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Hormones and behavioral traits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037971/to-fight-or-mate-hormonal-control-of-sex-recognition-male-sexual-behavior-and-aggression-in-the-gecko-lizard
#1
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
Squamate reptiles are a highly diversified vertebrate group with extensive variability in social behavior and sexual dimorphism. However, hormonal control of these traits has not previously been investigated in sufficient depth in many squamate lineages. Here, we studied the hormonal control of male sexual behavior, aggressiveness, copulatory organ (hemipenis) size and sex recognition in the gecko Paroedura picta, comparing ovariectomized females, ovariectomized females treated with exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT), ovariectomized females treated with exogenous testosterone (T), control females and males...
October 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026980/evolution-of-the-androgen-induced-male-phenotype
#2
REVIEW
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Barney A Schlinger
The masculine reproductive phenotype varies significantly across vertebrates. As a result, biologists have long recognized that many of the mechanisms that support these phenotypes-particularly the androgenic system-is evolutionarily labile, and thus susceptible to the effects of selection for different traits. However, exactly how androgenic signaling systems vary in a way which results in dramatically different functional outputs, remain largely unclear. We explore this topic here by outlining four key-but non-mutually exclusive-hypotheses that propose how the mechanisms of androgenic signaling might change over time to potentiate the emergence of phenotypical variation in masculine behavior and physiology...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992053/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-approaches-to-understanding-trade-offs-food-sex-aggression-stress-and-longevity-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#3
Jill E Schneider, Pierre Deviche
Life history strategies are composed of multiple fitness components, each of which incurs costs and benefits. Consequently, organisms cannot maximize all fitness components simultaneously. This situation results in a dynamic array of trade-offs in which some fitness traits prevail at the expense of others, often depending on context. The identification of specific constraints and trade-offs has helped elucidate physiological mechanisms that underlie variation in behavioral and physiological life history strategies...
September 11, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991767/anorexia-anormal-phobia-of-normal-weight
#4
Nada Pop-Jordanova, Tatjana Zorcec, Aneta Demerdzieva
Anorexia nervosa is a disorder of feeding behavior associated with distortion of body image, mood disturbance and a wide variety of hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. It is supposed that the disease could be the consequence of a combination of cultural-social, psychological and biological factors. Our study confirmed that anorexia mentalis is a serious, life threatening disorder which in our country appears earlier than it was expected and that is strongly related to environmental factors (family, school, fashion, society)...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957521/oxytocin-experiments-shed-light-on-mechanisms-shaping-prosocial-and-antisocial-behaviors-in-non-human-mammals
#5
Jennifer E Smith, Matthew B Petelle, Emily L Jerome, Hélène Cristofari, Daniel T Blumstein
Oxytocin has gained a reputation in popular culture as a simple "love drug" or "cuddle hormone", yet emerging biological evidence indicates that the effects of oxytocin are complex, mediating a suite of behavioral traits that range from ultrasocial to antisocial. Here we provide a comprehensive review to assess the salience of oxytocin in the lives of free-living social mammals. We reviewed the literature to understand the potential effects of oxytocin in promoting prosocial and antisocial behaviors in non-human mammals...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891303/redefining-the-endophenotype-concept-to-accommodate-transdiagnostic-vulnerabilities-and-etiological-complexity
#6
Theodore P Beauchaine, John N Constantino
In psychopathology research, endophenotypes are a subset of biomarkers that indicate genetic vulnerability independent of clinical state. To date, an explicit expectation is that endophenotypes be specific to single disorders. We evaluate this expectation considering recent advances in psychiatric genetics, recognition that transdiagnostic vulnerability traits are often more useful than clinical diagnoses in psychiatric genetics, and appreciation for etiological complexity across genetic, neural, hormonal and environmental levels of analysis...
