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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339927/characterizing-the-early-inflammatory-contribution-of-the-donor-kidney-following-reperfusion
#1
John P Stone, Muna Mohamud, Kavit Amin, William R Critchley, Rebecca J Edge, Marc J Clancy, Alexandra L Ball, James E Fildes
Background.: Donor kidneys contain a large reservoir of passenger leucocytes that contribute to acute rejection via direct alloantigen presentation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. However, the early contribution of these cells following revascularization has not previously been described. We performed a secondary, high-volume preservation flush following cold storage to characterize the inflammatory contribution of the donor kidney upon reperfusion. Methods.: Porcine kidneys were retrieved using a protocol analogous to current UK clinical practice...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333899/-stem-progenitor-cells-in-diseases-of-the-respiratory-tract
#2
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
Stem cells (SCs - stem cells) are characterized by plasticity and the ability to differentiate into other cell types. They are obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows a broad immunomodulating, increases the number of regulatory T cells (Treg), modifies the activity of T cells, dendritic cells and NK (natural killer). Direct impact on reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines. Within the respiratory tract has a number of resident stem and progenitor cells referred to as L-MSCs (lung mesenchymal stem cells) whose presence was confirmed by markers as defined in the trachea, epithelial cells and alveolar...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332637/evaluation-of-the-immunomodulatory-activity-of-the-chicken-nk-lysin-derived-peptide-cnk-2
#3
Woo H Kim, Hyun S Lillehoj, Wongi Min
Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin), the chicken homologue of human granulysin, is a cationic amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that is produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. We previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, a synthetic peptide incorporating the core α-helical region of cNK-lysin, have antimicrobial activity against apicomplexan parasites such as Eimeria spp., via membrane disruption. In addition to the antimicrobial activity of AMPs, the immunomodulatory activity of AMPs mediated by their interactions with host cells is increasingly recognized...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331190/natural-killer-cell-activation-contributes-to-hepatitis-b-viral-control-in-a-mouse-model
#4
Shiwen Tong, Guangze Liu, Minghong Li, Xiumei Li, Qian Liu, Hong Peng, Shiying Li, Hong Ren, Wenwei Yin
The roles of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been well documented. However, the role of innate immunity in HBV infection remains obscure. Here we examined the effect of activation of innate immunity by polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) on HBV infection. A chronic HBV replication mouse model was established by hydrodynamical injection of pAAV/HBV1.2 plasmid into C57BL/6 mice. We found that HBV did not seem to induce an active NK-cell response in the mouse model...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330461/impaired-liver-regeneration-is-associated-with-reduced-cyclin-b1-in-natural-killer-t-cell-deficient-mice
#5
Ami Ben Ya'acov, Hadar Meir, Lydia Zolotaryova, Yaron Ilan, Eyal Shteyer
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the proportion of natural killer T cells is markedly elevated during liver regeneration and their activation under different conditions can modulate this process. As natural killer T cells and liver injury are central in liver regeneration, elucidating their role is important. METHODS: The aim of the current study is to explore the role of natural killer T cells in impaired liver regeneration. Concanvalin A was injected 4 days before partial hepatectomy to natural killer T cells- deficient mice or to anti CD1d1-treated mice...
March 23, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328926/frequency-and-role-of-nkp46-and-nkg2a-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#6
Teppei Yoshioka, Tomohide Tatsumi, Takuya Miyagi, Kaori Mukai, Kumiko Nishio, Akira Nishio, Yoshinobu Yokoyama, Takahiro Suda, Tadashi Kegasawa, Minoru Shigekawa, Hayato Hikita, Ryotaro Sakamori, Tetsuo Takehara
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Natural Killer (NK) cells are involved in the control of viral infection. However, the role of NK cells in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains unclear. This study investigated the frequencies and roles of NK cells in CHB, with a focus on activating receptor NKp46 and inhibitory receptor NKG2A. PATIENTS/METHOD: Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained from 71 CHB patients and 37 healthy subjects (HS). The expressions of NKp46 and NKG2A were analyzed using flow cytometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328614/a-newborn-with-familial-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-complicated-with-transfusion-associated-graft-versus-host-disease
#7
Ahmet Ozdemir, Tamer Gunes, Samuel C C Chiang, Ekrem Unal
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by activation of cytotoxic T and natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages related to a spectrum of hyperinflammatory disorders. The clinical findings mainly include high fever, cytopenia, splenomegaly, phagocytosis, and proliferation of histiocytes in lymphoreticular tissue. To the best of our knowledge, transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD) in a 13-day old male newborn with HLH is being reported first time in the literature. The aim of this report was to emphasize the importance of blood products irradiation in the prevention of the development of graft versus host disease especially among high-risk subjects such as newborns with HLH...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328558/dacryoadenitis-as-the-initial-presentation-of-a-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma
#8
Juan C Jiménez-Pérez, Frederick A Jakobiec, Fouad R Zakka, Michael K Yoon
Primary orbital natural killer T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is a rare condition with only a few published cases in the literature. Over 1 month, an 81-year-old man developed progressive left periocular inflammation unresponsive to treatment. Clinical examination and imaging studies demonstrated a left lacrimal gland enlargement. Bilateral anterior uveitis and erythematous nontender cutaneous lesions were also found. Biopsies of the skin and lacrimal gland on the back revealed histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings confirming Epstein-Barr virus-positive NKTCL...
