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Veronika Lerche, Andreas Voss
The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) is a mathematical model theorized to untangle different cognitive processes involved in binary decision tasks. To test the validity of the diffusion model parameters, several experimental validation studies have been conducted. In these studies, the validity of the threshold separation parameter was tested with speed-accuracy manipulations. Typically, this manipulation not only results in the expected effect on the threshold separation parameter but it also impacts nondecision time: Nondecision time is longer in the accuracy than in the speed condition...
March 14, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Tieba Millogo, Brice W Bicaba, Joseph Kouesyandé Soubeiga, Estelle Dabiré, Isaie Médah, Séni Kouanda
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reportedly growing fast in sub-Saharan Africa. There is however a scarcity of epidemiologic data on DM in Burkina Faso. We carried out a secondary analysis of the first survey conducted in Burkina Faso on a nationally representative sample following the World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise approach to risk factors Surveillance (STEPS) for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with the aims of identifying the prevalence of NCDs and the prevalence of common risk factors for NCDs...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Emma V Lampard, Adam C Sedgwick, Xiaolong Sun, Katherine L Filer, Samantha C Hewins, Gyoungmi Kim, Juyoung Yoon, Steven D Bull, Tony D James
In this work, we synthesized a series of boronate ester fluorescence probes ( E )-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-(4-styrylphenyl)-1,3,2-dioxaborolane ( STBPin) , ( E )- N , N -dimethyl-4-(4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)styryl)aniline ( DSTBPin) , ( E )-4-(4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)styryl)benzonitrile ( CSTBPin) , ( E )-2-(4-(4-methoxystyryl)phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane ( MSTBPin) , ( E )- N , N -dimethyl-4-(4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)styryl)naphthalen-1-amine ( NDSTBPin ), and N , N -dimethyl-4-(2-(4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl)oxazol-5-yl)aniline ( DAPOX-BPin ) for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
March 2018: ChemistryOpen
Maureen H Murray, Anjelika D Kidd, Shannon E Curry, Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman, Michael J Yabsley, Henry C Adams, Taylor Ellison, Catharine N Welch, Sonia M Hernandez
Many wildlife species shift their diets to use novel resources in urban areas. The consequences of these shifts are not well known, and consumption of reliable-but low quality-anthropogenic food may present important trade-offs for wildlife health. This may be especially true for carnivorous species such as the American white ibis ( Eudocimus albus ), a nomadic wading bird which has been increasingly observed in urban parks in South Florida, USA. We tested the effects of anthropogenic provisioning on consumer nutrition (i...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo, David Gonzalez, Mina Nouredanesh, James Tung
Kinematic analysis of upper limb reaching provides insight into the central nervous system control of movements. Until recently, kinematic examination of motor control has been limited to studies conducted in traditional research laboratories because motion capture equipment used for data collection is not easily portable and expensive. A recently developed markerless system, the Leap Motion Controller (LMC), is a portable and inexpensive tracking device that allows recording of 3D hand and finger position...
2018: PloS One
Shun Lu, Jianhua Chang, Xiaoqing Liu, Jianhua Shi, You Lu, Wei Li, Jin-Ji Yang, Jianying Zhou, Jie Wang, Tongtong An, Lei Yang, Zhe Liu, Xiangdong Zhou, Mo Chen, Ye Hua, Weiguo Su
Purpose Patients with advanced non‒small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who fail two lines of chemotherapy have unmet medical needs. The kinase inhibitor fruquintinib selectively targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and, hence, tumor angiogenesis and lymphogenesis. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of fruquintinib in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC who experienced disease progression after second-line chemotherapy...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Rocco A Montone, Giampaolo Niccoli
Patients with left main or multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) and depressed left ventricular function undergoing coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG) have a markedly worse prognosis compared with general population, making surgical treatment of CAD unattractive especially when features such as poor distal targets, severe comorbidities, reoperation, advanced age, or impaired renal function are present. At the same time, evidence for improved clinical outcome in this high-risk subset of patients using mini-invasive surgical techniques (i...
March 8, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
Giles Gyer, Jimmy Michael, James Inklebarger
Hand injury is the second most common work-related musculoskeletal injury among physical therapists (PTs) and other manual therapy professionals such as osteopaths, physiotherapists, chiropractors, acupuncturists and massage therapists. However, the nature and extent of this problem have not been fully explored yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to review the existing literature published on the prevalence, risk factors, consequences, and prevention of hand injuries among PTs and similar healthcare professionals...
