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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812737/human-exposure-and-sensitivity-to-globally-extreme-wildfire-events
#1
David M J S Bowman, Grant J Williamson, John T Abatzoglou, Crystal A Kolden, Mark A Cochrane, Alistair M S Smith
Extreme wildfires have substantial economic, social and environmental impacts, but there is uncertainty whether such events are inevitable features of the Earth's fire ecology or a legacy of poor management and planning. We identify 478 extreme wildfire events defined as the daily clusters of fire radiative power from MODIS, within a global 10 × 10 km lattice, between 2002 and 2013, which exceeded the 99.997th percentile of over 23 million cases of the ΣFRP 100 km(-2) in the MODIS record. These events are globally distributed across all flammable biomes, and are strongly associated with extreme fire weather conditions...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812046/extra-virgin-olive-oil-ameliorates-cognition-and-neuropathology-of-the-3xtg-mice-role-of-autophagy
#2
Elisabetta Lauretti, Luigi Iuliano, Domenico Praticò
OBJECTIVE: Consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a major component of the Mediterranean diet, has been associated with reduced incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms involved in this protective action remain to be fully elucidated. METHODS: Herein, we investigated the effect of daily consumption of EVOO on the AD-like phenotype of a mouse mode of the disease with plaques and tangles. RESULTS: Triple transgenic mice (3xTg) received either regular chow or a chow diet supplemented with EVOO starting at 6 months of age for 6 months, then assessed for the effect of the diet on the AD-like neuropathology and behavioral changes...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811801/pakistan-journal-of-medical-sciences-a-bibliometric-assessment-2001-2010
#3
Zameer Hussain Baladi, Loung V Umedani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure the growth of scientific research, authors' productivity, affiliation with the institute and geographic locations published in the Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences during the period of 2001 - 2010. METHODS: This numerical analysis was conducted during mid-August 2016 to mid-October, 2016. The data for the study was downloaded from websites of e-journal of Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences (PJMS) and Pak Medi-Net Com...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808336/linear-and-non-linear-responses-of-vegetation-and-soils-to-glacial-interglacial-climate-change-in-a-mediterranean-refuge
#4
Jens Holtvoeth, Hendrik Vogel, Verushka Valsecchi, Katja Lindhorst, Stefan Schouten, Bernd Wagner, George A Wolff
The impact of past global climate change on local terrestrial ecosystems and their vegetation and soil organic matter (OM) pools is often non-linear and poorly constrained. To address this, we investigated the response of a temperate habitat influenced by global climate change in a key glacial refuge, Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia). We applied independent geochemical and palynological proxies to a sedimentary archive from the lake over the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5) and the following interglacial (MIS 5e-c), targeting lake surface temperature as an indicator of regional climatic development and the supply of pollen and biomarkers from the vegetation and soil OM pools to determine local habitat response...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808253/species-distribution-models-of-two-critically-endangered-deep-sea-octocorals-reveal-fishing-impacts-on-vulnerable-marine-ecosystems-in-central-mediterranean-sea
#5
V Lauria, G Garofalo, F Fiorentino, D Massi, G Milisenda, S Piraino, T Russo, M Gristina
Deep-sea coral assemblages are key components of marine ecosystems that generate habitats for fish and invertebrate communities and act as marine biodiversity hot spots. Because of their life history traits, deep-sea corals are highly vulnerable to human impacts such as fishing. They are an indicator of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), therefore their conservation is essential to preserve marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean Sea deep-sea coral habitats are associated with commercially important crustaceans, consequently their abundance has dramatically declined due to the effects of trawling...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807340/unusual-locations-of-hydatid-disease-a-10-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-reference-center-in-western-turkey
#6
Eylul Gun, Demet Etit, Dilara O Buyuktalanci, Fulya Cakalagaoglu
INTRODUCTION: Hydatid disease is an endemic parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus mostly seen in the Mediterranean countries. The most affected organ is the liver, however hydatidosis can be found anywhere in the human body. METHODS: The records of patients who were diagnosed with hydatid disease in our hospital from December 2005 to February 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. The cases were evaluated and recorded depending on their gender, age and the localization of the cysts...