March 21, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322119/epidemiology-of-nasopharyngeal-lymphoma-in-the-united-states-a-population-based-analysis-of-1119-cases
#9
Albert Y Han, Edward C Kuan, Jose E Alonso, Karam W Badran, Maie A St John
Objectives To describe the incidence and determinants of survival of patients with nasopharyngeal lymphoma (NPL) between 1973 and 2012 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Study Design Retrospective cohort study using a national database. Methods The SEER registry was used to calculate survival trends for patients with NPL between 1973 and 2012. Patient data were then analyzed with respect to histopathology, age, sex, race, histologic subtype, Ann Arbor stage, and whether radiation therapy was given...
March 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322093/peripheral-invariant-natural-killer-t-cell-deficiency-in-metabolically-unhealthy-but-normal-weight-versus-metabolically-healthy-but-obese-individuals
#10
Xiao-Li Wang, Xiang-Yun Chang, Xiao-Xiao Tang, Zhi-Gang Chen, Ting Zhou, Kan Sun
Objective To investigate the proportion of circulating invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in four body health types. Methods In this cross-sectional study, participants were classified into four body health types according to the body mass index and metabolic status: metabolically healthy and normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy but normal weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy but obese (MHO), or metabolically unhealthy and obese (MUO). Demographic and clinical characteristics were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were calculated...
December 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321815/immune-therapy-for-sarcomas
#11
Peter M Anderson
Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery rapidly occurring at 14 days after start of chemotherapy for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma is a good prognostic factor. Conversely, lymphopenia is associated with significantly decreased sarcoma survival. Clearly, the immune system can contribute towards better survival from sarcoma. This chapter will describe treatment and host factors that influence immune function and how effective local control and systemic interventions of sarcoma therapy can cause inflammation and/or immune suppression but are currently the standard of care...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321810/overview-of-basic-immunology-for-clinical-investigators
#12
Bettzy Stephen, Joud Hajjar
Tumor exists as a complex network of structures with an ability to evolve and evade the host immune surveillance mechanism. The immune milieu which includes macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, mast cells, B cells, and T cells are found in the core, the invasive margin, or the adjacent stromal or lymphoid component of the tumor. The immune infiltrate is heterogeneous and varies within a patient and between patients of the same tumor histology. The location, density, functionality, and the cross talk between the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment influence the nature of immune response, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in cancer patients...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318628/b-and-t-cell-subpopulations-in-patients-with-severe-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy-may-predict-an-early-response-to-rituximab
#13
Michelle Rosenzwajg, Eva Languille, Hanna Debiec, Joana Hygino, Karine Dahan, Tabassome Simon, David Klatzmann, Pierre Ronco
Primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) is characterized by antibodies to the podocyte, but little is known about B- and T-cell populations and their response to rituximab is controversial. To help resolve this we compared 33 lymphocyte subpopulations and 27 cytokines/chemokines in 25 patients with severe PMN and 27 age-matched healthy individuals. At baseline, patients had a significantly increased percentage of naive B-cells with significantly decreased switched and non-switched memory B-cells. There was a significantly decreased percentage of natural killer (NK) cells with an increase in the CD56(bright)CD16(-/lo) NK subset...
