease behavior is critical because radical treatment is associated with high morbidity. Here, we highlight the cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) as potential PCa biomarkers. The CTAs are a group of proteins that are typically restricted to the testis in the normal adult but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361705/snp-by-snp-by-environment-interaction-network-of-alcoholism
#15
Amin Zollanvari, Gil Alterovitz
BACKGROUND: Alcoholism has a strong genetic component. Twin studies have demonstrated the heritability of a large proportion of phenotypic variance of alcoholism ranging from 50-80%. The search for genetic variants associated with this complex behavior has epitomized sequence-based studies for nearly a decade. The limited success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), possibly precipitated by the polygenic nature of complex traits and behaviors, however, has demonstrated the need for novel, multivariate models capable of quantitatively capturing interactions between a host of genetic variants and their association with non-genetic factors...
March 14, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318335/the-cognitive-affective-and-somatic-empathy-scales-cases-for-children
#16
Adrian Raine, Frances R Chen
Although the assessment of empathy has moved from general empathy to differentiating between cognitive and affective empathy, no instruments have assessed somatic (motor) empathy, and none have separated positive from negative affect empathy. The main objective of this study was to develop a 30-item self-report cognitive, affective, and somatic empathy scale (CASES) with positive and negative affect components for use with children and adolescents. A community sample of 428 male and female 11-year-olds completed the CASES together with validity questionnaires and were assessed on IQ...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287195/-pilot-study-on-nutritional-and-eating-disorders-in-children-and-mood-disorders-comorbidity-or-prodromal-traits
#17
Paola Cimbolli, Álvaro Quiñones, Carla Ugarte, Adele De Pascale
INTRODUCTION: Both children affected by nutritional and eating disorders (ED) and adults with bipolar disorder (BD) display symptoms of deficient emotional self-regulation, which can present in different forms. If we observe the clinical and developmental histories of individuals affected by EDs and BD, based on a cognitive systemic post-rationalist approach, we can hypothesise a continuum between the two disorders. The aim of this pilot study is to support the hypothesis - from an explanatory rather than a non-descriptive approach - that EDs and BD are the possible result of issues tied to biological and psychological self-regulation...
January 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286370/interaction-between-prenatal-maternal-stress-and-autonomic-arousal-in-predicting-conduct-problems-and-psychopathic-traits-in-children
#18
Yu Gao, Yonglin Huang, Xiaobo Li
BACKGROUND: Evidence has suggested that neurobiological deficits combine with psychosocial risk factors to impact on the development of antisocial behavior. The current study concentrated on the interplay of prenatal maternal stress and autonomic arousal in predicting antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. METHODS: Prenatal maternal stress was assessed by caregiver's retrospective report, and resting heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured in 295 8- to 10-year-old children...
March 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282466/fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-fto-is-associated-to-eating-disorders-susceptibility-and-moderates-the-expression-of-psychopathological-traits
#19
Giovanni Castellini, Marica Franzago, Silvia Bagnoli, Lorenzo Lelli, Michela Balsamo, Milena Mancini, Benedetta Nacmias, Valdo Ricca, Sandro Sorbi, Ivana Antonucci, Liborio Stuppia, Giovanni Stanghellini
Eating Disorders (EDs) show a multifactorial etiopathogenesis including environmental, psychological and biological factors. In the present study, we propose a model of interactions between genetic vulnerability-represented by Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) gene-and stable psychopathological traits, such as bodily disorders and emotion dysregulation for EDs patients. The distribution of a polymorphism of the FTO (rs9939609 T>A) was evaluated in a series of 250 EDs patients and in a group of 119 healthy control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261071/trial-by-trial-modulation-of-associative-memory-formation-by-reward-prediction-error-and-reward-anticipation-as-revealed-by-a-biologically-plausible-computational-model
#20
Kristoffer C Aberg, Julia Müller, Sophie Schwartz
Anticipation and delivery of rewards improves memory formation, but little effort has been made to disentangle their respective contributions to memory enhancement. Moreover, it has been suggested that the effects of reward on memory are mediated by dopaminergic influences on hippocampal plasticity. Yet, evidence linking memory improvements to actual reward computations reflected in the activity of the dopaminergic system, i.e., prediction errors and expected values, is scarce and inconclusive. For example, different previous studies reported that the magnitude of prediction errors during a reinforcement learning task was a positive, negative, or non-significant predictor of successfully encoding simultaneously presented images...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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