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Hormones and behavioral traits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614376/tell-me-what-to-do-stress-facilitates-stimulus-response-learning-by-instruction
#1
Susanne Vogel, Lars Schwabe
Learning by explicit instruction is a highly efficient way to instantaneously learn new behaviors and to overcome potentially harmful learning by trial-and-error. Despite the importance of instructed learning for education, influences on the efficacy of an instruction are currently unknown. Decades of research, however, showed that stress is a powerful modulator of learning and memory, including the acquisition of stimulus-response (S-R) associations. Moreover, brain areas critical for instructed learning are a major target of hormones and neurotransmitters released during stress...
March 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576676/evolution-of-sex-specific-pace-of-life-syndromes-genetic-architecture-and-physiological-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Elina Immonen, Anni Hämäläinen, Wiebke Schuett, Maja Tarka
Sex differences in life history, physiology, and behavior are nearly ubiquitous across taxa, owing to sex-specific selection that arises from different reproductive strategies of the sexes. The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis predicts that most variation in such traits among individuals, populations, and species falls along a slow-fast pace-of-life continuum. As a result of their different reproductive roles and environment, the sexes also commonly differ in pace-of-life, with important consequences for the evolution of POLS...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531056/dec2-modulates-orexin-expression-and-regulates-sleep
#3
Arisa Hirano, Pei-Ken Hsu, Luoying Zhang, Lijuan Xing, Thomas McMahon, Maya Yamazaki, Louis J Ptáček, Ying-Hui Fu
Adequate sleep is essential for physical and mental health. We previously identified a missense mutation in the human DEC2 gene ( BHLHE41 ) leading to the familial natural short sleep behavioral trait. DEC2 is a transcription factor regulating the circadian clock in mammals, although its role in sleep regulation has been unclear. Here we report that prepro-orexin , also known as hypocretin ( Hcrt ), gene expression is increased in the mouse model expressing the mutant h DEC2 transgene (h DEC2-P384R ). Prepro-orexin encodes a precursor protein of a neuropeptide producing orexin A and B (hcrt1 and hcrt2), which is enriched in the hypothalamus and regulates maintenance of arousal...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525711/demographic-endocrine-and-behavioral-responses-to-mirex-in-the-south-polar-skua
#4
A Goutte, A Meillère, C Barbraud, H Budzinski, P Labadie, L Peluhet, H Weimerskirch, K Delord, O Chastel
Population consequences of chronic exposure to multiple pollutants at low environmental doses remain speculative, because of the lack of appropriate long-term monitoring surveys. This study integrates proximate and ultimate aspects of persistent organic pollutants (POP) burden in free-living vertebrates, by coupling hormonal and behavioral endpoints, life-history traits, and population dynamics. Blood samples (N=70) were collected in South polar skuas during two breeding periods, in 2003 and 2005, and individuals were annually monitored until 2011...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500952/individual-differences-in-developmental-plasticity-a-role-for-early-androgens
#5
REVIEW
Marco Del Giudice, Emily S Barrett, Jay Belsky, Sarah Hartman, Michelle M Martel, Susanne Sangenstedt, Christopher W Kuzawa
Developmental plasticity is a widespread property of living organisms, but different individuals in the same species can vary greatly in how susceptible they are to environmental influences. In humans, research has sought to link variation in plasticity to physiological traits such as stress reactivity, exposure to prenatal stress-related hormones such as cortisol, and specific genes involved in major neurobiological pathways. However, the determinants of individual differences in plasticity are still poorly understood...
