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Matthew J Barkovich, Yi Li, Rahul S Desikan, A James Barkovich, Duan Xu
Pediatric neuroimaging is challenging due the rapid structural, metabolic, and functional changes that occur in the developing brain. A specially trained team is needed to produce high quality diagnostic images in children, due to their small physical size and immaturity. Patient motion, cooperation and medical condition dictate the methods and equipment used. A customized approach tailored to each child's age and functional status with the appropriate combination of dedicated staff, imaging hardware, and software is key; these range from low-tech techniques, such as feed and swaddle, to specialized small bore MRI scanners, MRI compatible incubators and neonatal head coils...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
Xue Chen, Ting Zhang, Hongyang Liu, Yaru Hao, Guoyang Liao, Xuemei Xu
Current available human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are based on the major capsid protein L1 virus-like particles (VLPs), which mainly induce type-specific neutralizing antibodies against vaccine types. Continuing to add more types of VLPs in a vaccine raises the complexity and cost of production which remains the principal impediment to achieve broad implementation of HPV vaccines, particularly in developing regions. In this study, we constructed 16L1-31L2 chimeric VLP (cVLP) by displaying HPV31 L2 aa.17-38 on the h4 coil surface region of HPV16 L1, and assessed its immunogenicity in mouse model...
April 23, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Wei Su, Yisen Zhang, Junfan Chen, Jian Liu, Gary Rajah, Xinjian Yang
Background For the treatment of intracranial aneurysms, the low-profile visualized intraluminal support (LVIS) stent is a new generation of highly visible-braided stent that was recently introduced in China. Here, we report our single-center retrospective experience of safety and efficacy utilizing LVIS for stent-assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms. Methods We included 218 patients with intracranial aneurysms consecutively treated with LVIS SR stents at our center in this study. Postoperative and follow-up embolization scores, procedural complications, clinical and angiographic findings at mid-term follow-up, as well as recurrence rate, preoperative and follow-up mRS scores were analyzed...
April 23, 2018: Neurological Research
Yu D Gordievskaya, Yu A Budkov, E Yu Kramarenko
The effect of an interplay between electrostatic and excluded volume interactions on the conformational behavior of a dipolar chain has been studied theoretically and by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Every monomer unit of the dipolar chain comprises a dipole formed by a charged group of the chain and an oppositely charged counterion. The counterion is assumed to freely move around the chain but keeping the distance between oppositely charged ions (the dipole length) fixed. The novelty of the developed mean-field theory is that variations of the dipole parameters (the dipole length and the counterion size) have been accounted for in both electrostatic and excluded volume contributions to the total free energy of the dipolar chain...
April 23, 2018: Soft Matter
Abbas Kabir, Kalpana Tilekar, Neha Upadhyay, C S Ramaa
Background - Cancer being a complex disease, single targeting agents remains unsuccessful. This calls for "multiple targeting", wherein a single drug is so designed that it will modulate the activity of multiple protein targets. Topoisomerase 2 (Top2) helps in removing DNA tangles and super-coiling during cellular replication, Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) is involved in the phosphorylation of multitude of protein targets. Thus, in the present work, we have tried to develop dual inhibitors of Top2 and CK2...
April 22, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Hong-Hsi Lee, Daniel K Sodickson, Riccardo Lattanzi
PURPOSE: The ultimate intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (UISNR) is normally calculated using electrodynamic simulations with a complete basis of modes. Here, we provide an exact solution for the UISNR at the center of a dielectric sphere and assess how accurately this solution approximates UISNR away from the center. METHODS: We performed a mode analysis to determine which modes contribute to central UISNR - ζ(r→0). We then derived an analytic expression to calculate ζ(r→0) and analyzed its dependence on main magnetic field strength, sample geometry, and electrical properties...
April 22, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Akira Murata, Koji Amaya, Kentaro Mochizuki, Masami Sotokawa, Shingo Otaka, Kazuhiro Tani, Shota Nakagaki, Tetsuyuki Ueda
We report a case of an aneurysm of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA), with chronic occlusion of the celiac axis. Both surgical aneurysmectomy and endovascular coil embolization were anticipated to sacrifice IPDA, which could lead to severe acute ischemia in the celiac region. The treatment involved surgical ligation of the aneurysm after bypass grafting from the superior mesenteric artery to the anterior IPDA. A postoperative computed tomography revealed no enhancement of the aneurysm and sufficient collateral blood supply by the patent bypass graft...
