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phosphatidylserine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914242/molecular-lipid-species-in-urinary-exosomes-as-potential-prostate-cancer-biomarkers
#1
Tore Skotland, Kim Ekroos, Dimple Kauhanen, Helena Simolin, Therese Seierstad, Viktor Berge, Kirsten Sandvig, Alicia Llorente
BACKGROUND: Exosomes have recently appeared as a novel source of noninvasive cancer biomarkers, since these nanovesicles contain molecules from cancer cells and can be detected in biofluids. We have here investigated the potential use of lipids in urinary exosomes as prostate cancer biomarkers. METHODS: A high-throughput mass spectrometry quantitative lipidomic analysis was performed to reveal the lipid composition of urinary exosomes in prostate cancer patients and healthy controls...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913277/specific-stabilization-of-cftr-by-phosphatidylserine
#2
Ellen Hildebrandt, Netaly Khazanov, John C Kappes, Qun Dai, Hanoch Senderowitz, Ina L Urbatsch
The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR, ABCC7) is a plasma membrane chloride ion channel in the ABC transporter superfamily. CFTR is a key target for cystic fibrosis drug development, and its structural elucidation would advance those efforts. However, the limited in vivo and in vitro stability of the protein, particularly its nucleotide binding domains, has made structural studies challenging. Here we demonstrate that phosphatidylserine uniquely stimulates and thermally stabilizes the ATP hydrolysis function of purified human CFTR...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907021/the-effects-of-long-term-saturated-fat-enriched-diets-on-the-brain-lipidome
#3
Corey Giles, Ryusuke Takechi, Natalie A Mellett, Peter J Meikle, Satvinder Dhaliwal, John C Mamo
The brain is highly enriched in lipids, where they influence neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and inflammation. Non-pathological modulation of the brain lipidome has not been previously reported and few studies have investigated the interplay between plasma lipid homeostasis relative to cerebral lipids. This study explored whether changes in plasma lipids induced by chronic consumption of a well-tolerated diet enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFA) was associated with parallel changes in cerebral lipid homeostasis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899173/procoagulant-role-of-microparticles-in-routine-storage-of-packed-red-blood-cells-potential-risk-for-prothrombotic-post-transfusion-complications
#4
Htet Htet Aung, John-Paul Tung, Melinda M Dean, Robert L Flower, Natalie M Pecheniuk
During routine storage, packed red blood cells (PRBC) undergo biochemical and morphological changes including loss of red blood cell (RBC) membrane asymmetry and release of microparticles (MPs) bearing phosphatidylserine (PS), a procoagulant phospholipid. This study investigated the association between PRBC storage duration, MP profile and procoagulant activity. Leukodepleted PRBC-supernatant (PRBC-SN; n=13) was prepared at weekly intervals throughout storage. Phospholipid-dependent procoagulant activity, assessed using a factor X-activated clotting time (XACT) assay, decreased throughout storage (p<0...
November 26, 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898421/stimulation-of-erythrocyte-cell-membrane-scrambling-by-quinine
#5
Morena Mischitelli, Mohamed Jemaà, Mustafa Almasry, Caterina Faggio, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The analkaloid drug quinine is utilized mainly for the chemoprophylaxis of malaria. The multiple side effects of quinine include hemolytic anemia and hemolytic uremic syndrome, disorders involving suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling contributing to stimulation of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide and D4476 sensitive casein kinase...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889774/stimulation-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-the-cdc25-inhibitor-nsc-95397
#6
Mohamed Jemaà, Morena Mischitelli, Myriam Fezai, Mustafa Almasry, Caterina Faggio, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The CDC25B inhibitor NSC-95397 triggers apoptosis of tumor cells and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by modification of gene expression. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be triggered by increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide, as well as activation of protein kinases...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889758/stimulation-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-rottlerin
#7
Morena Mischitelli, Mohamed Jemaà, Mustafa Almasry, Caterina Faggio, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The phytochemical polyphenol rottlerin is a potent activator of diverse Ca2+ -sensitive K+ channels. Those channels play a decisive role in the execution of eryptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling involved in the stimulation of eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i) and ceramide. The present study explored, whether rottlerin induces eryptosis and, if so, to test for the involvement of Ca2+ entry and ceramide...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886335/microrna-421-induces-apoptosis-of-c-33a-cervical-cancer-cells-via-down-regulation-of-bcl-xl
#8
X J Lai, X Y Cheng, L D Hu