March 15, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315225/the-use-of-a-semi-automated-system-to-measure-mouse-natural-killer-t-nkt-cell-activation-by-lipid-loaded-dendritic-cells
#14
Ashfaq Ghumra, Marcos Alcocer
Cell-based assays are widely used in all aspects of research ranging from understanding basic biological function to identifying compounds for disease intervention. Immortalized cell lines have been ideal components of these assays due to the low cost of growth, easy maintenance, and the ability to obtain homogenous cell populations. Like other molecular assays, cell-based systems have been automated to reduce experimental error. Complex lipids are now recognized as important components of the allergic response, the study of the interaction between NKTs and lipid-activated DCs opens a new perspective into the intrinsic allergenicity of proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302184/cytokine-free-directed-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-efficiently-produces-hemogenic-endothelium-with-lymphoid-potential
#15
Yekaterina Galat, Svetlana Dambaeva, Irina Elcheva, Aaruni Khanolkar, Kenneth Beaman, Philip M Iannaccone, Vasiliy Galat
BACKGROUND: The robust generation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells from induced or embryonic pluripotent stem cells would be beneficial for multiple areas of research, including mechanistic studies of hematopoiesis, the development of cellular therapies for autoimmune diseases, induced transplant tolerance, anticancer immunotherapies, disease modeling, and drug/toxicity screening. Over the past years, significant progress has been made in identifying effective protocols for hematopoietic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells and understanding stages of mesodermal, endothelial, and hematopoietic specification...
March 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301281/cell-based-immunotherapy-with-cytokine-induced-killer-cik-cells-from-preparation-and-testing-to-clinical-application
#16
Yiming Meng, Zhifu Yu, Yefeng Wu, Tianzhao Du, Shi Chen, Fanjuan Meng, Nan Su, Yushu Ma, Xiaoxi Li, Sulan Sun, Guirong Zhang
Cell-based immunotherapy holds promise in the quest for the treatment of cancer, having potential synergy with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As a novel approach for adoptive cell-based immunotherapy, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells have moved from the 'bench to bedside'. CIK cells are a heterogeneous subset of ex-vitro expanded, polyclonal T-effector cells with both natural killer (NK) and T-cell properties, which present potent non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxicity against a variety of tumor target cells...
February 22, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297626/clinical-applications-of-the-genomic-landscape-of-aggressive-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#17
Andrea B Moffitt, Sandeep S Dave
In this review, we examine the genomic landscapes of lymphomas that arise from B, T, and natural killer cells. Lymphomas represent a striking spectrum of clinical behaviors. Although some lymphomas are curable with standard therapy, the majority of the affected patients succumb to their disease. Here, the genetic underpinnings of these heterogeneous entities are reviewed. We consider B-cell lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296542/the-autophagy-machinery-restrains-inkt-cell-activation-through-cd1d1-internalization
#18
Christian W Keller, Monica Loi, Svenja Ewert, Isaak Quast, Romina Theiler, Monique Gannagé, Christian Münz, Gennaro De Libero, Stefan Freigang, Jan D Lünemann
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate T cells with powerful immune regulatory functions that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1D protein. While iNKT-cell-activating glycolipids are currently being explored for their efficacy to improve immunotherapy against infectious diseases and cancer, little is known about the mechanisms that control CD1D antigen presentation and iNKT cell activation in vivo. CD1D molecules survey endocytic pathways to bind lipid antigens in MHC class II containing compartments (MIICs) before recycling to the plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295265/card9-controls-dectin-1-induced-t-cell-cytotoxicity-and-tumor-growth-in-mice
#19
Haas Tobias, Heidegger Simon, Wintges Alexander, Bscheider Michael, Bek Sarah, Fischer Julius C, Eisenkolb Gabriel, Schmickl Martina, Spoerl Silvia, Peschel Christian, Poeck Hendrik, Ruland Jürgen
Activation of the C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1 by β-glucans triggers multiple signals within dendritic cells (DCs) that result in activation of innate immunity. While these mechanisms can potently prime CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses without additional adjuvants, the Dectin-1 effector pathways that control CTL induction remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that Dectin-1-induced CTL cross-priming in mice does not require inflammasome activation but strictly depends on the adapter protein Card9 in vitro...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295259/applying-the-tor-c-que-in-inkt-cells-a-new-twist-in-an-old-tale
#20
Mihalis Verykokakis, Barbara L Kee
The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) protein controls the machinery necessary for T-cell activation, differentiation, and memory formation, as a component of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, which function both downstream and upstream of AKT. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique T-cell subset that exist in a primed state, capable of rapid activation, and produce large quantities of cytokines. iNKT-cell effector differentiation is dependent on the mTORC1 complex; however, the requirements for mTORC2 in iNKT cells have been controversial...
March 2017: European Journal of Immunology
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