March 25, 2018: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Byung-Chul Son, Jin-Gyu Choi, Sang-Woo Ha
Twiddler's syndrome is an uncommon hardware complication involving the lead and pulse generators in cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators, deep brain stimulators, and vagal nerve stimulators. However, until very recently, it had not been reported in spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Considering the incidence of hardware complications of spinal cord stimulation, there may be an underreporting of Twiddler's syndrome due to lack of awareness. Two cases of Twiddler's syndrome as a hardware complication of SCS were identified between 2005 and 2015...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Saleem Yousuf Bhat, Arijit Dey, Insaf A Qureshi
Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MAP2) is a principal regulator of apoptosis for Leishmania donovani and a potential candidate for the design and synthesis of novel antileishmanials. The LdMAP2 gene was cloned in pET28a(+)-SUMO vector, expressed in E. coli and then purified by chromatographic methods. It was found to be a monomer and required divalent metal ion for its activity against synthetic substrates with Co(II), Mg(II), Mn(II) and Ni(II) being the major activators. Moreover, Ca(II) showed the tightest binding with Km value of 124...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
R Dockx, C Baeken, R Duprat, F De Vos, J H Saunders, I Polis, K Audenaert, K Peremans
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a treatment for several neuropsychiatric disorders in human beings, but the neurobiological effects of rTMS in dogs have not been investigated to date. A proof of concept study was designed to evaluate the effect of rTMS on cerebral perfusion, measured with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in dogs. An accelerated high frequency (aHF)-rTMS (20Hz) protocol was applied to the canine left frontal cortex. To accurately target this area, eight dogs underwent a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan before stimulation...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
Margaret A Schwarz, Daniel D Lee, Seamus Bartlett
Higher eukaryotes have developed extensive compartmentalization of amino acid (aa) - tRNA coupling through the formation of a multi-synthetase complex (MSC) that is composed of eight aa-tRNA synthetases (ARS) and three scaffold proteins: aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex interacting multifunctional proteins (AIMP1, 2 and 3). Lower eukaryotes have a much smaller complex while yeast MSC consists of only two ARS (MetRS and GluRS) and one ARS cofactor 1 protein, Arc1p (Simos et al., 1996), the homolog of the mammalian AIMP1...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Ouri Cohen, Jerome L Ackerman
The design of a loop-gap-resonator RF coil optimized for ex vivo mouse brain microscopy at ultra high fields is described and its properties characterized using simulations, phantoms and experimental scans of mouse brains fixed in 10% formalin containing 4 mM Magnevist™. The RF (B1 ) and magnetic field (B0 ) homogeneities are experimentally quantified and compared to electromagnetic simulations of the coil. The coil's performance is also compared to a similarly sized surface coil and found to yield double the sensitivity...
April 18, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Stefan H G Rietsch, Stephan Orzada, Stefan Maderwald, Sascha Brunheim, Bart W J Philips, Tom W J Scheenen, Mark E Ladd, Harald H Quick
PURPOSE: In this work a combined body coil array with 8 transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) meander elements and with 24 receive-only (Rx) loops (8Tx/32Rx) was developed and evaluated in comparison to an 8-channel transmit/receive body array (8Tx/Rx) based on meander elements serving as the reference standard. METHODS: Systematic evaluation of the RF array was performed on a body-sized phantom. Body imaging at 7T was performed in 6 volunteers in the body regions pelvis, abdomen, and heart...
April 21, 2018: Medical Physics
Christian Ulfert, Mirko Pham, Michael Sonnberger, Franco Amaya, Johannes Trenkler, Martin Bendszus, Markus A Möhlenbruch
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical safety and efficacy of the Atlas microstent in stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: Single-center observational study in 36 patients (24 female, 12 male, mean age 56 years) with 37 aneurysms for the endovascular treatment of wide-necked aneurysms. After giving informed consent, patients were included according to the following criteria: aneurysm dome-to-neck ratio <2 or neck diameter >4 mm, and a parent vessel diameter of ≤4...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Frederick C Damen, Kejia Caic
Parallel imaging can be used to increase SNR and shorten acquisition times, albeit, at the cost of image non-uniformity. B1 - non-uniformity correction techniques are confounded by signal that varies not only due to coil induced B1 - sensitivity variation, but also the object's own intrinsic signal. Herein, we propose a method that makes minimal assumptions and uses only the coil images themselves to produce a single combined B1 - non-uniformity-corrected complex image with the highest available SNR. A novel background noise classifier is used to select voxels of sufficient quality to avoid the need for regularization...
April 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Won-Ho Lee, Sangyoup Lee, Jong-Chul Lee
Nanoparticles and nanofluids have been implemented in energy harvesting devices, and energy harvesting based on magnetic nanofluid flow was recently achieved by using a layer-built magnet and microbubble injection to induce a voltage on the order of 10-1 mV. However, this is not yet suitable for some commercial purpose. The air bubbles must be segmented in the base fluid, and the magnetic flux of the ferrofluids should change over time to increase the amount of electric voltage and current from energy harvesting...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Won-Ho Lee, Se-Hee Lee, Sangyoup Lee, Jong-Chul Lee
Nanoparticles and nanofluids have been implemented in energy harvesting devices, and energy harvesting based on magnetic nanofluid flow was recently achieved by using a layer-built magnet and micro-bubble injection to induce a voltage on the order of 10-1 mV. However, this is not yet suitable for some commercial purpose. In order to further increase the amount of electric voltage and current from this energy harvesting the air bubbles must be segmented in the base fluid, and the magnetic flux of the segmented flow should be materially altered over time...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Yu Fang, Christopher Gill, Martina Poletti, Michele Rucci
Small saccades, known as microsaccades, occur frequently during fixation. Several recent studies have argued that a considerable fraction of these movements are present in the traces from one eye only. This claim contrasts with the findings of older reports, which concluded that microsaccades, like larger saccades, are virtually always binocular events. Here we examined the characteristics of small saccades by means of two of the most established high-resolution eye-tracking techniques available. A binocular Dual Purkinje Image eye-tracker was used to record eye movements while observers fixated, with their head immobilized, on markers displayed on a monitor...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Ana Navas-Acien
Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke remain major but avoidable causes of premature mortality and disease worldwide. Although the age-standardized prevalence of daily smoking has declined for both men and women in many countries, the number of smokers continues to increase because of global population growth. Although cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product, the tobacco epidemic has become tremendously complex with the emergence and popularity of alternative products such as waterpipes and electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes)...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Harpreet Singh Grewal, Atul C Mehta
This brief imaging case report highlights a successful bridge to lung transplantation after endobronchial coil assisted lung volume reduction procedure. Our patient was a 64-year-old male with severe emphysema (FEV1:19%, RV: 289%, TLC: 143%), on maximum medical regimen who was enrolled into the Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment (RENEW) Study. He underwent bilateral endobronchial coil placement in a two-step procedure, with an immediate improvement in symptoms and pulmonary function testing (FEV1:21%, RV: 254%, TLC: 138%)...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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