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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719602/prehospital-immune-responses-and-development-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-following-traumatic-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Jon Hazeldine, David N Naumann, Emma Toman, David Davies, Jonathan R B Bishop, Zhangjie Su, Peter Hampson, Robert J Dinsdale, Nicholas Crombie, Niharika Arora Duggal, Paul Harrison, Antonio Belli, Janet M Lord
BACKGROUND: Almost all studies that have investigated the immune response to trauma have analysed blood samples acquired post-hospital admission. Thus, we know little of the immune status of patients in the immediate postinjury phase and how this might influence patient outcomes. The objective of this study was therefore to comprehensively assess the ultra-early, within 1-hour, immune response to trauma and perform an exploratory analysis of its relationship with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718416/the-untold-story-of-granzymes-in-oncoimmunology-novel-opportunities-with-old-acquaintances
#2
REVIEW
Maykel Arias, Luis Martínez-Lostao, Llipsy Santiago, Angel Ferrandez, David J Granville, Julián Pardo
For more than 20 years perforin and granzymes (GZMs) have been recognized as key cell death executors of cytotoxic T (Tc) and natural killer (NK) cells during cancer immunosurveillance. In immune surveillance, perforin and GZMB, the most potent cytotoxic molecules, act mainly as antitumoral and anti-infectious factors. However, when expressed by immune regulatory cells they may contribute to immune evasion of specific cancer types. By contrast, the other major granzyme, GZMA, seems not to play a major role in Tc/NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, but acts as a proinflammatory cytokine that might contribute to cancer development...
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717940/alopecia-areata-a-comprehensive-review-of-pathogenesis-and-management
#3
REVIEW
Ralph M Trüeb, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni Dias
Alopecia areata is a common hair loss condition that is characterized by acute onset of non-scarring hair loss in usually sharply defined areas ranging from small patches to extensive or less frequently diffuse involvement. Depending on its acuity and extent, hair loss is an important cause of anxiety and disability. The current understanding is that the condition represents an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the hair follicle with a genetic background. Genome-wide association studies provide evidence for the involvement of both innate and acquired immunity in the pathogenesis, and mechanistic studies in mouse models of alopecia areata have specifically implicated an IFN-γ-driven immune response, including IFNγ, IFNγ-induced chemokines and cytotoxic CD8 T cells as the main drivers of disease pathogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717070/clinical-features-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-large-granular-lymphocyte-leukemias
#4
Kazuo Oshimi
Large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) are large lymphocytes with azurophilic granules in their cytoplasm. LGLs are either natural killer (NK) cells or T lymphocytes. Expansions of the LGLs in the peripheral blood are seen in various conditions, including three clonal disorders: T-cell LGL (T-LGL) leukemia, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells (CLPD-NK), and aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL). However, the monoclonal and polyclonal expansion of LGLs has been associated with many other conditions. The present article describes these LGL disorders, with special emphasis on the clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatments of the three above-mentioned clonal disorders...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716985/two-microrna-signatures-for-malignancy-and-immune-infiltration-predict-overall-survival-in-advanced-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#5
Ilya Korsunsky, Janaki Parameswaran, Iuliana Shapira, John Lovecchio, Andrew Menzin, Jill Whyte, Lisa Dos Santos, Sharon Liang, Tawfiqul Bhuiya, Mary Keogh, Houman Khalili, Cassandra Pond, Anthony Liew, Andrew Shih, Peter K Gregersen, Annette T Lee
MicroRNAs have been established as key regulators of tumor gene expression and as prime biomarker candidates for clinical phenotypes in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We analyzed the coexpression and regulatory structure of microRNAs and their co-localized gene targets in primary tumor tissue of 20 patients with advanced EOC in order to construct a regulatory signature for clinical prognosis. We performed an integrative analysis to identify two prognostic microRNA/mRNA coexpression modules, each enriched for consistent biological functions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716901/structural-determination-of-lipid-antigens-captured-at-the-cd1d-t-cell-receptor-interface
#6
Patrick J Brennan, Tan-Yun Cheng, Daniel G Pellicci, Gerald F M Watts, Natacha Veerapen, David C Young, Jamie Rossjohn, Gurdyal S Besra, Dale I Godfrey, Michael B Brenner, D Branch Moody
Glycolipid antigens recognized by αβ T-cell receptors (TCRs) drive the activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, a specialized subset of innate T lymphocytes. Glycolipids with α-linked anomeric carbohydrates have been identified as potent microbial lipid antigens for iNKT cells, and their unusual α-anomeric linkage has been thought to define a "foreign" lipid antigen motif. However, mammals use endogenous lipids to select iNKT cells, and there is compelling evidence for iNKT cell responses in various types of sterile inflammation...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716080/pretreatment-antigen-specific-immunity-and-regulation-association-with-subsequent-immune-response-to-anti-tumor-dna-vaccination
#7
Laura E Johnson, Brian M Olson, Douglas G McNeel
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies have demonstrated clinical benefit for many types of cancers, however many patients do not respond, and treatment-related adverse effects can be severe. Hence many efforts are underway to identify treatment predictive biomarkers. We have reported the results of two phase I trials using a DNA vaccine encoding prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. In both trials, persistent PAP-specific Th1 immunity developed in some patients, and this was associated with favorable changes in serum PSA kinetics...
