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Hormones and behavioral traits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443645/hair-and-salivary-testosterone-hair-cortisol-and-externalizing-behaviors-in-adolescents
#1
Andrew D Grotzinger, Frank D Mann, Megan W Patterson, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
Although testosterone is associated with aggression in the popular imagination, previous research on the links between testosterone and human aggression has been inconsistent. This inconsistency might be because testosterone's effects on aggression depend on other moderators. In a large adolescent sample ( N = 984, of whom 460 provided hair samples), we examined associations between aggression and salivary testosterone, hair testosterone, and hair cortisol. Callous-unemotional traits, parental monitoring, and peer environment were examined as potential moderators of hormone-behavior associations...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356435/correlates-of-melanization-in-multiple-high-and-low-elevation-populations-of-the-lizard-sceloporus-occidentalis-behavior-hormones-and-parasites
#2
Ryan J Seddon, Diana K Hews
Hormones mediate the expression of suites of correlated traits and hence may act either to facilitate or constrain adaptive evolution. Selection on one trait within a hormone-mediated suite of traits may lead to a change in the strength of the hormone signal, causing changes in correlated traits. Growing evidence suggests that melanization, which is in part regulated by hormonal signals, is tightly linked to other traits, such as aggression and stress physiology. Here, we examine six populations of Sceloporus occidentalis lizards differing in degree of melanization (three dark higher-elevation populations and three less-melanized lower-elevation populations) to investigate potential correlations between behavior, hormones, and parasites...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356430/morph-specific-metabolic-rate-and-the-timing-of-reproductive-senescence-in-a-color-polymorphic-dragon
#3
Christopher R Friesen, Rasmus Johansson, Mats Olsson
Polymorphism has fascinated biologists for over a century because morphs persist within populations through evolutionary time in spite of showing disparate behavioral and physiological phenotypes; any one morph should go to fixation with the slightest fitness advantage over the others. Surely there must be trade-offs that balance selection on them. The polychromatic morphs of the Australian painted dragon lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, are one such system. The male color morphs of painted dragons have different physiological and behavioral traits including reproductive tactics, hormone levels, and the rate of body condition loss through the reproductive season...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356403/do-sex-reversal-procedures-differentially-affect-agonistic-behaviors-and-sex-steroid-levels-depending-on-the-sexual-genotype-in-nile-tilapia
#4
Vincent Gennotte, Balagizi Akonkwa, Charles Mélard, Mathieu Denoël, Charlotte A Cornil, Carole Rougeot
In Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, phenotypic males and females with different sexual genotypes (XX, XY, YY) have particular behavioral and physiological traits. Compared to natural XX females and XY males, XY and YY females and XX males expressed higher level of aggressiveness that could be related to higher levels of 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, respectively. Our results suggest that the presence of a Y chromosome increases aggressiveness in females. However, since the same relationship between aggressiveness and the Y chromosome is not observed in males, we can hypothesize that the differences in aggressiveness are not directly dependent on the genotype but on the sex reversal procedures applied on young fry during their sexual differentiation to produce these breeders...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175227/does-testosterone-treatment-increase-anger-expression-in-a-population-of-transgender-men
#5
Giovanna Motta, Chiara Crespi, Valentina Mineccia, Paolo Riccardo Brustio, Chiara Manieri, Fabio Lanfranco
BACKGROUND: The acquisition of phenotypic male features in transmen with gender dysphoria requires testosterone treatment. The suppression of menses is 1 of the most desired effects. The relation between testosterone levels and human aggressive behavior has been described. However, the effects of testosterone on anger expression have been poorly investigated in trans-persons. AIM: To assess the effects of testosterone treatment on anger expression in transmen using a validated self-report questionnaire (Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 [STAXI-2])...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150898/a-model-to-characterize-psychopathological-features-in-adults-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#6
Denise Thuilleaux, Virginie Laurier, Pierre Copet, Julie Tricot, Geneviève Demeer, Fabien Mourre, Maithé Tauber, Joseba Jauregi