Cervical cancer is a life-threatening condition. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can promote or inhibit cell death and proliferation. The present study investigated the effect of miRNA 421 on the growth and apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. miRNA 421 and control miRNA were synthesized and transfected into c-33a cervical cancer cells. A thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay, caspase-3 activity, and flow cytometry were used to study the effects of miRNA 421 on c-33a cell growth, and apoptosis. Small interfering RNA targeting Bcl-xL was synthesized and transfected into c-33a cells along with miRNA 421...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869795/cd68-macrosialin-not-just-a-histochemical-marker
#9
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Murry C Killingsworth, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
CD68 is a heavily glycosylated glycoprotein that is highly expressed in macrophages and other mononuclear phagocytes. Traditionally, CD68 is exploited as a valuable cytochemical marker to immunostain monocyte/macrophages in the histochemical analysis of inflamed tissues, tumor tissues, and other immunohistopathological applications. CD68 alone or in combination with other cell markers of tumor-associated macrophages showed a good predictive value as a prognostic marker of survival in cancer patients. Lowression of CD68 was found in the lymphoid cells, non-hematopoietic cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc), and tumor cells...
November 21, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868169/articulatin-d-induces-apoptosis-via-activation-of-caspase-8-in-acute-t-cell-leukemia-cell-line
#10
Ruchi Mishra, Mrinal K Das, Savita Singh, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Sadhna Sharma, Vandana Mishra
Leukemia is among the most aggressive and prevalent human malignant carcinoma. Chemotherapy is the preferred therapeutic strategy; however, recurrence of cancer and non-selective cytotoxicity are the major concerns. Unlike synthetic chemotherapeutic agents, mistletoe ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) displays anti-tumor function in various types of cancers. However, its effect on leukemia cells is little explored. In this study, we assessed the impact of Viscum articulatum RIP (Articulatin-D) on the survival of acute T-cell leukemia cells and the involved molecular and cellular mechanisms...
November 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865411/low-levels-of-apoptotic-like-changes-in-fresh-and-cryopreserved-feline-spermatozoa-collected-from-the-urethra-and-epididymis
#11
Sylwia Prochowska, Wojciech Niżański, Agnieszka Partyka
The aim of this study was to examine apoptotic markers in fresh and frozen-thawed feline spermatozoa collected via urethral catheterization and epididymal slicing. Caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and phosphatidylserine externalization were evaluated using flow cytometry in sperm cells from both sources before and after cryopreservation. The study revealed no differences between urethral and epididymal spermatozoa, both in fresh and frozen-thawed samples. The level of apoptotic changes in sperm cells in fresh feline semen was low: 0...
January 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864149/procoagulant-properties-of-tumor-apoptotic-vesicles
#12
Morad-Rémy Muhsin-Sharafaldine, Bailey R Kennedy, Sarah C Saunderson, Catrin R Buchanan, Amy C Dunn, James M Faed, Alexander D McLellan
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy induces the release of apoptotic vesicles (ApoV) from the tumor plasma membrane. Tumor ApoV may enhance the risk of thrombotic events in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, the relative contribution of ApoV to coagulation and the pathways involved remain poorly characterized. In addition, this study sets out to compare the procoagulant activity of chemotherapy-induced ApoV with their cell of origin and to determine the mechanisms of ApoV-induced coagulation...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860832/anoctamins-tmem16-proteins-chloride-channels-flirting-with-lipids-and-extracellular-vesicles
#13
Jarred M Whitlock, H Criss Hartzell
Anoctamin/TMEM16 proteins exhibit diverse functions in cells throughout the body and are implicated in several human diseases. Although the founding members ANO1 (TMEM16A) and ANO2 (TMEM16B) are Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, most ANO paralogs are Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scramblases that serve as channels facilitating the movement (scrambling) of phospholipids between leaflets of the membrane bilayer. Phospholipid scrambling significantly alters the physical properties of the membrane and its landscape and has vast downstream signaling consequences...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857884/tumor-selective-cytotoxicity-of-a-novel-pentadiene-analogue-on-human-leukemia-lymphoma-cells
#14
Yahaira Santiago-Vázquez, Umashankar Das, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Sarah T Baca, Yoshira Ayala-Marin, Carolina Lema, Swagatika Das, Alaa Baryyan, Jonathan R Dimmock, Renato J Aguilera
BACKGROUND: A novel series of structurally divergent 1,5-diaryl-3-oxo-1,4-pentadiene analogues 1-10 displayed marked cytotoxic potencies towards a number of human leukemia/lymphoma cells. OBJECTIVE: To identify novel selective cytotoxic compounds that induce apoptosis. METHODS: The Differential Nuclear Staining (DNS) screening protocol was utilized to measure the cytotoxicity of all experimental dienones on several cancerous cells. Additionally, the selective cytotoxicity index was calculated by comparing the dienone's cytotoxicity between leukemia/lymphoma cells vs...
