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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167910/easy-to-learn-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-training-programme-a-randomised-controlled-trial-on-laypeople-s-resuscitation-performance
#1
Rachel Jia Min Ko, Swee Han Lim, Vivien Xi Wu, Tak Yam Leong, Sok Ying Liaw
INTRODUCTION: Simplifying the learning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is advocated to improve skill acquisition and retention. A simplified CPR training programme focusing on continuous chest compression, with a simple landmark tracing technique, was introduced to laypeople. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the simplified CPR training in improving lay rescuers' CPR performance as compared to standard CPR. METHODS: 85 laypeople (aged 21-60 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to undertake either a two-hour simplified CPR training or standard CPR training...
November 13, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165619/comparison-of-response-of-passive-dosimetry-systems-in-scanning-proton-radiotherapy-a-study-using-paediatric-anthropomorphic-phantoms
#2
Ž Kneževic, I Ambrozova, C Domingo, M De Saint-Hubert, M Majer, I Martínez-Rovira, S Miljanic, N Mojzeszek, P Porwol, O Ploc, M Romero-Expósito, L Stolarczyk, S Trinkl, R M Harrison, P Olko
Proton beam therapy has advantages in comparison to conventional photon radiotherapy due to the physical properties of proton beams (e.g. sharp distal fall off, adjustable range and modulation). In proton therapy, there is the possibility of sparing healthy tissue close to the target volume. This is especially important when tumours are located next to critical organs and while treating cancer in paediatric patients. On the other hand, the interactions of protons with matter result in the production of secondary radiation, mostly neutrons and gamma radiation, which deposit their energy at a distance from the target...
November 18, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160336/relationship-between-the-caregiver-s-report-on-the-patient-s-spontaneous-speech-and-the-brief-aphasia-evaluation
#3
Nora Silvana Vigliecca
PURPOSE: To study the relationship between the caregiver's perception about the patient's impairment in spontaneous speech, according to an item of four questions administered by semi-structured interview, and the patient's performance in the Brief Aphasia Evaluation (BAE). METHODS: 102 right-handed patients with focal brain lesions of different types and location were examined. BAE is a valid and reliable instrument to assess aphasia. The caregiver's perception was correlated with the item of spontaneous speech, the total score and the three main factors of the BAE: Expression, Comprehension and Complementary factors...
November 9, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158257/structural-dissection-of-an-interaction-between-transcription-initiation-and-termination-factors-implicated-in-promoter-terminator-crosstalk
#4
Matthew Bratkowski, Ilona Christy Unarta, Lizhe Zhu, Murtada Shubbar, Xuhui Huang, Xin Liu
Functional crosstalk between the promoter and terminator of a gene has long been noted. Promoters and terminators are juxtaposed to form gene loops in several organisms and gene looping is thought to be involved in transcriptional regulation. The general transcription factor II B (TFIIB) and the C-terminal domain phosphatase Ssu72, essential factors of the transcription pre-initiation complex and the mRNA processing and polyadenylation complex, respectively, are important for gene loop formation. TFIIB and Ssu72 interact both genetically and physically, but the molecular basis of this interaction is not known...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155284/the-dynamic-evolution-of-drosophila-innubila-nudivirus
#5
Tom Hill, Robert L Unckless
Viruses coevolve with their hosts to overcome host resistance and gain the upper hand in the evolutionary arms race. Drosophila innubila nudivirus (DiNV) is a double stranded DNA virus, closely related to Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) and Kallithea virus. DiNV is the first DNA virus found to naturally infect Drosophila and therefore has the potential to be developed as a model for DNA virus immune defense and host/virus coevolution within its well-studied host system. Here we sequence and annotate the genome of DiNV and identify signatures of adaptation, revealing clues for genes involved in host-parasite coevolution...
November 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149655/one-year-after-ischemic-stroke-changes-in-leg-movement-path-stability-in-a-speed-accuracy-task-but-no-major-effects-on-the-hands
#6
Albertas Skurvydas, Vilma Juodzbaliene, Tomas Darbutas, Marius Brazaitis
First year after the stroke is essential for motor recovery. The main motor control strategy (i.e., faster movement production at the expense of lower movement accuracy and stability, or greater movement accuracy and stability at the expense of slower movement) selected by poststroke patients during a unilateral speed-accuracy task (SAT) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the poststroke (12 months after stroke) effects on the trade-off between movement speed and accuracy, and intraindividual variability during a motor performance task...