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888817/mate-choice-sexual-selection-and-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#7
REVIEW
Andrea C Gore, Amanda M Holley, David Crews
Humans have disproportionately affected the habitat and survival of species through environmental contamination. Important among these anthropogenic influences is the proliferation of organic chemicals, some of which perturb hormone systems, the latter referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). EDCs are widespread in the environment and affect all levels of reproduction, including development of reproductive organs, hormone release and regulation through the life cycle, the development of secondary sexual characteristics, and the maturation and maintenance of adult physiology and behavior...
September 11, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859419/complex-reproductive-traits-and-whole-organism-performance
#8
T J Orr, Theodore Garland
Arnold's 1983 path-analytic paradigm, considering "morphology, performance, and fitness," has been elaborated in several ways. For example, current versions recognize the level of "behavior" (including aspects of motivation) as a filter between performance abilities (only measurable if motivation is maximal) and fitness components. Performance abilities constrain behavior, but behavioral choices may shield performance from selection. Conceptual and empirical issues remain, such as the extent to which individual variation in lower-level subordinate traits (e...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821382/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#9
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
July 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821346/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#10
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
September 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725412/corticosterone-a-costly-mediator-of-signal-honesty-in-sand-lizards
#11
Willow R Lindsay, Erik Wapstra, Bengt Silverin, Mats Olsson
The mechanisms underlying honest signal expression remain elusive and may involve the integration of social and physiological costs. Corticosterone is a socially modulated metabolic hormone that mediates energy investment and behavior and may therefore function to deter dishonest signal expression. We examined the relationship between corticosterone and green badge coloration in male sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), hypothesizing that physiological and behavioral costs resulting from elevated baseline glucocorticoids function in maintenance of honest signal expression...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724703/hormonal-responsiveness-to-stress-is-negatively-associated-with-vulnerability-to-angling-capture-in-fish
#12
Michael J Louison, Shivani Adhikari, Jeffrey A Stein, Cory D Suski
Differences in behavior and physiology amongst individuals often alter relative fitness levels in the environment. However, the ideal behavioral/physiological phenotype in a given environment may be altered by human activity, leading to an evolutionary response in the affected population. One example of this process can be found in fisheries (including recreational freshwater fisheries), where selective capture and harvest of individuals with certain phenotypes can drive evolutionary change. While some life history traits and behavioral tendencies influencing capture likelihood have been studied, the physiological mechanisms driving this vulnerability remain poorly understood...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626934/thermal-physiology-a-new-dimension-of-the-pace-of-life-syndrome
#13
Celine T Goulet, Mike B Thompson, Marcus Michelangeli, Bob B M Wong, David G Chapple
Current syndrome research focuses primarily on behaviour with few incorporating components of physiology. One such syndrome is the pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) which describes covariation between behaviour, metabolism, immunity, hormonal response, and life-history traits. Despite the strong effect temperature has on behaviour, thermal physiology has yet to be considered within this syndrome framework. We proposed the POLS to be extended to include a new dimension, the cold-hot axis. Under this premise, it is predicted that thermal physiology and behaviour would covary, whereby individual positioning along the thermal continuum would coincide with that of the behavioural continuum...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559207/corticosterone-regulation-in-house-sparrows-invading-senegal
#14
Lynn B Martin, Holly J Kilvitis, Massamba Thiam, Daniel R Ardia
What traits help organisms expand their ranges? Several behavioral and life history traits have been identified, but physiological and especially endocrinological factors have been minimally considered. Here, we asked whether steroid hormonal responses to stressors might be important. Previously, we found that corticosterone (CORT) responses to a standard restraint stressor were stronger at a range edge than at the core of the recent house sparrow (Passer domesticus) invasion of Kenya. In related work in the same system, we found that various behaviors (exploratory activity, responses to novelty, etc...
