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Behavioral traits and biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893665/does-aerobic-capacity-predict-the-spatial-position-of-individuals-within-schools-in-juvenile-qingbo-spinibarbus-sinensis
#1
Ling-Qing Zeng, Cheng Fu, Shi-Jian Fu
Schooling behavior is an adaptive trait of important biological and ecological significance in fish species. However, the question of how aerobic capacity and environmental factors (i.e., food and water velocity) affect the spatial positioning within fish schools has received little attention. Our study measured the aerobic capacity-as indicated by standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope (AS)-and swimming performance of juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis) and filmed their schooling behavior in a swim tunnel under both a control treatment and food stimulus treatment at three water velocities (20, 30 and 40cms(-1))...
September 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881938/indirect-effects-of-global-change-from-physiological-and-behavioral-mechanisms-to-ecological-consequences
#2
Alex R Gunderson, Brian Tsukimura, Jonathon H Stillman
A major focus of current ecological research is to understand how global change makes species vulnerable to extirpation. To date, mechanistic ecophysiological analyses of global change vulnerability have focused primarily on the direct effects of changing abiotic conditions on whole-organism physiological traits, such as metabolic rate, locomotor performance, cardiac function, and critical thermal limits. However, species do not live in isolation within their physical environments, and direct effects of climate change are likely to be compounded by indirect effects that result from altered interactions with other species, such as competitors and predators...
July 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877969/overdominant-effect-of-a-chrna4-polymorphism-on-cingulo-opercular-network-activity-and-cognitive-control
#3
Sepideh Sadaghiani, Bernard Ng, Andre Altmann, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Patricia Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Jürgen Gallinat, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Hervé Lemaitre, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Sabina Millenet, Juliane H Fröhner, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Valerio Napolioni, Michael Greicius
The nicotinic system plays an important role in cognitive control, and is implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions. Yet, the contributions of genetic variability in this system to individuals' cognitive control abilities are poorly understood, and the brain processes that mediate such genetic contributions remain largely unidentified. In this first large-scale neuroimaging genetics study of the human nicotinic receptor system (two cohorts, males and females, fMRI total N=1586, behavioral total N=3650), we investigated a common polymorphism of the high-affinity nicotinic receptor α4β2 (rs1044396 on the CHRNA4 gene) previously implicated in behavioral and nicotine-related studies (albeit with inconsistent major/minor allele impacts)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877222/taxonomic-and-functional-surrogates-of-sessile-benthic-diversity-in-mediterranean-marine-caves
#4
Vasilis Gerovasileiou, Charalampos Dimitriadis, Christos Arvanitidis, Eleni Voultsiadou
Hard substrates host globally a rich biodiversity, orders of magnitude higher in species number than that in surrounding soft substrates. Among them, marine caves support unique biodiversity and fragile communities but suffer lack of quantitative data on their structure and function, hindering their conservation status assessment. A first approach to the non-destructive ecological monitoring of marine caves by testing surrogates of structural and functional composition of sessile benthos was attempted in two species-rich Mediterranean marine caves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859419/complex-reproductive-traits-and-whole-organism-performance
#5
T J Orr, Theodore Garland
Arnold's 1983 path-analytic paradigm, considering "morphology, performance, and fitness," has been elaborated in several ways. For example, current versions recognize the level of "behavior" (including aspects of motivation) as a filter between performance abilities (only measurable if motivation is maximal) and fitness components. Performance abilities constrain behavior, but behavioral choices may shield performance from selection. Conceptual and empirical issues remain, such as the extent to which individual variation in lower-level subordinate traits (e...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834923/stress-and-addiction-when-a-robust-stress-response-indicates-resiliency
#6
Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Stress reactivity research has traditionally focused on the idea that exaggerated responses to stress may have adverse effects on health. Accumulating evidence suggests that attenuated responses to stress and delayed recovery may also be problematic. METHODS: This review focuses on the role of the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, the endogenous opioid system (EOS), and the cardiovascular system in hypertension, pain perception, and addictive behaviors...
August 22, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821382/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#7
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
July 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821346/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#8
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
September 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809826/high-throughput-screening-for-protein-based-inheritance-in-s-cerevisiae
#9
James S Byers, Daniel F Jarosz
The encoding of biological information that is accessible to future generations is generally achieved via changes to the DNA sequence. Long-lived inheritance encoded in protein conformation (rather than sequence) has long been viewed as paradigm-shifting but rare. The best characterized examples of such epigenetic elements are prions, which possess a self-assembling behavior that can drive the heritable manifestation of new phenotypes. Many archetypal prions display a striking N/Q-rich sequence bias and assemble into an amyloid fold...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805927/the-relationship-between-different-measures-of-feed-efficiency-and-feeding-behavior-traits-in-duroc-pigs
#10
D Lu, S Jiao, F Tiezzi, M Knauer, Y Huang, K A Gray, C Maltecca
Utilization of feed in livestock species consists of a wide range of biological processes, and therefore, its efficiency can be expressed in various ways, including direct measurement, such as daily feed intake, as well as indicator measures, such as feeding behavior. Measuring feed efficiency is important to the swine industry, and its accuracy can be enhanced by using automated feeding systems, which record feed intake and associated feeding behavior of individual animals. Each automated feeder space is often shared among several pigs and therefore raises concerns about social interactions among pen mates with regard to feeding behavior...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769746/triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-investigating-associations-with-genetic-variation-in-the-vasopressin-receptor-1a-gene
#11
Robert D Latzman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
Vasopressin is a neuropeptide known to be associated with the development and evolution of complex socio-emotional behaviors including those relevant to psychopathic personality. In both humans and chimpanzees, recent research suggests a strong genetic contribution to individual variation in psychopathic traits. To date, however, little is known concerning specific genes that might explain the observed heritability of psychopathy. In a relatively large sample of captive chimpanzees (N = 164), the current study thus sought to investigate gene-environment associations between triarchic psychopathy dimensions (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769743/neural-response-to-biological-motion-in-healthy-adults-varies-as-a-function-of-autistic-like-traits
#12
Meghan H Puglia, James P Morris
Perception of biological motion is an important social cognitive ability that has been mapped to specialized brain regions. Perceptual deficits and neural differences during biological motion perception have previously been associated with autism, a disorder classified by social and communication difficulties and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviors. However, the traits associated with autism are not limited to diagnostic categories, but are normally distributed within the general population and show the same patterns of heritability across the continuum...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768209/borderline-personality-disorder-in-men-a-literature-review-and-illustrative-case-vignettes
#13
Adam Bayes, Gordon Parker
The aim is to review the salient literature on borderline personality disorder (BPD) in men and link those findings with case vignettes. We provide a literature review and then report case examples of those who met DSM and clinical BPD criteria, and consider the extent to which the small male sub-set corresponded developmentally and phenomenologically with prototypic BPD in women. The review considered phenomenological, epidemiological, biological and developmental BPD factors, finding BPD men evidence elevated substance abuse, and 'externalising' patterns of behavior, antisocial personality traits, violent self-harm and interpersonal aggression, whereas women display more 'internalising' strategies...