February 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443645/hair-and-salivary-testosterone-hair-cortisol-and-externalizing-behaviors-in-adolescents
#6
Andrew D Grotzinger, Frank D Mann, Megan W Patterson, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
Although testosterone is associated with aggression in the popular imagination, previous research on the links between testosterone and human aggression has been inconsistent. This inconsistency might be because testosterone's effects on aggression depend on other moderators. In a large adolescent sample ( N = 984, of whom 460 provided hair samples), we examined associations between aggression and salivary testosterone, hair testosterone, and hair cortisol. Callous-unemotional traits, parental monitoring, and peer environment were examined as potential moderators of hormone-behavior associations...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356435/correlates-of-melanization-in-multiple-high-and-low-elevation-populations-of-the-lizard-sceloporus-occidentalis-behavior-hormones-and-parasites
#7
Ryan J Seddon, Diana K Hews
Hormones mediate the expression of suites of correlated traits and hence may act either to facilitate or constrain adaptive evolution. Selection on one trait within a hormone-mediated suite of traits may lead to a change in the strength of the hormone signal, causing changes in correlated traits. Growing evidence suggests that melanization, which is in part regulated by hormonal signals, is tightly linked to other traits, such as aggression and stress physiology. Here, we examine six populations of Sceloporus occidentalis lizards differing in degree of melanization (three dark higher-elevation populations and three less-melanized lower-elevation populations) to investigate potential correlations between behavior, hormones, and parasites...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356430/morph-specific-metabolic-rate-and-the-timing-of-reproductive-senescence-in-a-color-polymorphic-dragon
#8
Christopher R Friesen, Rasmus Johansson, Mats Olsson
Polymorphism has fascinated biologists for over a century because morphs persist within populations through evolutionary time in spite of showing disparate behavioral and physiological phenotypes; any one morph should go to fixation with the slightest fitness advantage over the others. Surely there must be trade-offs that balance selection on them. The polychromatic morphs of the Australian painted dragon lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, are one such system. The male color morphs of painted dragons have different physiological and behavioral traits including reproductive tactics, hormone levels, and the rate of body condition loss through the reproductive season...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356403/do-sex-reversal-procedures-differentially-affect-agonistic-behaviors-and-sex-steroid-levels-depending-on-the-sexual-genotype-in-nile-tilapia
#9
Vincent Gennotte, Balagizi Akonkwa, Charles Mélard, Mathieu Denoël, Charlotte A Cornil, Carole Rougeot
In Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, phenotypic males and females with different sexual genotypes (XX, XY, YY) have particular behavioral and physiological traits. Compared to natural XX females and XY males, XY and YY females and XX males expressed higher level of aggressiveness that could be related to higher levels of 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, respectively. Our results suggest that the presence of a Y chromosome increases aggressiveness in females. However, since the same relationship between aggressiveness and the Y chromosome is not observed in males, we can hypothesize that the differences in aggressiveness are not directly dependent on the genotype but on the sex reversal procedures applied on young fry during their sexual differentiation to produce these breeders...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175227/does-testosterone-treatment-increase-anger-expression-in-a-population-of-transgender-men
#10
Giovanna Motta, Chiara Crespi, Valentina Mineccia, Paolo Riccardo Brustio, Chiara Manieri, Fabio Lanfranco
BACKGROUND: The acquisition of phenotypic male features in transmen with gender dysphoria requires testosterone treatment. The suppression of menses is 1 of the most desired effects. The relation between testosterone levels and human aggressive behavior has been described. However, the effects of testosterone on anger expression have been poorly investigated in trans-persons. AIM: To assess the effects of testosterone treatment on anger expression in transmen using a validated self-report questionnaire (Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 [STAXI-2])...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150898/a-model-to-characterize-psychopathological-features-in-adults-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#11
Denise Thuilleaux, Virginie Laurier, Pierre Copet, Julie Tricot, Geneviève Demeer, Fabien Mourre, Maithé Tauber, Joseba Jauregi
High prevalence of behavioral and psychiatric disorders in adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) has been reported in last few years. However, data are confusing and often contradictory. In this article, we propose a model to achieve a better understanding of the psychopathological features in adults with PWS. The study is based on clinical observations of 150 adult inpatients, males and females. Non-parametric statistics were performed to analyse the association of psychopathological profiles with genotype, gender and age...
January 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143128/the-evolution-of-androgen-receptor-expression-and-behavior-in-anolis-lizard-forelimb-muscles
#12
Michele A Johnson, Bonnie K Kircher, Diego J Castro
The motor systems that produce behavioral movements are among the primary targets for the action of steroid hormones, including androgens. Androgens such as testosterone bind to androgen receptors (AR) to induce physiological changes in the size, strength, and energetic capacity of skeletal muscles, which can directly influence the performance of behaviors in which those muscles are used. Because tissues differentially express AR, resulting in tissue-specific sensitivity to androgens, AR expression may be a major target of selection for the evolution of behavior...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128250/sex-specific-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-sensitivity-in-migrating-songbirds
#13
Kristen M Covino, Jodie M Jawor, Sara R Morris, Frank R Moore
In seasonally migratory species, the overlap between the migratory and breeding life history stages is a balance between the physiological and behavioral requirements of each stage. Previous studies investigating the degree to which songbirds prepare for breeding during spring migration have focused on either circulating hormone levels or direct measures of gonadal recrudescence. In this study, we evaluated the phenology of breeding preparation in a long-distance migratory songbird, the Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus), by assessing hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis sensitivity with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) bioassays throughout the migratory period...
