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Hormones and behavioral traits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405295/flight-performance-in-the-altricial-zebra-finch-developmental-effects-and-reproductive-consequences
#1
Ondi L Crino, Brett Klaassen van Oorschot, Kristen E Crandell, Creagh W Breuner, Bret W Tobalske
The environmental conditions animals experience during development can have sustained effects on morphology, physiology, and behavior. Exposure to elevated levels of stress hormones (glucocorticoids, GCs) during development is one such condition that can have long-term effects on animal phenotype. Many of the phenotypic effects of GC exposure during development (developmental stress) appear negative. However, there is increasing evidence that developmental stress can induce adaptive phenotypic changes. This hypothesis can be tested by examining the effect of developmental stress on fitness-related traits...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384364/rat-tickling-a-systematic-review-of-applications-outcomes-and-moderators
#2
Megan R LaFollette, Marguerite E O'Haire, Sylvie Cloutier, Whitney B Blankenberger, Brianna N Gaskill
INTRODUCTION: Rats initially fear humans which can increase stress and impact study results. Additionally, studying positive affective states in rats has proved challenging. Rat tickling is a promising habituation technique that can also be used to model and measure positive affect. However, current studies use a variety of methods to achieve differential results. Our objective was to systematically identify, summarize, and evaluate the research on tickling in rats to provide direction for future investigation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251298/perseveration-in-a-spatial-discrimination-serial-reversal-learning-task-is-differentially-affected-by-mao-a-and-mao-b-inhibition-and-associated-with-reduced-anxiety-and-peripheral-serotonin-levels
#3
Peter Zhukovsky, Johan Alsiö, Bianca Jupp, Jing Xia, Chiara Guiliano, Lucy Jenner, Jessica Griffiths, Errin Riley, Sajeed Ali, Angela C Roberts, Trevor W Robbins, Jeffrey W Dalley
RATIONALE: Impairments in behavioral flexibility lie at the core of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural substrates of natural variation in behavioral flexibility and whether inflexible behavior is linked to anxiety and peripheral markers of stress and monoamine function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate peripheral and central markers associated with perseverative behavior on a spatial-discrimination serial reversal learning task...
March 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237812/physiological-and-behavioral-effects-of-exogenous-corticosterone-in-a-free-ranging-ectotherm
#4
Natalie M Claunch, Julius A Frazier, Camilo Escallón, Ben J Vernasco, Ignacio T Moore, Emily N Taylor
In the face of global change, free-ranging organisms are expected to experience more unpredictable stressors. An understanding of how organisms with different life history strategies will respond to such changes is an integral part of biodiversity conservation. Corticosterone (CORT) levels are often used as metrics to assess the population health of wild vertebrates, despite the fact that the stress response and its effects on organismal function are highly variable. Our understanding of the stress response is primarily derived from studies on endotherms, leading to some contention on the effects of chronic stress across and within taxa...
February 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212520/adp-ribosyl-cyclases-cd38-cd157-social-skills-and-friendship
#5
Anne Chong, Fabio Malavasi, Salomon Israel, Chiea Chuen Khor, Von Bing Yap, Mikhail Monakhov, Soo Hong Chew, Poh San Lai, Richard P Ebstein
Why some individuals seek social engagement while others shy away has profound implications for normal and pathological human behavior. Evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT), the paramount human social hormone, and CD38 that governs OT release, contribute to individual differences in social skills from intense social involvement to extreme avoidance that characterize autism. To explore the neurochemical underpinnings of sociality, CD38 expression of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was measured in Han Chinese undergraduates...