July 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755145/mosquito-control-with-green-nanopesticides-towards-the-one-health-approach-a-review-of-non-target-effects
#14
Giovanni Benelli, Filippo Maggi, Roman Pavela, Kadarkarai Murugan, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Riccardo Petrelli, Loredana Cappellacci, Suresh Kumar, Anders Hofer, Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Akon Higuchi
The rapid spread of highly aggressive arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria along with the development of resistance in the pathogens and parasites, as well as in their arthropod vectors, represents a huge challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Eco-friendly vector control programs are crucial to fight, besides malaria, the spread of dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika virus, as well as other arboviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. However, research efforts on the control of mosquito vectors are experiencing a serious lack of eco-friendly and highly effective pesticides, as well as the limited success of most biocontrol tools currently applied...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752995/bioinspired-polymer-systems-with-stimuli-responsive-mechanical-properties
#15
Lucas Montero de Espinosa, Worarin Meesorn, Dafni Moatsou, Christoph Weder
Materials with switchable mechanical properties are widespread in living organisms and endow many species with traits that are essential for their survival. Many of the mechanically morphing materials systems found in nature are based on hierarchical structures, which are the basis for mechanical robustness and often also the key to responsive behavior. Many "operating principles" involve cascades of events that translate cues from the environment into changes of the overall structure and/or the connectivity of the constituting building blocks at various levels...
July 28, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743966/pupil-adaptation-corresponds-to-quantitative-measures-of-autism-traits-in-children
#16
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio, Vanessa Troiani
The pupil is known to reflect a range of psychological and physiological variables, including cognitive effort, arousal, attention, and even learning. Within autism spectrum disorder (ASD), some work has used pupil physiology to successfully classify patients with or without autism. As we have come to understand the heterogeneity of ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders, the relationship between quantitative traits and physiological markers has become increasingly more important, as this may lead us closer to the underlying biological basis for atypical responses and behaviors...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742107/analyzing-the-locomotory-gaitprint-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-on-the-basis-of-empirical-mode-decomposition
#17
Li-Chun Lin, Han-Sheng Chuang
The locomotory gait analysis of the microswimmer, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a commonly adopted approach for strain recognition and examination of phenotypic defects. Gait is also a visible behavioral expression of worms under external stimuli. This study developed an adaptive data analysis method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to reveal the biological cues behind intricate motion. The method was used to classify the strains of worms according to their gaitprints (i.e., phenotypic traits of locomotion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739941/cultural-evolutionary-theory-how-culture-evolves-and-why-it-matters
#18
Nicole Creanza, Oren Kolodny, Marcus W Feldman
Human cultural traits-behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals-can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Many of the first quantitative models of cultural evolution were modified from existing concepts in theoretical population genetics because cultural evolution has many parallels with, as well as clear differences from, genetic evolution...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739936/gene-culture-coevolution-in-whales-and-dolphins
#19
Hal Whitehead
Whales and dolphins (Cetacea) have excellent social learning skills as well as a long and strong mother-calf bond. These features produce stable cultures, and, in some species, sympatric groups with different cultures. There is evidence and speculation that this cultural transmission of behavior has affected gene distributions. Culture seems to have driven killer whales into distinct ecotypes, which may be incipient species or subspecies. There are ecotype-specific signals of selection in functional genes that correspond to cultural foraging behavior and habitat use by the different ecotypes...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738311/perception-is-key-does-perceptual-sensitivity-and-parenting-behavior-predict-children-s-reactivity-to-others-emotions
#20
Joyce Weeland, Alithe Van den Akker, Meike Slagt, Samuel Putnam
When interacting with other people, both children's biological predispositions and past experiences play a role in how they will process and respond to social-emotional cues. Children may partly differ in their reactions to such cues because they differ in the threshold for perceiving such cues in general. Theoretically, perceptual sensitivity (i.e., the amount of detection of slight, low-intensity stimuli from the external environment independent of visual and auditory ability) might, therefore, provide us with specific information on individual differences in susceptibility to the environment...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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