November 14, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148752/substituent-effects-on-the-reactivity-of-cyclic-tertiary-sulfamidates
#7
Claudio D Navo, Nuria Mazo, Alberto Avenoza, Jesús H Busto, Jesús M Peregrina, Gonzalo Jiménez-Osés
The reactivity of cyclic tertiary sulfamidates derived from α-methylisoserine strongly depends on the substitution at the C and N termini. These substrates are one of the very few examples able to undergo nucleophilic ring-opening at a quaternary carbon with complete inversion of the configuration, as demonstrated both experimentally and computationally. When the sulfonamide is unprotected, the characteristic ring-opening reaction is completely silenced, which explains that the majority of the ring-opening reactions reported in the literature invoke N-alkyl or N-acyl-protected sulfamidates...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147660/analytical-validation-of-a-new-enzymatic-and-automatable-method-for-d-xylose-measurement-in-human-urine-samples
#8
Israel Sánchez-Moreno, Carmen Monsalve-Hernando, Ana Godino, Luis Illa, María Jesús Gaspar, Guillermo Manuel Muñoz, Ana Díaz, José Luis Martín, Eduardo García-Junceda, Alfonso Fernández-Mayoralas, Carmen Hermida
Hypolactasia, or intestinal lactase deficiency, affects more than half of the world population. Currently, xylose quantification in urine after gaxilose oral administration for the noninvasive diagnosis of hypolactasia is performed with the hand-operated nonautomatable phloroglucinol reaction. This work demonstrates that a new enzymatic xylose quantification method, based on the activity of xylose dehydrogenase from Caulobacter crescentus, represents an excellent alternative to the manual phloroglucinol reaction...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145260/reversible-severe-fatty-liver-induced-by-capecitabine-a-case-report
#9
Yiyan Jiang, Qiancheng He, Suxia Li, Chang Shi, Xiaolei Yang
RATIONALE: Capecitabine (CAP) is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat breast and gastrointestinal cancers. The most common adverse reactions of CAP primarily included gastrointestinal and dermatological effects. Whereas, the CAP-induced fatty liver had never been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this study, a-69-year old female presented a history of hypertension with regulated blood pressure, whereas diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hepatitis were excluded...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143334/pk-pd-modeling-of-flunixin-meglumine-in-a-kaolin-induced-inflammation-model-in-piglets
#10
O L Levionnois, T K Fosse, B Ranheim
Flunixin is marketed in several countries for analgesia in adult swine but little is known about its efficacy in piglets. Thirty-two piglets (6-8 days old) were randomized to receive placebo saline (n = 11, group CONTROL) or flunixin meglumine intravenously at 2.2 (n = 11, group MEDIUM) or 4.4 (n = 10, group HIGH) mg/kg, 10 hr after subcutaneous injection of kaolin in the left metacarpal area. A hand-held algometer was used to determine each piglet's mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) from both front feet up to 50 hr after treatment (cut-off value of 24...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143314/skills-among-young-and-elderly-laypersons-during-simulated-dispatcher-assisted-cpr-and-after-cpr-training
#11
M A Nebsbjerg, S E Rasmussen, K B Bomholt, L Q Krogh, K Krogh, J A Povlsen, I S Riddervold, T Grøfte, H Kirkegaard, B Løfgren
BACKGROUND: Dispatcher assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) increase the rate of bystander CPR. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of DA-CPR and attainable skills following CPR training between young and elderly laypersons. METHODS: Volunteer laypersons (young: 18-40 years; elderly: > 65 years) participated. Single rescuer CPR was performed in a simulated DA-CPR cardiac arrest scenario and after CPR training. Data were obtained from a manikin and from video recordings...
November 15, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131778/adventures-and-misadventures-in-plastic-surgery-and-soft-tissue-implants
#12
Dana J Lin, Tony T Wong, Gina A Ciavarra, Jonathan K Kazam
Soft-tissue augmentation and implants are increasingly seen by the radiologist as more techniques emerge for a variety of indications and locations. Some surgical and implant procedures are performed for purely cosmetic reasons in otherwise healthy patients seeking to improve their body image, and some are performed for reconstruction after cancer or other chronic illnesses. Abdominoplasty, liposuction, and autologous fat grafting can be performed for abdominal and gluteal contouring. Injection of liquid injectable silicone has historically been fraught with legal issues, although it continues to be used for augmentation in a variety of anatomic locations...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130876/efficacy-of-arthroscopic-teaching-methods-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Luke Robinson, Jonathon Spanyer, Zachary Yenna, Patrick Burchell, Andrew Garber, John Riehl
Arthroscopic education research recently has been focused on the use of skills labs to facilitate resident education and objective measure development to gauge technical skill. This study evaluates the effectiveness of three different teaching methods. Medical students were randomized into three groups. The first group received only classroom-based lecture. The second group received the same lecture and 28 minutes of lab-based hands-off arthroscopy instruction using a cadaver and arthroscopy setup. The final group received the same lecture and 7 minutes of hands-on arthroscopy instruction in the lab on a cadaver knee...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126109/do-prospective-payment-systems-ppss-lead-to-desirable-providers-incentives-and-patients-outcomes-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-developing-countries
#14
Si Ying Tan, G J Melendez-Torres
The reform of provider payment systems, from retrospective to prospective payment, has been heralded as the right move to contain costs in the light of rising health expenditures in many countries. However, there are concerns on quality trade-off. The heightened attention given to prospective payment system (PPS) reforms and the rise of empirical evidence regarding PPS interventions among developing countries suggest that a systematic review is necessary to understand the effects of PPS reforms in developing countries...