High prevalence of behavioral and psychiatric disorders in adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) has been reported in last few years. However, data are confusing and often contradictory. In this article, we propose a model to achieve a better understanding of the psychopathological features in adults with PWS. The study is based on clinical observations of 150 adult inpatients, males and females. Non-parametric statistics were performed to analyse the association of psychopathological profiles with genotype, gender and age...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143128/the-evolution-of-androgen-receptor-expression-and-behavior-in-anolis-lizard-forelimb-muscles
#7
Michele A Johnson, Bonnie K Kircher, Diego J Castro
The motor systems that produce behavioral movements are among the primary targets for the action of steroid hormones, including androgens. Androgens such as testosterone bind to androgen receptors (AR) to induce physiological changes in the size, strength, and energetic capacity of skeletal muscles, which can directly influence the performance of behaviors in which those muscles are used. Because tissues differentially express AR, resulting in tissue-specific sensitivity to androgens, AR expression may be a major target of selection for the evolution of behavior...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128250/sex-specific-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-sensitivity-in-migrating-songbirds
#8
Kristen M Covino, Jodie M Jawor, Sara R Morris, Frank R Moore
In seasonally migratory species, the overlap between the migratory and breeding life history stages is a balance between the physiological and behavioral requirements of each stage. Previous studies investigating the degree to which songbirds prepare for breeding during spring migration have focused on either circulating hormone levels or direct measures of gonadal recrudescence. In this study, we evaluated the phenology of breeding preparation in a long-distance migratory songbird, the Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus), by assessing hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis sensitivity with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) bioassays throughout the migratory period...
November 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080023/bidirectional-effects-of-mother-young-contact-on-the-maternal-and-neonatal-brains
#9
Gabriela González-Mariscal, Angel I Melo
Adaptive plasticity occurs intensely during the early postnatal period through processes like proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination and apoptosis. Exposure to particular stimuli during this critical period has long-lasting effects on cognition, stress reactivity and behavior. Maternal care is the main source of social, sensory and chemical stimulation to the young and is, therefore, critical to "fine-tune" the offspring's neural development. Mothers providing a low quantity or quality of stimulation produce offspring that will exhibit reduced cognitive performance, impaired social affiliation and increased agonistic behaviors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063285/songbird-chemical-signals-reflect-uropygial-gland-androgen-sensitivity-and-predict-aggression-implications-for-the-role-of-the-periphery-in-chemosignaling
#10
Danielle J Whittaker, Kimberly A Rosvall, Samuel P Slowinski, Helena A Soini, Milos V Novotny, Ellen D Ketterson
Chemical signals can provide useful information to potential mates and rivals. The production mechanisms of these signals are poorly understood in birds, despite emerging evidence that volatile compounds from preen oil may serve as chemosignals. Steroid hormones, including testosterone (T), may influence the production of these signals, yet variation in circulating T only partly accounts for this variation. We hypothesized that odor is a T-mediated signal of an individual's phenotype, regulated in part by androgen sensitivity in the uropygial gland...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051076/behavioral-phenotype-predicts-physiological-responses-to-chronic-stress-in-proactive-and-reactive-birds
#11
Elizabeth A Pusch, Alexandra B Bentz, Daniel J Becker, Kristen J Navara
Animal species display significant variation in personality traits among individuals, and two main coping styles have been identified and termed "proactive" and "reactive". Further, these coping styles appear to correlate directly with the strength of the physiological stress response exhibited by those individuals. In our study system, white laying hens are reactive, flighty, and exhibit large hormonal and behavioral responses to acute stress, while brown laying hens are proactive, exploratory, and exhibit low hormonal and behavioral responses to acute stress...
January 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037971/to-fight-or-mate-hormonal-control-of-sex-recognition-male-sexual-behavior-and-aggression-in-the-gecko-lizard
#12
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
Squamate reptiles are a highly diversified vertebrate group with extensive variability in social behavior and sexual dimorphism. However, hormonal control of these traits has not previously been investigated in sufficient depth in many squamate lineages. Here, we studied the hormonal control of male sexual behavior, aggressiveness, copulatory organ (hemipenis) size and sex recognition in the gecko Paroedura picta, comparing ovariectomized females, ovariectomized females treated with exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT), ovariectomized females treated with exogenous testosterone (T), control females and males...
