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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150641/repurposing-of-the-anti-malaria-drug-chloroquine-for-zika-virus-treatment-and-prophylaxis
#1
Sergey A Shiryaev, Pinar Mesci, Antonella Pinto, Isabella Fernandes, Nicholas Sheets, Sujan Shresta, Chen Farhy, Chun-Teng Huang, Alex Y Strongin, Alysson R Muotri, Alexey V Terskikh
One of the major challenges of the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is to prevent congenital foetal abnormalities, including microcephaly, following ZIKV infection of pregnant women. Given the urgent need for ZIKV prophylaxis and treatment, repurposing of approved drugs appears to be a viable and immediate solution. We demonstrate that the common anti-malaria drug chloroquine (CQ) extends the lifespan of ZIKV-infected interferon signalling-deficient AG129 mice. However, the severity of ZIKV infection in these mice precludes the study of foetal (vertical) viral transmission...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147551/development-of-proteolytically-stable-n-methylated-peptide-inhibitors-of-aggregation-of-the-amylin-peptide-implicated-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
Idira Obasse, Mark Taylor, Nigel J Fullwood, David Allsop
Islet amyloid polypeptide, also known as amylin, is the main component of the amyloid deposits present in approximately 90% of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this disease, amylin aggregates into multimeric β-pleated sheet structures which cause damage to pancreatic islet β-cells. Inhibitors of early-stage amylin aggregation could therefore provide a disease-modifying treatment for T2DM. In this study, overlapping peptides were designed to target the 'binding' region (RLANFLVHSS, residues 11-20) of human amylin, and their effects on amyloid fibril formation were determined by thioflavin-T assay...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144756/controlling-graphene-bio-interface-dispersions-in-animal-sera-for-enhanced-stability-and-reduced-toxicity
#3
Ajith Pattammattel, Paritosh Pande, Deepa Kuttappan, Megan Puglia, Ashis K Basu, Mary Amalaradjou, Challa V Kumar
Controlling the graphene-bio interface is important for biological applications of graphene, which is touted as the wonder material of the new century. Graphene samples made in animal sera indicated low toxicity to cells and nematodes, due to the adsorption of the serum proteins on the nascent graphene sheets. The graphite samples were exfoliated in 6 different animal sera, using three different methods, shear reactor, the kitchen blender and by ultrasonication, and maximum efficiency was noted with the kitchen blender...
November 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143530/modulation-of-spatio-temporal-particle-patterning-in-evaporating-droplets-applications-to-diagnostics-and-materials-science
#4
Rajarshi Guha, Farzad Mohajerani, Ahana Mukhopadhyay, Matthew Collins, Ayusman Sen, Darrell Velegol
Spatio-temporal particle patterning in evaporating droplets lacks a common design framework. Here, we demonstrate autonomous control of particle distribution in evaporating droplets through the imposition of a salt-induced self-generated electric field as a generalized patterning strategy. Through modeling, a new dimensionless number, termed "capillary-phoresis number" (CP), arises which determines the relative contributions of electrokinetic and convective transport to pattern formation, enabling one to accurately predict the mode of particle assembly by controlling the spontaneous electric field and surface potentials...
November 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142242/emergent-patterns-of-collective-cell-migration-under-tubular-confinement
#5
Wang Xi, Surabhi Sonam, Thuan Beng Saw, Benoit Ladoux, Chwee Teck Lim
Collective epithelial behaviors are essential for the development of lumens in organs. However, conventional assays of planar systems fail to replicate cell cohorts of tubular structures that advance in concerted ways on out-of-plane curved and confined surfaces, such as ductal elongation in vivo. Here, we mimic such coordinated tissue migration by forming lumens of epithelial cell sheets inside microtubes of 1-10 cell lengths in diameter. We show that these cell tubes reproduce the physiological apical-basal polarity, and have actin alignment, cell orientation, tissue organization, and migration modes that depend on the extent of tubular confinement and/or curvature...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141686/anisotropic-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-scaffolding-supports-a-multiplex-lattice-mosaic-of-photoreceptors-in-zebrafish-retina
#6
Mikiko Nagashima, Jeremy Hadidjojo, Linda K Barthel, David K Lubensky, Pamela A Raymond
BACKGROUND: The multiplex, lattice mosaic of cone photoreceptors in the adult fish retina is a compelling example of a highly ordered epithelial cell pattern, with single cell width rows and columns of cones and precisely defined neighbor relationships among different cone types. Cellular mechanisms patterning this multiplex mosaic are not understood. Physical models can provide new insights into fundamental mechanisms of biological patterning. In earlier work, we developed a mathematical model of photoreceptor cell packing in the zebrafish retina, which predicted that anisotropic mechanical tension in the retinal epithelium orients planar polarized adhesive interfaces to align the columns as cone photoreceptors are generated at the retinal margin during post-embryonic growth...