November 6, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121771/switching-peroxidase-mimic-activity-of-protein-stabilized-platinum-nanozymes-by-sulfide-ions-substrate-dependence-mechanism-and-detection
#15
Yan Liu, Yuanlin Zheng, Ding Ding, Rong Guo
In the present work, we use β-casein as a model protein to prepare a smart β-casein stabilized Pt nanoparticle (CM-PtNP) with peroxidase mimicking activity and systematically investigate sulfide-mediated switching effect and mechanism of CM-PtNP nanozyme's activity. Sulfide-mediated activity switching effect depends heavily on the physicochemical properties of nanozymes and the identity of substrate. On one hand, the binding of sulfide to a Pt nanozyme surface leads to the transform from Pt(2+) to Pt(0), resulting in more active sites and the activity "switching on"; on the other hand, the binding of sulfide ions via Pt-S interaction blocks the active sites, resulting in the activity "switching off"...
November 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121409/image-quality-and-dose-for-a-multi-source-cone-beam-ct-extremity-scanner
#16
Grace Jianan Gang, Wojciech Zbijewski, Mahadevappa Mahesh, Gaurav Thawait, Nathan Packard, John Yorkston, Shadpour Demehri, Jeffrey Harrold Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: This work investigates the dose characteristics and image quality of a multi-source cone-beam CT scanner dedicated for extremity imaging. METHODS: The scanner has an x-ray source with three separate anode-cathode units evenly distributed along the longitudinal direction. A nominal scan protocol fires the three sources sequentially, and a total of 600 projections (200 for each source) are acquired over a source-detector orbit of 210(o) . Dose was measured using a Farmer chamber in three CTDI phantoms stacked end-to-end...
November 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110689/multicriteria-plan-optimization-in-the-hands-of-physicians-a-pilot-study-in-prostate-cancer-and-brain-tumors
#17
Birgit S Müller, Helen A Shih, Jason A Efstathiou, Thomas Bortfeld, David Craft
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of physician driven planning in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a multicriteria optimization (MCO) treatment planning system and template based plan optimization. Exploiting the full planning potential of MCO navigation, this alternative planning approach intends to improve planning efficiency and individual plan quality. METHODS: Planning was retrospectively performed on 12 brain tumor and 10 post-prostatectomy prostate patients previously treated with MCO-IMRT...
November 6, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107234/changes-in-antioxidants-potential-secondary-metabolites-and-plant-hormones-induced-by-different-fungicides-treatment-in-cotton-plants
#18
Heba Ibrahim Mohamed, Samia Ageeb Akladious
The use of fungicides for an effective control of plant diseases has become crucial in the last decades in the agriculture system. Seeds of cotton plants were treated with systemic and contact fungicides to study the efficiency of seed dressing fungicides in controlling damping off caused by Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse conditions and its effect on plant growth and metabolism. The results showed that Mon-cut showed the highest efficiency (67.99%) while each of Tondro and Hemixet showed the lowest efficiency (31...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104944/psychotropic-medication-use-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-may-affect-functional-brain-connectivity
#19
Annika C Linke, Lindsay Olson, Yangfeifei Gao, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Background: Prescription of psychotropic medications is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), either off-label or to treat comorbid conditions such as ADHD or depression. Psychotropic medications are intended to alter brain function. Yet, studies investigating the functional brain organization in ASDs rarely take medication usage into account. This could explain some of the inconsistent findings of atypical brain network connectivity reported in the autism literature. Methods: The current study tested whether functional connectivity patterns, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), differed in a cohort of 49 children and adolescents with ASDs based on psychotropic medication status, and in comparison with 50 matched typically developing (TD) participants...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104912/teachers-gestures-and-students-learning-sometimes-hands-off-is-better
#20
Amelia Yeo, Iasmine Ledesma, Mitchell J Nathan, Martha W Alibali, R Breckinridge Church
During mathematics instruction, teachers often make links between different representations of mathematical information, and they sometimes use gestures to refer to the representations that they link. In this research, we investigated the role of such gestures in students' learning from lessons about links between linear equations and corresponding graphs. Eighty-two middle-school students completed a pretest, viewed a video lesson, and then completed a posttest comparable to the pretest. In all of the video lessons, the teacher explained the links between equations and graphs in speech...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
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