March 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Tapan Das, B P V Dileep, Pranab K Dutta
Near-infrared imaging (NIRI) is a sub-surface imaging that makes a trade-off in recovery accuracy with depth of penetration. On the other hand, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) images tissue up to several centimeters. However, DOT reconstruction has a stability issue due to the inverse problem. This paper proposes a generalized continuous-wave technique to image objects of dimensions 4-6 cm comparable to DOT. A nonlinear Rosenbrock's banana function is fitted to the approximate photon path, and the fit parameter thus obtained gives the penetration depth of each channel...
March 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Léa Marlot, Magali Batteau, Karine Faure
Preparative two-dimensional chromatography is gaining interest in the elucidation of complex samples as it allows the recovery of a large number of molecules without the risks inherent to tedious multi-step sample preparation. While the second dimension is often selected to be liquid chromatography, it may be of interest to compare the specificities of two different techniques, namely liquid chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography, to be used as first dimension. A fair comparison between off-line CPCxLC and prepLCxLC in selective comprehensive mode for preparative purposes is carried out in this study, illustrated by the isolation of five compounds from high-value Edelweiss plant...
March 7, 2018: Electrophoresis
Jiří Kléma, František Malinka, Filip Železný
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in the analysis of gene expression data is to identify local patterns composed of genes showing coherent expression across subsets of experimental conditions. Such patterns may provide an understanding of underlying biological processes related to these conditions. This understanding can further be improved by providing concise characterizations of the genes and situations delimiting the pattern. RESULTS: We propose a method called semantic biclustering with the aim to detect interpretable rectangular patterns in binary data matrices...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
Trena Mukherjee, Rishanantini Sakthivel, Ho Yen Fong, Megan McStea, Meng Li Chong, Sharifah Faridah Omar, Ai Vyrn Chin, Shahrul Kamaruzzaman, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Lucette A Cysique
This study determines the optimal cut-off scores for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a multi-ethnic Malaysian HIV-positive cohort by developing demographically corrected normative standards among 283 HIV-negative community-based controls with overlapping demographic characteristics. The norms (corrected for age, sex, education, ethnicity) were applied to 342 HIV-positive virally suppressed individuals on cART. Impairment rates were classified using the Global Deficit Score (GDS ≥ ...
March 5, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Ze Gong, Spencer E Szczesny, Steven R Caliari, Elisabeth E Charrier, Ovijit Chaudhuri, Xuan Cao, Yuan Lin, Robert L Mauck, Paul A Janmey, Jason A Burdick, Vivek B Shenoy
Recent evidence has shown that, in addition to rigidity, the viscous response of the extracellular matrix (ECM) significantly affects the behavior and function of cells. However, the mechanism behind such mechanosensitivity toward viscoelasticity remains unclear. In this study, we systematically examined the dynamics of motor clutches (i.e., focal adhesions) formed between the cell and a viscoelastic substrate using analytical methods and direct Monte Carlo simulation. Interestingly, we observe that, for low ECM rigidity, maximum cell spreading is achieved at an optimal level of viscosity in which the substrate relaxation time falls between the timescale for clutch binding and its characteristic binding lifetime...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Edison Thomaz, Abdelkareem Bedri, Temiloluwa Prioleau, Irfan Essa, Gregory D Abowd
Motivated by health applications, eating detection with off-the-shelf devices has been an active area of research. A common approach has been to recognize and model individual intake gestures with wrist-mounted inertial sensors. Despite promising results, this approach is limiting as it requires the sensing device to be worn on the hand performing the intake gesture, which cannot be guaranteed in practice. Through a study with 14 participants comparing eating detection performance when gestural data is recorded with a wrist-mounted device on (1) both hands, (2) only the dominant hand, and (3) only the non-dominant hand, we provide evidence that a larger set of arm and hand movement patterns beyond food intake gestures are predictive of eating activities when L1 or L2 normalization is applied to the data...