July 18, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715416/signatures-of-inflammation-and-impending-multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-the-hyperacute-phase-of-trauma-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Claudia P Cabrera, Joanna Manson, Joanna M Shepherd, Hew D Torrance, David Watson, M Paula Longhi, Mimoza Hoti, Minal B Patel, Michael O'Dwyer, Sussan Nourshargh, Daniel J Pennington, Michael R Barnes, Karim Brohi
BACKGROUND: Severe trauma induces a widespread response of the immune system. This "genomic storm" can lead to poor outcomes, including Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). MODS carries a high mortality and morbidity rate and adversely affects long-term health outcomes. Contemporary management of MODS is entirely supportive, and no specific therapeutics have been shown to be effective in reducing incidence or severity. The pathogenesis of MODS remains unclear, and several models are proposed, such as excessive inflammation, a second-hit insult, or an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713655/differential-effect-of-platelet-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-pecam-1-on-leukocyte-infiltration-during-contact-hypersensitivity-responses
#9
Merideth Early, William G Schroeder, Ranajana Unnithan, John M Gilchrist, William A Muller, Alan Schenkel
BACKGROUND: 2'-4' Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induced contact hypersensitivity is an established model of contact sensitivity and leukocyte migration. Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1) deficient mice were used to examine the role of PECAM-1 in the migration capacity of several different leukocyte populations after primary and secondary application. RESULTS: γδ T lymphocytes, granulocytes, and Natural Killer cells were most affected by PECAM-1 deficiency at the primary site of application...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713327/il-2-anti-il-2-complex-attenuates-inflammation-and-bbb-disruption-in-mice-subjected-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Weiwei Gao, Fei Li, Ziwei Zhou, Xin Xu, Yingang Wu, Shuai Zhou, Dongpei Yin, Dongdong Sun, Jianhua Xiong, Rongcai Jiang, Jianning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces the excessive inflammation and disruption of blood-brain barrier, both of which are partially mediated by the activation of microglia and release of inflammatory cytokines. Previous reports showed that administration of regulatory T cells (Tregs) could suppress inflammation and promote neurological function recovery, and that the IL-2/anti-IL-2 complex (IL-2C) could increase the number of Tregs. Thus, we hypothesized that IL-2C-mediated expansion of Tregs would be beneficial in mice subjected to TBI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713023/an-extended-mathematical-model-of-tumor-growth-and-its-interaction-with-the-immune-system-to-be-used-for-developing-an-optimized-immunotherapy-treatment-protocol
#11
Milad Qomlaqi, Fariba Bahrami, Maryam Ajami, Jamshid Hajati
BACKGROUND: chemotherapy is usually known as the main modality for cancer treatment. Nevertheless, most of chronic cancers could not be treated with chemotherapy alone. Immunotherapy is a new modality for cancer treatment that is effective for early stages of cancer and it has fewer side effects compared to chemotherapy, specifically for those types of cancer that are resistant to it. METHOD: This work presents an extended mathematical model to depict interactions between cancerous and adaptive immune system in mouse...
July 13, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711989/striking-the-right-immunological-balance-prevents-progression-of-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Shachi Pranjal Vyas, Ritobrata Goswami
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a major burden for human health worldwide. Current standard treatments for TB require prolonged administration of antimycobacterial drugs leading to exaggerated inflammation and tissue damage. This can result in the reactivation of latent TB culminating in TB progression. Thus, there is an unmet need to develop therapies that would shorten the duration of anti-TB treatment and to induce optimal protective immune responses to control the spread of mycobacterial infection with minimal lung pathology...