August 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807296/myiasis-of-domestic-and-wild-ruminants-caused-by-hypodermatinae-in-the-mediterranean-and-indian-subcontinent
#7
REVIEW
Anish Yadav, Rosario Panadero, Rajesh Katoch, Rajesh Godara, Eva Cabanelas
Myiasis caused by Hypodermatinae flies is an economically important disease affecting domesticated and wild ruminants in countries of the Mediterranean and Indian subcontinent. The adult flies have a short life span of 1 week, and they spread disease by laying their eggs on the coat of animals. Hypoderma spp. primarily lay their eggs on cattle, buffalo, roe deer, red deer and reindeer, while Przhevalskiana spp. lay eggs on the coat of goats. The larvae live as tissue parasites, inducing myiasis in the host, and have a major impact on the productivity and welfare of infested animals...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806974/association-of-plasma-fatty-acid-alteration-with-the-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease-lesions-in-tunisian-patients
#8
Samia Hadj Ahmed, Nadia Kaoubaa, Wafa Kharroubi, Amira Zarrouk, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar, Fathi Batbout, Habib Gamra, Gerard Lizard, Mohamed Hammami
BACKGROUND: Some factors related to diet are known to be involved in the progression of atherosclerosis in humans. METHODS: The relationship between plasma fatty acid (FA) levels and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), evaluated by Gensini score (GS), was investigated in CAD Tunisian patients compared to controls. Lipid profiles were analyzed, GS was calculated in CAD and non-CAD patients and compared to controls. RESULTS: CAD patients showed an alteration of conventional lipid parameters...
August 14, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806772/microhabitats-and-canopy-cover-moderate-high-summer-temperatures-in-a-fragmented-mediterranean-landscape
#9
Gunnar Keppel, Sharolyn Anderson, Craig Williams, Sonia Kleindorfer, Christopher O'Connell
Extreme heat events will become more frequent under anthropogenic climate change, especially in Mediterranean ecosystems. Microhabitats can considerably moderate (buffer) the effects of extreme weather events and hence facilitate the persistence of some components of the biodiversity. We investigate the microclimatic moderation provided by two important microhabitats (cavities formed by the leaves of the grass-tree Xanthorrhoea semiplana F.Muell., Xanthorrhoeaceae; and inside the leaf-litter) during the summer of 2015/16 on the Fleurieu Peninsula of South Australia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806553/thiacloprid-adsorption-and-leaching-in-soil-effect-of-the-composition-of-irrigation-solutions
#10
José Antonio Rodríguez-Liébana, M Dolores Mingorance, Aránzazu Peña
Pressure on groundwater resources has increased during the last decades due to the growing demand, especially in arid and semiarid regions, such as the Mediterranean basin, with frequent drought periods. In order to partially remediate this environmental problem of world concern, irrigation of agricultural lands with adequately treated wastewaters (TWW) is becoming a common management practice. The complex composition of these low-quality waters may influence the behavior of organic contaminants in soils. A calcareous soil with low organic carbon content was selected for the assessment of the adsorption and leaching of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid (THC)...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806547/environmental-life-cycle-assessment-of-seafood-production-a-case-study-of-trawler-catches-in-tunisia
#11
Khaled Abdou, Didier Gascuel, Joël Aubin, Mohamed Salah Romdhane, Frida Ben Rais Lasram, François Le Loc'h
The Gulf of Gabes is one of the most productive fishery areas in the southern Mediterranean Sea. It is archetypal of an ecosystem in which the effects of fisheries are most pronounced. Demersal trawling is the main fishing activity in the Gulf of Gabes. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to assess the environmental performance landing 1t of seafood with wooden demersal trawlers in the Gulf of Gabes. Impact categories included in the study were abiotic depletion potential (ADP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), photochemical oxidant formation potential (POFP), human toxicity potential (HTP), marine eco-toxicity potential (METP), terrestrial eco-toxicity potential (TETP), land occupation potential (LOP), and total cumulative energy demand (TCED)...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806544/decadal-analysis-of-impact-of-future-climate-on-wheat-production-in-dry-mediterranean-environment-a-case-of-jordan
#12
Prakash N Dixit, Roberto Telleria, Amal N Al Khatib, Siham F Allouzi
Different aspects of climate change, such as increased temperature, changed rainfall and higher atmospheric CO2 concentration, all have different effects on crop yields. Process-based crop models are the most widely used tools for estimating future crop yield responses to climate change. We applied APSIM crop simulation model in a dry Mediterranean climate with Jordan as sentinel site to assess impact of climate change on wheat production at decadal level considering two climate change scenarios of representative concentration pathways (RCP) viz...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806487/gut-microbiome-response-to-short-term-dietary-interventions-in-reactive-hypoglycemia-subjects
#13
Sara Quercia, Silvia Turroni, Jessica Fiori, Matteo Soverini, Simone Rampelli, Elena Biagi, Andrea Castagnetti, Clarissa Consolandi, Marco Severgnini, Mario Pianesi, Francesco Fallucca, Paolo Pozzilli, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
BACKGROUND: Reactive hypoglycemia (RH) is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meal. Over recent years, the gut microbiota (GM) has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct GM dysbioses through diet, favoring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered. METHODS: We investigate the impact of two short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the GM in 12 patients affected by RH...