November 15, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141507/sandwiched-white-adipose-tissue-a-novel-microphysiological-system-of-human-adipose-tissue
#7
Frank H Lau, Kelly Vogel, John P Luckett, Maxwell Hunt, Alicia Meyer, Camille L Rogers, Oren Tessler, Charles L Dupin, Hugo St Hilaire, Kazi N Islam, Trivia Frazier, Jeffrey Gimble, Steven Scahill
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a critical organ in both health and disease. However, physiologically faithful tissue culture models of primary human WAT remain limited, at best. Here we describe a novel WAT culture system in which primary human WAT is sandwiched between tissue-engineered sheets of adipose-derived stromal cells. This construct, called "sandwiched white adipose tissue" (SWAT), can be defined as a Microphysiological System (MPS) since it is a tissue-engineered, multicellular, 3D organ construct produced using human cells...
November 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139602/cell-yield-chondrogenic-potential-and-regenerated-cartilage-type-of-chondrocytes-derived-from-ear-nasoseptal-and-costal-cartilage
#8
Aijuan He, Huitang Xia, Kaiyan Xiao, Tingting Wang, Yu Liu, Jixin Xue, Dan Li, Shengjian Tang, Fangjun Liu, Xiaoyun Wang, Wenjie Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Cao, Guangdong Zhou
Functional reconstruction of large cartilage defects in subcutaneous sites remains clinically challenging because of limited donor cartilage. Tissue engineering is a promising and widely accepted strategy for cartilage regeneration. To date however, this strategy has not achieved a significant breakthrough in clinical translation owing to a lack of detailed pre-clinical data on cell yield and functionality of clinically applicable chondrocytes. To address this issue, the current study investigated the initial cell yield, proliferative potential, chondrogenic capacity, and regenerated cartilage-type of human chondrocytes derived from auricular (AU), nasoseptal (NS), and costal (CO) cartilage using a scaffold-free cartilage regeneration model (cartilage sheet)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138354/efficient-er-fusion-requires-a-dimerization-and-c-terminal-tail-mediated-membrane-anchoring-of-rhd3
#9
Jiaqi Sun, Huanquan Zheng
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of tubules and sheets stretching throughout the eukaryotic cells. The formation of the ER requires homotypic membrane fusion, which is mediated by a family of Dynamin-like GTPase proteins. The Arabidopsis member ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3 (RHD3) has been demonstrated to mediate ER membrane fusion, but how exactly RHD3 is involved in the process is still unknown. Here we conducted systemic structure-function analyses of roles of different RHD3 domains in mediating ER fusion...
November 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137155/identification-expression-and-functional-analysis-of-the-fructokinase-gene-family-in-cassava
#10
Yuan Yao, Meng-Ting Geng, Xiao-Hui Wu, Chong Sun, Yun-Lin Wang, Xia Chen, Lu Shang, Xiao-Hua Lu, Zhan Li, Rui-Mei Li, Shao-Ping Fu, Rui-Jun Duan, Jiao Liu, Xin-Wen Hu, Jian-Chun Guo
Fructokinase (FRK) proteins play important roles in catalyzing fructose phosphorylation and participate in the carbohydrate metabolism of storage organs in plants. To investigate the roles of FRKs in cassava tuber root development, seven FRK genes (MeFRK1-7) were identified, and MeFRK1-6 were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MeFRK family genes can be divided into α (MeFRK1, 2, 6, 7) and β (MeFRK3, 4, 5) groups. All the MeFRK proteins have typical conserved regions and substrate binding residues similar to those of the FRKs...