July 15, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710903/stellate-cells-orchestrate-concanavalin-a-induced-acute-liver-damage
#13
Richa Rani, Ashish Tandon, Jiang Wang, Sudhir Kumar, Chandrashekhar R Gandhi
Concanavalin A (ConA) causes immune cell-mediated liver damage, but the contribution of resident nonparenchymal cells is also evident. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) induce hepatic inflammation and immunological reactions; we therefore investigated their role in ConA-induced liver injury. ConA was administered i.v. to control or HSC-depleted mice; hepatic histopathology and cytokines/chemokines were determined after 6 hours. In vitro, the effects of ConA-conditioned HSC medium on hepatocytes were determined...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708886/kir3dl01-upregulation-on-gut-natural-killer-cells-in-response-to-siv-infection-of-kir-and-mhc-class-i-defined-rhesus-macaques
#14
Moritz Ries, Matthew R Reynolds, Ksenia Bashkueva, Kristin Crosno, Saverio Capuano, Trent M Prall, Roger Wiseman, David H O'Connor, Eva G Rakasz, Hajime Uno, Jeffrey D Lifson, David T Evans
Natural killer cells provide an important early defense against viral pathogens and are regulated in part by interactions between highly polymorphic killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on NK cells and their MHC class I ligands on target cells. We previously identified MHC class I ligands for two rhesus macaque KIRs: KIR3DL01 recognizes Mamu-Bw4 molecules and KIR3DL05 recognizes Mamu-A1*002. To determine how these interactions influence NK cell responses, we infected KIR3DL01+ and KIR3DL05+ macaques with and without defined ligands for these receptors with SIVmac239, and monitored NK cell responses in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708284/cd20-specific-immunoligands-engaging-nkg2d-enhance-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-mediated-lysis-of-lymphoma-cells
#15
Matthias Peipp, Daniela Wesch, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Sebastian Lutz, Anja Muskulus, Jan G J van de Winkel, Paul W H I Parren, Renate Burger, Andreas Humpe, Dieter Kabelitz, Martin Gramatzki, Christian Kellner
Human γδ T cells are innate-like T cells which are able to kill a broad range of tumor cells and thus may have potential for cancer immunotherapy. The activating receptor natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) plays a key role in regulating immune responses driven by γδ T cells. Here, we explored whether recombinant immunoligands consisting of a CD20 single-chain fragment variable (scFv) linked to a NKG2D ligand, either MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA) or UL16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2), could be employed to engage γδ T cells for tumor cell killing...
July 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706421/gastric-cancer-derived-heat-shock-protein-gp96-peptide-complex-enhances-dendritic-cell-activation
#16
Wen-Wen Lu, Hong Zhang, You-Ming Li, Feng Ji
AIM: To investigate the role of heat shock protein (HSP)-glycoprotein (gp)96 in dendritic cells (DCs) and lymphocytes induction in gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Human GC cell lines KATOIII, MKN-28 and SGC-7901 were infected with adenovirus gp96 at a multiplicity of infection of 100. gp96-GC antigen peptide complexes were purified. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine allo-reactive T cell stimulation, natural killer (NK) cell activity and expression of cytokines (such as interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α), respectively...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706073/mouse-models-of-acute-and-chronic-hepacivirus-infection
#17
Eva Billerbeck, Raphael Wolfisberg, Ulrik Fahnøe, Jing W Xiao, Corrine Quirk, Joseph M Luna, John M Cullen, Alex S Hartlage, Luis Chiriboga, Kalpana Ghoshal, W Ian Lipkin, Jens Bukh, Troels K H Scheel, Amit Kapoor, Charles M Rice
An estimated 71 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The lack of small-animal models has impeded studies of antiviral immune mechanisms. Here we show that an HCV-related hepacivirus discovered in Norway rats can establish high-titer hepatotropic infections in laboratory mice with immunological features resembling those seen in human viral hepatitis. Whereas immune-compromised mice developed persistent infection, immune-competent mice cleared the virus within 3 to 5 weeks. Acute clearance was T cell dependent and associated with liver injury...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701224/the-150-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-series-questions-40-49
#18
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
Since the beginning of 2017, Chinese Journal of Cancer has published a series of important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology, which sparkle diverse thoughts, interesting communications, and potential collaborations among researchers all over the world. In this article, 10 more questions are presented as followed. Question 40. Why do mice being used as tumorigenesis models raised in different places or different conditions possess different tumor formation rate? Question 41. How could we generate more effective anti-metastasis drugs? Question 42...
July 13, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697801/interferon-%C3%AE-dependent-control-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-by-murine-neutrophil-granulocytes
#19
Kathrin Gussmann, Susanne Kirschnek, Friederike D von Loewenich
BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that is transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. It replicates in neutrophils and elicits febrile disease in humans and animals. Because of its striking tropism for neutrophils, A. phagocytophilum has been used as a model organism to study the immune response against obligate intracellular pathogens. In mice, the control of A. phagocytophilum in the early phase of infection is dependent on natural killer cell-derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ)...
July 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695659/epstein-barr-virus-negative-extranodal-true-natural-killer-cell-lymphoma-harbouring-a-kdm6a-mutation
#20
Naoko Tsuyama, Reimi Asaka, Akito Dobashi, Satoko Baba, Yuko Mishima, Kyoko Ueda, Masahiko Oguchi, Hideki Tsuji, Kiyohiko Hatake, Kengo Takeuchi
Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an extranodal aggressive T or NK-cell lymphoma that is characteristically associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and cytotoxic tissue-destructive features. Although ENKTL is described as a distinct entity according to the 2008 WHO classification, a considerable complexity is associated with the differential diagnosis of other T-cell lymphomas with respect to tumour cell origins, locations, and the presence of EBV infection, as well as molecular and cytogenetic abnormalities...
July 10, 2017: Hematological Oncology
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