January 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080023/bidirectional-effects-of-mother-young-contact-on-the-maternal-and-neonatal-brains
#14
Gabriela González-Mariscal, Angel I Melo
Adaptive plasticity occurs intensely during the early postnatal period through processes like proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination and apoptosis. Exposure to particular stimuli during this critical period has long-lasting effects on cognition, stress reactivity and behavior. Maternal care is the main source of social, sensory and chemical stimulation to the young and is, therefore, critical to "fine-tune" the offspring's neural development. Mothers providing a low quantity or quality of stimulation produce offspring that will exhibit reduced cognitive performance, impaired social affiliation and increased agonistic behaviors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063285/songbird-chemical-signals-reflect-uropygial-gland-androgen-sensitivity-and-predict-aggression-implications-for-the-role-of-the-periphery-in-chemosignaling
#15
Danielle J Whittaker, Kimberly A Rosvall, Samuel P Slowinski, Helena A Soini, Milos V Novotny, Ellen D Ketterson
Chemical signals can provide useful information to potential mates and rivals. The production mechanisms of these signals are poorly understood in birds, despite emerging evidence that volatile compounds from preen oil may serve as chemosignals. Steroid hormones, including testosterone (T), may influence the production of these signals, yet variation in circulating T only partly accounts for this variation. We hypothesized that odor is a T-mediated signal of an individual's phenotype, regulated in part by androgen sensitivity in the uropygial gland...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051076/behavioral-phenotype-predicts-physiological-responses-to-chronic-stress-in-proactive-and-reactive-birds
#16
Elizabeth A Pusch, Alexandra B Bentz, Daniel J Becker, Kristen J Navara
Animal species display significant variation in personality traits among individuals, and two main coping styles have been identified and termed "proactive" and "reactive". Further, these coping styles appear to correlate directly with the strength of the physiological stress response exhibited by those individuals. In our study system, white laying hens are reactive, flighty, and exhibit large hormonal and behavioral responses to acute stress, while brown laying hens are proactive, exploratory, and exhibit low hormonal and behavioral responses to acute stress...
January 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037971/to-fight-or-mate-hormonal-control-of-sex-recognition-male-sexual-behavior-and-aggression-in-the-gecko-lizard
#17
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
Squamate reptiles are a highly diversified vertebrate group with extensive variability in social behavior and sexual dimorphism. However, hormonal control of these traits has not previously been investigated in sufficient depth in many squamate lineages. Here, we studied the hormonal control of male sexual behavior, aggressiveness, copulatory organ (hemipenis) size and sex recognition in the gecko Paroedura picta, comparing ovariectomized females, ovariectomized females treated with exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT), ovariectomized females treated with exogenous testosterone (T), control females and males...
January 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026980/evolution-of-the-androgen-induced-male-phenotype
#18
REVIEW
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Barney A Schlinger
The masculine reproductive phenotype varies significantly across vertebrates. As a result, biologists have long recognized that many of the mechanisms that support these phenotypes-particularly the androgenic system-is evolutionarily labile, and thus susceptible to the effects of selection for different traits. However, exactly how androgenic signaling systems vary in a way which results in dramatically different functional outputs, remain largely unclear. We explore this topic here by outlining four key-but non-mutually exclusive-hypotheses that propose how the mechanisms of androgenic signaling might change over time to potentiate the emergence of phenotypical variation in masculine behavior and physiology...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992053/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-approaches-to-understanding-trade-offs-food-sex-aggression-stress-and-longevity-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#19
Jill E Schneider, Pierre Deviche
Life history strategies are composed of multiple fitness components, each of which incurs costs and benefits. Consequently, organisms cannot maximize all fitness components simultaneously. This situation results in a dynamic array of trade-offs in which some fitness traits prevail at the expense of others, often depending on context. The identification of specific constraints and trade-offs has helped elucidate physiological mechanisms that underlie variation in behavioral and physiological life history strategies...
December 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991767/anorexia-anormal-phobia-of-normal-weight
#20
Nada Pop-Jordanova, Tatjana Zorcec, Aneta Demerdzieva
Anorexia nervosa is a disorder of feeding behavior associated with distortion of body image, mood disturbance and a wide variety of hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. It is supposed that the disease could be the consequence of a combination of cultural-social, psychological and biological factors. Our study confirmed that anorexia mentalis is a serious, life threatening disorder which in our country appears earlier than it was expected and that is strongly related to environmental factors (family, school, fashion, society)...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
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