November 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136119/the-bat-as-a-new-model-of-cortical-development
#11
Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, Jasmin Camacho, Jeanelle Ariza, Hailee Rogers, Kayla Horton-Sparks, Anna Kreutz, Richard Behringer, John J Rasweiler, Stephen C Noctor
The organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex shares fundamental features across species. However, while the radial thickness of grey matter varies within one order of magnitude, the tangential spread of the cortical sheet varies by orders of magnitude across species. A broader sample of model species may provide additional clues for understanding mechanisms that drive cortical expansion. Here, we introduce the bat Carollia perspicillata as a new model species. The brain of C. perspicillata is similar in size to that of mouse but has a cortical neurogenic period at least 5 times longer than mouse, and nearly as long as that of the rhesus macaque, whose brain is 100 times larger...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135708/high-permeability-and-intercellular-space-widening-with-brimonidine-tartrate-eye-drops-in-cultured-stratified-human-corneal-epithelial-sheets
#12
Yumi Hashimoto, Seiichi Yokoo, Tomohiko Usui, Yukiko Tsubota, Satoru Yamagami
PURPOSE: To investigate the toxicity of topical glaucoma medications using cultured stratified human corneal epithelial sheets (HCES). METHODS: HCES were exposed for 30 minutes to the following glaucoma medications: 0.1% brimonidine with sodium chlorite as the preservative, 0.005% latanoprost with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAC) as the preservative, and 0.5% timolol with 0.005% BAC as the preservative. Then, cell viability and barrier function were tested by the WST-1 assay and carboxyfluorescein permeability assay, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134127/the-characterization-of-human-oral-mucosal-fibroblasts-and-their-use-as-feeder-cells-in-cultivated-epithelial-sheets
#13
Kazunari Higa, Yoshiyuki Satake, Jun Shimazaki
Aim: To characterize human oral mucosa middle interstitial tissue fibroblasts (hOMFs) and their application in the cultivation of epithelial sheets. Methodology: hOMFs were cultured with methylcellulose to form cell clusters. hOMFs amplified in adhesive culture were analyzed by flow cytometry, and were found to differentiate into multiple cell types suitable for the cultivation of human corneal epithelial sheets. hOMFs were expanded from clusters to analyze CD56 and PDGFRα expression...
November 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129912/reflective-imaging-improves-spatiotemporal-resolution-and-collection-efficiency-in-light-sheet-microscopy
#14
Yicong Wu, Abhishek Kumar, Corey Smith, Evan Ardiel, Panagiotis Chandris, Ryan Christensen, Ivan Rey-Suarez, Min Guo, Harshad D Vishwasrao, Jiji Chen, Jianyong Tang, Arpita Upadhyaya, Patrick J La Riviere, Hari Shroff
Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) enables high-speed, high-resolution, and gentle imaging of live specimens over extended periods. Here we describe a technique that improves the spatiotemporal resolution and collection efficiency of LSFM without modifying the underlying microscope. By imaging samples on reflective coverslips, we enable simultaneous collection of four complementary views in 250 ms, doubling speed and improving information content relative to symmetric dual-view LSFM. We also report a modified deconvolution algorithm that removes associated epifluorescence contamination and fuses all views for resolution recovery...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128844/a-biodegradable-scaffold-enhances-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-a-thick-sheet-of-retinal-cells
#15
Deepti Singh, Shao-Bin Wang, Tina Xia, Laurel Tainsh, Maryam Ghiassi-Nejad, Tao Xu, Shaomin Peng, Ron A Adelman, Lawrence J Rizzolo
Retinal degeneration is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Stem cells can be differentiated into retinal organoids to study mechanisms of retinal degeneration, develop therapeutic agents, and potentially serve as replacement tissues. The spherical nature of these retinoids limits their utility, because the investigator lacks ready access to both sides of the neo-tissue. For tissue-replacement, spherical retinoids are unable to interact simultaneously with the host retinal pigment epithelium and remaining neurosensory retina...
