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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088446/identification-and-characterization-of-cell-bound-membrane-vesicles
#1
Qisheng Tang, Xiaojun Zhang, Wendiao Zhang, Siyuan Zhao, Yong Chen
In contrast to the released/circulating membrane vesicles (extracellular vesicles), cell-bound membrane vesicles are poorly identified and characterized. In this study, cell-bound membrane vesicles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human hepatoma HepG-2 cells were investigated. We identified that cell-bound membrane vesicles are not co-localized with the major markers for extracellular vesicles (e.g. phosphatidylserine, CD63, CD107α, CD31, and DNA fragments for the three well-known types of extracellular vesicles) and for intracellular organelles with similar sizes (e...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087734/increased-mitophagy-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy-patients
#2
Doriana Borgia, Adriana Malena, Marco Spinazzi, Maria Andrea Desbats, Leonardo Salviati, Aaron P Russell, Giovanni Miotto, Laura Tosatto, Elena Pegoraro, Gianni Sorarù, Maria Pennuto, Lodovica Vergani
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) and characterized by the loss of lower motor neurons. Here we investigated pathological processes occurring in muscle biopsy specimens derived from SBMA patients and, as controls, age-matched healthy subjects and patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neurogenic atrophy. We detected atrophic fibers in the muscle of SBMA, ALS and neurogenic atrophy patients...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073955/establishment-of-a-rat-model-of-thrombosis-induced-by-intravenous-injection-of-anti-phosphatidylserine-prothrombin-complex-antibody
#3
Mai Yamada, Tamihiro Kawakami, Kohei Takashima, Yusuke Nishioka, Yuka Nishibata, Sakiko Masuda, Shigeru Yoshida, Utano Tomaru, Akihiro Ishizu
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that aPS-PT antibody is one of the most relevant autoantibodies to APS. This study aimed to demonstrate the pathogenicity of aPS-PT antibody in vivo METHODS: At first, cultured rat vascular endothelial cells (RECs) were exposed to calf thymus-derived histones. Two hours later, lactate dehydrogenase release from the RECs and expression of PS on the cell surface were assessed. Next, we administered an i.v. injection of calf thymus-derived histones into Wistar rats (12...
January 9, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072868/phosphatidylserine-outer-layer-translocation-is-implicated-in-il-10-secretion-by-human-regulatory-b-cells
#4
Rachel Audo, Charlotte Hua, Michael Hahne, Bernard Combe, Jacques Morel, Claire I Daien
B cells can have a regulatory role, mainly mediated by interleukin 10 (IL-10). IL-10 producing B cells (B10 cells) cells remain to be better characterized. Annexin V binds phosphatidylserine (PS), which is externalized during apoptosis. Previous works suggested that B10 cells are apoptotic cells since they bind Annexin V. Others showed that Annexin V binding could also be expressed on viable B cells. We aimed to explore if PS exposure can be a marker of B10 cells and if PS exposure has a functional role on B cell IL-10 production in healthy subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072762/giving-axl-the-axe-targeting-axl-in-human-malignancy
#5
Carl M Gay, Kavitha Balaji, Lauren Averett Byers
The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068214/paenibacillus-rhizoplanae-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-rhizosphere-of-zea-mays
#6
Peter Kämpfer, Hans-Jürgen Busse, John A McInroy, Chia-Hui Hu, Joseph W Kloepper, Stefanie P Glaeser
A Gram-positive staining, aerobic, endospore-forming bacterial strain, isolated from the rhizosphere of Zea mays was studied for its detailed taxonomic allocation. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain JJ-64T was shown to be a member of the genus Paenibacillus, most closely related to the type strains of Paenibacillus silagei (99%) and Paenibacillus borealis (97.5%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to all other Paenibacillus species was ≤ 97.5%. DNA-DNA hybridization values to the type strains of P...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066958/comparison-of-patient-derived-high-and-low-phosphatidylserine-exposing-colorectal-carcinoma-cells-in-their-interaction-with-anti-cancer-peptides
#7
Dominik Wilms, Jörg Andrä
Current cancer treatment is frequently compromised by severe adverse effects on healthy cells and tissues as well as by the increasing burden of (multi-)drug resistances. Some representatives of small, amphipathic peptides known as host defense peptides possess the potential to overcome these limitations and to evolve as future anti-cancer therapeutics. Peptide NK-2, derived from porcine NK-lysin, was originally discovered due to its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Today, also potent anti-cancer activity is proven and accompanied by low toxicity towards normal human cells...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065784/role-of-phosphatidylserine-in-the-activation-of-rho1-related-pkc1-signaling-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Wataru Nomura, Yusuke Ito, Yoshiharu Inoue
Protein kinase C (PKC) belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases and is evolutionary conserved among eukaryotes. It contains several functional domains, with the C1 domain being identified as a membrane-targeting module. Diacylglycerol (DAG) and phorbol esters bind to the C1 domain to enhance its kinase activity. The C1 domain is conserved in PKC (Pkc1) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, its kinase activity does not respond to DAG. Although the C1 domain of Pkc1 physically interacts with the small GTPase Rho1, the interaction between C1 domain and lipids has not yet been characterized...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059524/antileishmanial-activity-of-pyrazolopyridine-derivatives-and-their-potential-as-adjunct-therapy-with-miltefosine
#9
Devireddy Anand, Pawan Kumar Yadav, Om P S Patel, Naveen Parmar, Rahul K Maurya, Preeti Vishwakarma, Kanumuri S R Raju, Isha Taneja, Muhammad Wahajuddin, Susanta Kar, Prem P Yadav
A series of pyrazolo(dihydro)pyridines were synthesized and evaluated for antileishmanial efficacy against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Among all, compounds 6d and 6j exhibited better activity than miltefosine against the intracellular amastigotes. Compound 6j (50 mg/kg/day) was further studied against Leishmania donovani/BALB/c mice via the intraperitoneal route for 5 days and displayed >91 and >93% clearances in splenic and liver parasitic burden, respectively. Combination treatment of 6j with the sub-curative dose of miltefosine (5 mg/kg) in BALB/c mice almost completely ameliorated the disease (>97% inhibition) by augmenting nitric oxide generation and shifting the immune response towards Th1 mode...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054763/islet-amyloid-polypeptide-membrane-interactions-effects-of-membrane-composition
#10
Xiaoxue Zhang, Johnna R St Clair, Erwin London, Daniel P Raleigh
Amyloid formation by islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) contributes to β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Perturbation of the β-cell membrane may contribute to IAPP-induced toxicity. We examine the effects of lipid composition, salt, and buffer on IAPP amyloid formation and on the ability of IAPP to induce leakage of model membranes. Even low levels of anionic lipids promote amyloid formation and membrane permeabilization. Increasing the percentage of the anionic lipids, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (POPS) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho(1'-rac-glycerol), enhances the rate of amyloid formation and increases the level of membrane permeabilization...