May 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554167/elevated-paternal-glucocorticoid-exposure-modifies-memory-retention-in-female-offspring
#15
Shlomo Yeshurun, Jake Rogers, Annabel K Short, Thibault Renoir, Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan
Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral traits are subject to transgenerational modification by paternal environmental factors. We previously reported on the transgenerational influences of increased paternal stress hormone levels on offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Here, we investigated whether offspring sociability and cognition are also influenced by paternal stress. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were treated with corticosterone (CORT; 25mg/L) for four weeks prior to paired-matings to generate F1 offspring...
May 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545898/risk-averse-personalities-have-a-systemically-potentiated-neuroendocrine-stress-axis-a-multilevel-experiment-in-parus-major
#16
Alexander T Baugh, Rebecca A Senft, Marian Firke, Abigail Lauder, Julia Schroeder, Simone L Meddle, Kees van Oers, Michaela Hau
Hormonal pleiotropy-the simultaneous influence of a single hormone on multiple traits-has been hypothesized as an important mechanism underlying personality, and circulating glucocorticoids are central to this idea. A major gap in our understanding is the neural basis for this link. Here we examine the stability and structure of behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine traits in a population of songbirds (Parus major). Upon identifying stable and covarying behavioral and endocrine traits, we test the hypothesis that risk-averse personalities exhibit a neuroendocrine stress axis that is systemically potentiated-characterized by stronger glucocorticoid reactivity and weaker negative feedback...
July 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539532/relationship-between-sociability-toward-humans-and-physiological-stress-in-dogs
#17
Yoon-Joo Shin, Nam-Shik Shin
Sociability is an essential trait for dogs to successfully interact with humans. In this study, the relationship between sociability and physiological stress was examined. Additionally, whether differences exist between companion dogs (C group) and shelter dogs (S group) was examined. Overall, healthy 37 dogs (C group=21 and S group=16) were examined. After 5 min of walking, the dog and the owner (or the chief manager) rested freely in the experimental location for 5 min. The behavioral test with 6 categories was conducted to evaluate sociability over 4 min...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508690/gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-temperament
#18
Xiaoyan Qiu, Graeme B Martin, Dominique Blache
When individuals are exposed to stressful environmental challenges, the response varies widely in one or more of three components: psychology, behavior and physiology. This variability among individuals can be defined as temperament. In recent years, an increasing large body of evidence suggests that the dimensions of temperament, as well as personality, psychological disorders and behavioral traits, are influenced by genetic factors, and much of the variation appears to involve variation in genes or gene polymorphisms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the behavior-controlling neurotransmitter networks...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500827/psychological-vulnerability-to-stress-in-carriers-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency
#19
Eleni-Magdalini Kyritsi, Georgia Koltsida, Ioanna Farakla, Aikaterini Papanikolaou, Elena Critselis, Emilia Mantzou, Emmanouil Zoumakis, Gerasimos Kolaitis, George P Chrousos, Evangelia Charmandari
OBJECTIVE: Carriers of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) demonstrate increased secretion of cortisol precursors following ACTH stimulation, suggestive of impaired cortisol production and compensatory increases in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion. Both cortisol and CRH have behavioral effects, and hypothalamic CRH hypersecretion has been associated with chronic states of anxiety and depression. We performed an endocrinologic and psychological evaluation in carriers of 21-OHD and matched control subjects...
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467419/meerkat-close-calling-patterns-are-linked-to-sex-social-category-season-and-wind-but-not-fecal-glucocorticoid-metabolite-concentrations
#20
Jelena Mausbach, Ines Braga Goncalves, Michael Heistermann, André Ganswindt, Marta B Manser
It is well established that animal vocalizations can encode information regarding a sender's identity, sex, age, body size, social rank and group membership. However, the association between physiological parameters, particularly stress hormone levels, and vocal behavior is still not well understood. The cooperatively breeding African meerkats (Suricata suricatta) live in family groups with despotic social hierarchies. During foraging, individuals emit close calls that help maintain group cohesion. These contact calls are acoustically distinctive and variable in rate across individuals, yet, information on which factors influence close calling behavior is missing...
2017: PloS One
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