October 31, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128535/branched-peptides-integrate-into-self-assembled-nanostructures-and-enhance-biomechanics-of-peptidic-hydrogels
#16
Raffaele Pugliese, Federico Fontana, Amanda Marchini, Fabrizio Gelain
Self-assembling peptides (SAP) have drawn an increasing interest in the tissue engineering community. They display unquestionable biomimetic properties, tailorability and promising biocompatibility. However their use has been hampered by poor mechanical properties making them fragile soft scaffolds. To increase SAP hydrogel stiffness we introduced a novel strategy based on multiple ramifications of (LDLK)3, a well-known linear SAP, connected with one or multiple "lysine knots". Differently branched SAPs were tested by increasing the number of (LDLK)3-like branches and by adding the neuro-regenerative functional motif BMHP1 as a single branch...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127331/divergent-effects-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-modifiers-on-the-preservation-of-human-limbal-epithelial-progenitors-according-to-culture-condition
#17
Hyun Jung Lee, J Mario Wolosin, So-Hyang Chung
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the regulation of self-renewal in stem cells. Here we investigated the effect of CHIR99021, the primary transducer of the Wnt signaling canonical pathway, and IWP2, a wide action Wnt signal blocker, on the growth and differentiation of the limbal epithelial progenitor cells when these cells are cultured in two different, common culture approaches, outgrowth from limbal biopsy explants and isolated cell seeded in low calcium medium. Consistent with their expected effects, irrespective of the culture system, IWP2 decreased total β-catenin while CHIR99021 increased it in nuclear localization...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126937/coccinia-indica-agglutinin-a-17kda-pp2-like-phloem-lectin-affinity-purification-primary-structure-and-formation-of-self-assembled-filaments
#18
Kishore Babu Bobbili, Gottfried Pohlentz, Akkaladevi Narahari, Kaushal Sharma, A Surolia, Michael Mormann, Musti J Swamy
Phloem protein-2 (PP2) is an abundant soluble protein in the sieve elements in plants. Its lectin property was reported in various species. The primary structure of PP2 from Coccinia indica (Coccinia indica agglutinin, CIA17), determined by mass spectrometry, shows extensive homology with PP2 super family phloem lectins. Analysis of mass spectrometric data indicated the presence of 16 potential allelic variants of CIA17 with insignificant divergence in the primary structure. The primary structure contains an intramolecular disulfide bridge between Cys-34 and Cys-51, which is conserved across various cucurbit species and hence likely to be important for carbohydrate binding...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125896/an-in-situ-dynamic-continuum-of-supramolecular-phosphoglycopeptides-enables-formation-of-3d-cell-spheroids
#19
Huaimin Wang, Junfeng Shi, Zhaoqianqi Feng, Rong Zhou, Shiyu Wang, Avital A Rodal, Bing Xu
Higher-order assemblies of proteins, with a structural and dynamic continuum, is a new paradigm in biology, but these insights have yet to be applied in designing biomaterials. Dynamic assemblies of supramolecular phosphoglycopeptides (sPGPs) transform a 2D cell sheet to 3D cell spheroids. A ligand-receptor interaction between a glycopeptide and a phosphopeptide produces sPGPs that form nanoparticles, which transform to nanofibrils upon partially enzymatic dephosphorylation. The assemblies form dynamically and hierarchically in situ on the cell surface, and interact with extracellular matrix molecules and effectively abolish contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) of the cells...
November 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125832/minibeam-radiotherapy-with-small-animal-irradiators-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-feasibility-studies
#20
Soha Bazyar, Christina R Inscoe, E Timothy O'Brian, Otto Zhou, Yueh Z Lee
Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) delivers an ultrahigh dose of x-ray (⩾100 Gy) in 200-1000 µm beams (peaks), separated by wider non-irradiated regions (valleys) usually as a single temporal fraction. Preclinical studies performed at synchrotron facilities revealed that MBRT is able to ablate tumors while maintaining normal tissue integrity. The main purpose of the present study was to develop an efficient and accessible method to perform MBRT using a conventional x-ray irradiator. We then tested this new method both in vitro and in vivo...
November 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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