July 2017: DigitalBiomarkers 17 (2017)
Lydia Lera, Cecilia Albala, Bárbara Leyton, Carlos Márquez, Bárbara Angel, Rodrigo Saguez, Hugo Sánchez
Aim: This study was aimed to set reference values of hand-grip strength by age and sex and validate cut points for risk of functional limitation and mortality in older Chileans. Methods: This was a pooled analysis of four studies including 6,426 people ≥60 years of nondependent community-dwelling Chileans. After exclusion criteria, the final sample included 5,250 subjects, from whom 2,193 were followed to study all-cause mortality associated with low hand-grip strength...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Noriteru Morita, Junichiro Yamauchi, Ryosuke Fukuoka, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Mitsuo Otsuka, Tomoyasu Okuda, Noriyuki Shide, Isao Kambayashi, Hisashi Shinkaiya
PURPOSE: There are only a few studies on the muscular strength of the foot in children and adolescents; thus, the developmental pattern and normative data of these populations during growth are unclear. We sought to elucidate the developmental pattern of the foot muscle strength among children, adolescents, and young adults compared with that of the hand. METHODS: A total of 747 children, adolescents, and young adults participated in this study, and their maximum isometric toe flexor strength (TFS), hand grip strength (HGS), and foot length were measured...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Raquel Fuentes-Irigoyen, Ana María Martín de Rosales Cabrera, Ana Cristina Riestra, María Nieves Vila, Carmela Dávila-Pousa, José María Alonso Herreros, Carmen López-Cabezas, Carmen Cañete, María Sagrario Pernía-López, Marta Garcia-Palomo, Pedro Arriola Villalobos, Lucía Ibares-Frías, José Luís Urcelay Segura, Jacobo Ramón Yañez Martínez
There are many medicinal products that, although having shown efficacy and  safety in different ophthalmological indications, they are not authorized or  commercially available for ophthalmic administration. This implies, on one hand,  that they must be used according to legislation that regulates the availability of  medicines in special situations and, on the other hand, that they must be  prepared in the pharmacy services for ophthalmic administration, according to  quality criteria to ensure its effectiveness, stability and sterility...
March 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
Jo-Anne Geere, Jamie Bartram, Laura Bates, Leslie Danquah, Barbara Evans, Michael B Fisher, Nora Groce, Batsirai Majuru, Michael M Mokoena, Murembiwa S Mukhola, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Phuc Pham Duc, Ashley Rhoderick Williams, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Paul R Hunter
Background: The Sustainable Development Goals include commitments to end poverty, and promote education for all, gender equality, the availability of water and decent work for all. An important constraint is the fact that each day, many millions of women and children, and much less frequently men, carry their household's water home from off-plot sources. The burden of fetching water exacerbates gender inequality by keeping women out of education and paid employment. Despite speculation about the potential health impacts of fetching water, there is very little empirical evidence...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Espeed Khoshbin, Stephan Schueler
Explantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) may be challenging even in the most experienced hands. We aim to describe the technique for explantation of an LVAD together with the heart as applicable to all contemporary implantable mechanical assist devices. In order to ensure safe explantation, particular care must be taken at three distinct stages: at the time of LVAD implantation, at pre-transplant assessment and at the time of heart transplantation. The preparation for a safe explantation at LVAD implantation includes positioning the driveline and the outflow graft away from the back of the sternum to ensure protection from injury during re-entry into the chest...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Shiro Itoi, Yukako Mochizuki, Minori Tanaka, Hikaru Oyama, Tadasuke Tsunashima, Riko Yamada, Hirotoshi Shishido, Yasuji Masuda, Shizuko Nakai, Noriyuki Takai, Hideto Fukushima, Koko Abe, Takahito Kojima, Haruo Sugita
Current literature states that family Scombropidae consists of a single genus Scombrops comprising three species worldwide, with two of them, Scombrops boops and Scombrops gilberti, distributed in the waters around the Japanese Archipelago. Although these two scombropids are commercially important species, little is known about the ecology of these fishes. It is difficult to discriminate between these two species based on external characteristics because of their morphological similarity. Here, we report two different morphotypes characterized by the relative growth between the otolith size and the standard length (SL) of the scombropid specimens caught in southern waters off Kyushu Island, Japan, and show the genetic relationship between the morphotypes by means of phylogenetic analyses using complete DNA sequences of the cytochrome b gene...
February 28, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
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