January 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205232/preliminary-study-of-testosterone-and-empathy-in-determining-recidivism-and-antisocial-behavior
#6
Samuel J House, Jacob M Laan, Raymond K Molden, James C Ritchie, Zachary N Stowe
Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145515/role-of-thermal-physiology-and-bioenergetics-on-adaptation-in-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-the-experiment-test
#7
Lin Zhang, Fang Yang, Zheng-Kun Wang, Wan-Long Zhu
Ambient conditions, as temperature and photoperiod, play a key role in animals' physiology and behaviors. To test the hypothesis that the maximum thermal physiological and bioenergetics tolerances are induced by extreme environments in Tupaia belangeri. We integrated the acclimatized and acclimated data in several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers of thermogenic capacity and bioenergetics in T. belangeri. Results showed that T. belangeri increased body mass, thermogenesis capacity, protein contents and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity of liver and brown adipose tissue in winter-like environments, which indicated that temperature was the primary signal for T...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143722/sexually-dimorphic-aggression-indicates-male-gray-wolves-specialize-in-pack-defense-against-conspecific-groups
#8
Kira A Cassidy, L David Mech, Daniel R MacNulty, Daniel R Stahler, Douglas W Smith
Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression...
March 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108161/behavioral-response-and-gene-expression-changes-in-fipronil-administered-male-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica
#9
Samah R Khalil, Ashraf Awad, Hesham H Mohammed
Fipronil is an important member of the phenylpyrazole group of insecticides and is widely used for various crops and vegetables to control insects, thereby exposing birds, animals, and humans to fipronil. Currently, there is limited information on the effects of fipronil exposure in Japanese quail. Therefore, our aim was to assess the reproductive toxicological effects of fipronil in the Japanese quail in a 15-day gavage study and then its recovery over a period of 60 days. Fipronil-administration led to significant losses in both feed intake and body weight...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104555/something-to-talk-about-gossip-increases-oxytocin-levels-in-a-near-real-life-situation
#10
Natascia Brondino, Laura Fusar-Poli, Pierluigi Politi
Gossip is a pervasive social behavior. Its evolutionary survival seems related to its social functions, such as establishing group rules, punishing trespassers, exercising social influence through reputational systems, and developing and strengthening social bonds. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gossip on hormones (oxytocin and cortisol) and at identifying potential mediators of hormonal response to gossip. Twenty-two female students were randomly assigned to a gossip conversation or to an emotional non-gossip conversation...
January 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076762/a-leptin-analog-locally-produced-in-the-brain-acts-via-a-conserved-neural-circuit-to-modulate-obesity-linked-behaviors-in-drosophila
#11
Jennifer Beshel, Josh Dubnau, Yi Zhong
Leptin, a typically adipose-derived "satiety hormone," has a well-established role in weight regulation. Here we describe a functionally conserved model of genetically induced obesity in Drosophila by manipulating the fly leptin analog unpaired 1 (upd1). Unexpectedly, cell-type-specific knockdown reveals upd1 in the brain, not the adipose tissue, mediates obesity-related traits. Disrupting brain-derived upd1 in flies leads to all the hallmarks of mammalian obesity: increased attraction to food cues, increased food intake, and increased weight...
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051947/early-life-effects-on-adult-physical-activity-concepts-relevance-and-experimental-approaches
#12
Theodore Garland, Marcell D Cadney, Robert A Waterland
Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment)...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043374/the-relationships-between-body-fatness-leptin-testosterone-and-reproductive-performance-in-ram-lambs-as-affected-by-level-and-frequency-of-feeding
#13
Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum, Moez Ayadi, Ibrahim Alhidary, Abdullah Alowaimer, Mohamed Abouheif
This study was carried out using 24 Najdi ram lambs of approximately 6.5 months old to evaluate the effects of feed restriction and frequency of feeding on hormone concentrations of leptin and testosterone, sexual behavior, and semen traits. Ram lambs were allotted equally into three feeding groups. The first group was used as a control and fed ad libitum. The second and third groups were restricted fed at 0.85 ad libitum and fed either once (R1M) or twice daily (R2M). Sexual behavior and semen evaluation were assessed during the sixth, seventh, and eighth weeks of the study...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017731/consistent-individual-variation-in-day-night-and-gnrh-induced-testosterone-concentrations-in-house-sparrows-passer-domesticus
#14
Katie B Needham, Ned A Dochtermann, Timothy J Greives
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) initiating the endocrine cascade, regulates testosterone secretion. Testosterone, through its pleiotropic effects, plays a crucial role in coordinating morphology, physiology and behavior in a reproductive context. The concentration of circulating testosterone, however, varies over the course of the day and in response to other internal or external stimuli, potentially making it difficult to relate testosterone sampled at one time point with traits of interest...