October 23, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026980/evolution-of-the-androgen-induced-male-phenotype
#13
REVIEW
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Barney A Schlinger
The masculine reproductive phenotype varies significantly across vertebrates. As a result, biologists have long recognized that many of the mechanisms that support these phenotypes-particularly the androgenic system-is evolutionarily labile, and thus susceptible to the effects of selection for different traits. However, exactly how androgenic signaling systems vary in a way which results in dramatically different functional outputs, remain largely unclear. We explore this topic here by outlining four key-but non-mutually exclusive-hypotheses that propose how the mechanisms of androgenic signaling might change over time to potentiate the emergence of phenotypical variation in masculine behavior and physiology...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992053/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-approaches-to-understanding-trade-offs-food-sex-aggression-stress-and-longevity-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#14
Jill E Schneider, Pierre Deviche
Life history strategies are composed of multiple fitness components, each of which incurs costs and benefits. Consequently, organisms cannot maximize all fitness components simultaneously. This situation results in a dynamic array of trade-offs in which some fitness traits prevail at the expense of others, often depending on context. The identification of specific constraints and trade-offs has helped elucidate physiological mechanisms that underlie variation in behavioral and physiological life history strategies...
September 11, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991767/anorexia-anormal-phobia-of-normal-weight
#15
Nada Pop-Jordanova, Tatjana Zorcec, Aneta Demerdzieva
Anorexia nervosa is a disorder of feeding behavior associated with distortion of body image, mood disturbance and a wide variety of hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. It is supposed that the disease could be the consequence of a combination of cultural-social, psychological and biological factors. Our study confirmed that anorexia mentalis is a serious, life threatening disorder which in our country appears earlier than it was expected and that is strongly related to environmental factors (family, school, fashion, society)...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957521/oxytocin-experiments-shed-light-on-mechanisms-shaping-prosocial-and-antisocial-behaviors-in-non-human-mammals
#16
Jennifer E Smith, Matthew B Petelle, Emily L Jerome, Hélène Cristofari, Daniel T Blumstein
Oxytocin has gained a reputation in popular culture as a simple "love drug" or "cuddle hormone", yet emerging biological evidence indicates that the effects of oxytocin are complex, mediating a suite of behavioral traits that range from ultrasocial to antisocial. Here we provide a comprehensive review to assess the salience of oxytocin in the lives of free-living social mammals. We reviewed the literature to understand the potential effects of oxytocin in promoting prosocial and antisocial behaviors in non-human mammals...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891303/redefining-the-endophenotype-concept-to-accommodate-transdiagnostic-vulnerabilities-and-etiological-complexity
#17
Theodore P Beauchaine, John N Constantino
In psychopathology research, endophenotypes are a subset of biomarkers that indicate genetic vulnerability independent of clinical state. To date, an explicit expectation is that endophenotypes be specific to single disorders. We evaluate this expectation considering recent advances in psychiatric genetics, recognition that transdiagnostic vulnerability traits are often more useful than clinical diagnoses in psychiatric genetics, and appreciation for etiological complexity across genetic, neural, hormonal and environmental levels of analysis...
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888817/mate-choice-sexual-selection-and-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#18
REVIEW
Andrea C Gore, Amanda M Holley, David Crews
Humans have disproportionately affected the habitat and survival of species through environmental contamination. Important among these anthropogenic influences is the proliferation of organic chemicals, some of which perturb hormone systems, the latter referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). EDCs are widespread in the environment and affect all levels of reproduction, including development of reproductive organs, hormone release and regulation through the life cycle, the development of secondary sexual characteristics, and the maturation and maintenance of adult physiology and behavior...
September 11, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859419/complex-reproductive-traits-and-whole-organism-performance
#19
T J Orr, Theodore Garland
Arnold's 1983 path-analytic paradigm, considering "morphology, performance, and fitness," has been elaborated in several ways. For example, current versions recognize the level of "behavior" (including aspects of motivation) as a filter between performance abilities (only measurable if motivation is maximal) and fitness components. Performance abilities constrain behavior, but behavioral choices may shield performance from selection. Conceptual and empirical issues remain, such as the extent to which individual variation in lower-level subordinate traits (e...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821382/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#20
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
July 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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