2016: Clinical Cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855617/eryptosis-ally-or-enemy
#15
Marilena Briglia, Maria Antonia Rossi, Caterina Faggio
Prior to senescence, erythrocytes may, experience injury which compromises their integrity and thus triggers suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis. This mechanism is characterised by cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling after phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface that is identified by macrophages which engulf and degrade the eryptotic cells. The term eryptosis also includes typical mechanisms, which contribute to the triggering of this process. Among them: oxidative stress, Ca2+ entry with an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca ]i) and the activation of p38 kinase, which is a kinase expressed in human erythrocytes and activated after hyperosmotic shock...
November 18, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855413/stimulation-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-phosphatase-inhibitor-calyculin-a
#16
Mustafa Almasry, Mohamed Jemaà, Morena Mischitelli, Caterina Faggio, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a inhibitor Calyculin A may trigger suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+] i). Eryptosis is fostered by activation of staurosporine sensitive protein kinase C, SB203580 sensitive p38 kinase, and D4476 sensitive casein kinase...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855400/stimulation-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-tafenoquine
#17
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Rosi Bissinger, Katja Stockinger, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 8-aminoquinoline tafenoquine has been shown to be effective against Plasmodia, Leishmania and Trypanosoma. The substance is at least in part effective by triggering apoptosis of the parasites. Similar to apoptosis, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling involved in the regulation of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide, zVAD sensitive caspases, SB203580 sensitive p38 kinase, staurosporine sensitive protein kinase C as well as D4476 sensitive casein kinase...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855368/triggering-of-erythrocyte-cell-membrane-scrambling-by-emodin
#18
Morena Mischitelli, Mohamed Jemaà, Mustafa Almasry, Caterina Faggio, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The natural anthraquinone derivative emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is a component of several Chinese medicinal herbal preparations utilized for more than 2000 years. The substance has been used against diverse disorders including malignancy, inflammation and microbial infection. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells erythrocytes may enter suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852900/gradients-of-phosphatidylserine-contribute-to-plasma-membrane-charge-localization-and-cell-polarity-in-fission-yeast
#19
Armin Haupt, Nicolas Minc
Surface charges at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane may contribute to regulate the surface recruitment of key signaling factors. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an abundant charged lipid, which may regulate charge distribution in different cell types. In here, we characterize the subcellular distribution and function of PS in the rod-shaped, polarized fission yeast. We find that PS preferably accumulates at cell tips and defines a gradient of negative charges along the cell surface. This polarization depends on actin-mediated endocytosis and contributes to the subcellular partitioning of charged polarity-regulating Rho-GTPases like Rho1 or Cdc42 in a protein charge-dependent manner...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836900/lethal-h1n1-influenza-a-virus-infection-alters-the-murine-alveolar-type-ii-cell-surfactant-lipidome
#20
Parker S Woods, Lauren May Doolittle, Lucia Elena Rosas, Lisa M Joseph, Edward P Calomeni, Ian Christopher Davis
BACKGROUND: Alveolar type II (ATII) epithelial cells are the primary site of influenza virus replication in the distal lung. Development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in influenza-infected mice correlates with significant alterations in ATII cell function. However, the impact of infection on ATII cell surfactant lipid metabolism has never been explored. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were inoculated intranasally with 10,000 pfu/mouse of influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) or mock-infected with virus diluent...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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