December 23, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974436/genetic-and-targeted-eqtl-mapping-reveals-strong-candidate-genes-modulating-the-stress-response-during-chicken-domestication
#15
Amir Fallahsharoudi, Neil de Kock, Martin Johnsson, Lejla Bektic, S J Kumari A Ubhayasekera, Jonas Bergquist, Dominic Wright, Per Jensen
The stress response has been largely modified in all domesticated animals, offering a strong tool for genetic mapping. In chickens, ancestral Red Junglefowl react stronger both in terms of physiology and behavior to a brief restraint stress than domesticated White Leghorn, demonstrating modified functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying variations in stress-induced hormone levels using 232 birds from the 12th generation of an advanced intercross between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl, genotyped for 739 genetic markers...
February 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965368/environmental-and-hormonal-control-of-cambial-stem-cell-dynamics
#16
REVIEW
Rishikesh P Bhalerao, Urs Fischer
Perennial trees have the amazing ability to adjust their growth rate to both adverse and favorable seasonally reoccurring environmental conditions over hundreds of years. In trunks and stems, the basis for the tuning of seasonal growth rate is the regulation of cambial stem cell activity. Cambial stem cell quiescence and dormancy protect the tree from potential physiological and genomic damage caused by adverse growing conditions and may permit a long lifespan. Cambial dormancy and longevity are both aspects of a tree's life for which the study of cambial stem cell behavior in the annual model plant Arabidopsis is inadequate...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913150/juvenile-hormone-titers-ovarian-status-and-epicuticular-hydrocarbons-in-gynes-and-workers-of-the-paper-wasp-belonogaster-longitarsus
#17
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Nanike Esterhuizen, Theresa C Wossler
The prevailing paradigm for social wasp endocrinology is that of juvenile hormone (JH) functioning pleiotropically in potential and actual queens, where it fuels dominance behaviors, stimulates ovarian growth and/or affects the production of status-linked cuticular compounds. In colonies with annual cycles (e.g., temperate-zone species), female adults produced at the end of the summer (called gynes) are physiologically primed to hibernate. Despite the absence of egg-laying in the pre-overwintering phase, gynes engage in dominance interactions that may affect reproductive potential following hibernation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876135/from-molecules-to-behavior-an-integrative-theory-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Alexandru-Ştefan Niculae, Denis Pavăl
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental disorders for which various theories have been proposed. Each theory brings valuable insights and has experimental evidence backing it, yet none provides an overarching explanation for each of the pathological aspects involved in ASD. Here we present an integrative theory of ASD, centered on a sequence of events spanning from the molecular to the behavioral level. We propose that an abnormality in the interplay between retinoic acid and sex hormones predisposes an individual to specific molecular malfunctions...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854152/identification-of-four-snps-in-lhb-gene-and-their-associations-with-sperm-qualities-of-chinese-buffaloes
#19
Yunyun Cheng, Jiaming Gu, Han Xue, Qiang Li, Mingming Liang, Nan Wang, Gang Wang, Qingyan Wu, Songcai Liu, Hao Yu, Jiabao Zhang, Linlin Hao
Luteinizing hormone beta polypeptide (LHB) gene has been considered important for sexual behavior and has associations with sperm quality. In this study, four SNPs (g.276 T>C, g.377A>C, g.401T>C, and g.412A>G) were detected in the LHB gene of 165 water buffaloes by direct sequencing and identification of overlap peaks, each of which was associated with at least one sperm quality trait of ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, post-thaw sperm motilities, and sperm abnormalities by chi-square analysis...
November 17, 2016: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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