August 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805984/self-medication-misuse-in-the-middle-east-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Malak M Khalifeh, Nicholas D Moore, Pascale R Salameh
Regulations usually distinguish between prescription-only (POM) and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The former requires medical prescription; the latter are available for SM of common minor or easily treated ailments. However, in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, theoretical prescription medicines can easily be purchased without a prescription, as self-medication (SM) resulting in potential misuse and unnecessary risk for patients. The magnitude of this activity is uncertain. The aim of this article, therefore, is to undertake a comprehensive review to identify the different types of medicines that can easily be purchased as SM in Middle East and recognized as misused...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805669/effect-of-mediterranean-diet-and-antioxidant-formulation-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-randomized-study
#15
Ludovico Abenavoli, Marta Greco, Natasa Milic, Francesca Accattato, Daniela Foti, Elio Gulletta, Francesco Luzza
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, characterized by liver fatty acid accumulation and fibrosis, not due to excessive alcohol consumption. Notably, nutritional habits have been reported to be implicated in the onset and severity of the hepatic damage, while the Mediterranean diet has shown beneficial effects on NAFLD. Free radicals and oxidative stress were suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD, and several data highlighted the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in its treatment...
August 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805633/of-phlebotomines-sandflies-and-viruses-a-comprehensive-perspective-on-a-complex-situation
#16
REVIEW
Nazli Ayhan, Remi N Charrel
Old World sandfly-borne phleboviruses are classified into three serological complexes: Sandfly fever Sicilian, Sandfly fever Naples and Salehabad. Human pathogens (febrile illness ['sandfly fever'], neuroinvasive infections) belong to the two first complexes. The increasing number of newly discovered sandfly-borne phleboviruses raises concerns about their medical and veterinary importance. They occupy a wide geographic area from Mediterranean basin to North Africa and the Middle East to the central Asia. At least nine species of sandflies can transmit these viruses...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805537/high-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-wild-fish-from-the-mediterranean-sea-in-algeria
#17
Soumia Brahmi, Abdelaziz Touati, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Albert Sotto, Alix Pantel, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
AIM: We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae among wild fish from the coast of Bejaia (Algeria) in the Mediterranean Sea. RESULTS: From March 2012 to August 2013, gut and gill samples of wild fish were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Strains were characterized with regard to antibiotic resistance, β-lactamase content, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, aminoglycoside resistance genes, and clonality (repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction profiles and multilocus sequence typing)...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805344/high-potential-for-temperate-viruses-to-drive-carbon-cycling-in-chemoautotrophy-dominated-shallow-water-hydrothermal-vents
#18
Eugenio Rastelli, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Michael Tangherlini, Eleonora Martorelli, Michela Ingrassia, Francesco Latino Chiocci, Marco Lo Martire, Roberto Danovaro
Viruses are the most abundant life forms in the world's oceans and they are key drivers of biogeochemical cycles, but their impact on the microbial assemblages inhabiting hydrothermal vent ecosystems is still largely unknown. Here, we analysed the viral life strategies and virus-host interactions in the sediments of a newly discovered shallow-water hydrothermal field of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study reveals that temperate viruses, once experimentally induced to replicate, can cause large mortality of vent microbes, significantly reducing the chemoautotrophic carbon production, while enhancing the metabolism of microbial heterotrophs and the re-cycling of the organic matter...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803874/range-expansion-compromises-adaptive-evolution-in-an-outcrossing-plant
#19
Santiago C González-Martínez, Kate Ridout, John R Pannell
Neutral genetic diversity gradients have long been used to infer the colonization history of species [1, 2], but range expansion may also influence the efficacy of natural selection and patterns of non-synonymous polymorphism in different parts of a species' range [3]. Recent theory predicts both an accumulation of deleterious mutations and a reduction in the efficacy of positive selection as a result of range expansion [4-8]. These signatures have been sought in a number of studies of the human range expansion out of Africa, but with contradictory results [9-14]...
August 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803596/associations-of-baltic-sea-and-mediterranean-dietary-patterns-with-bone-mineral-density-in-elderly-women
#20
Arja T Erkkilä, Homa Sadeghi, Masoud Isanejad, Jaakko Mursu, Marjo Tuppurainen, Heikki Kröger
OBJECTIVE: Dietary quality in relation to bone health has been analysed in relatively few studies. The current study aimed to assess the association of the Baltic Sea diet (BSD) and the Mediterranean diet (MD) with bone mineral density (BMD) among elderly women. DESIGN: Lumbar, femoral and total body BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and year 3. Dietary intake was measured by 3 d food record at baseline. BSD and MD scores were calculated from food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
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