January 5, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053206/gsk3b-mediated-phosphorylation-of-mcl1-regulates-axonal-autophagy-to-promote-wallerian-degeneration
#11
Shuji Wakatsuki, Shinji Tokunaga, Megumi Shibata, Toshiyuki Araki
Macroautophagy is a catabolic process, in which portions of cytoplasm or organelles are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Emerging evidence has indicated a pathological connection between axonal degeneration and autophagy. However, the physiological function and induction mechanism of autophagy in axons remain elusive. We herein show that, through activation of BECLIN1, glycogen synthase kinase 3B (GSK3B)-mediated phosphorylation of BCL2 family member MCL1 induces axonal autophagy and axonal degeneration...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053193/promyelocytic-extracellular-chromatin-exacerbates-coagulation-and-fibrinolysis-in-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia
#12
Muhua Cao, Tao Li, Zhangxiu He, Lixiu Wang, Xiaoyan Yang, Yan Kou, Lili Zou, Xue Dong, Valerie A Novakovic, Yayan Bi, Junjie Kou, Bo Yu, Shaohong Fang, Jinghua Wang, Jin Zhou, Jialan Shi
Despite routine treatment of unselected acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), early death due to hemorrhage remains unacceptably common and the mechanism underlying this complication remains elusive. We have recently demonstrated that APL cells undergo a novel cell death program, termed ETosis, which involves release of extracellular chromatin. However, the role of promyelocytic extracellular chromatin in APL-associated coagulation remains unclear. Our objectives were to identify the novel role of ATRA-promoted extracellular chromatin in inducing a hypercoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic state in APL and to evaluate its interaction with fibrin and endothelial cells (ECs)...
January 4, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052584/activated-platelet-derived-and-leukocyte-derived-circulating-microparticles-and-the-risk-of-thrombosis-in-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-a-role-for-pf4-bearing-microparticles
#13
Elena Campello, Claudia M Radu, Elena Duner, Anna M Lombardi, Luca Spiezia, Raffaele Bendo, Silvia Ferrari, Paolo Simioni, Fabrizio Fabris
BACKGROUND: Though the presence of platelets-derived microparticles (MPs) have previously been described in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), the mechanism of thrombosis in HIT remains poorly understood. We aimed to asses the presence and origin of MPs in patients with HIT and their possible contribution to HIT with thrombosis (HITT). METHODS: Forty-five patients with HIT and 45 matched hospitalized patients with not confirmed HIT (HIT-negative) were enrolled...
January 3, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050648/diagnostic-value-of-antibodies-to-phosphatidylserine-prothrombin-complex-for-antiphospholipid-syndrome-in-chinese-patients
#14
Lei Zhu, Chun Li, Na Liu, Xin Yang, R L Jia, Rong Mu, Yin Su, Z G Li
To evaluate the diagnosis value of antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex (aPS/PT) in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and to determine the clinical features of APS patients with avidity of aPS/PT. Serum samples were collected from 108 APS patients. Sixty patients with pregnancy morbidity, 37 patients with thrombosis without a history of autoimmune diseases, and 89 healthy blood donors were included as the control group. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was performed to detect the concentration of aPS/PT, including IgG/M, IgG, and IgM forms, in the same serum sample...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043365/cooled-storage-of-equine-semen-does-not-induce-major-changes-in-sperm-dna-methylation
#15
Rodrigo Arruda de Oliveira, Dragos Scarlet, Natascha Ille, Christine Aurich
A decrease in fertility of equine semen during cooled-storage so far has mainly been attributed to changes in sperm membrane function. In the present study we hypothesized that cooled-storage also changes the sperm DNA methylation level. For this purpose, semen was collected from 10 fertile stallions and processed for cooled-storage at 5 °C. Two final concentrations, 50 × 10(6) and 100 × 10(6) cells/mL, were used. Semen was analyzed for total motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity, phosphatidylserine translocation (PST), mitochondrial membrane potential and chromatin condensation, immediately after processing and at 24 h-intervals until 72 h of storage...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043132/liposomes-containing-lipid-soluble-zn-ii-bis-dipicolylamine-derivatives-show-potential-to-be-targeted-to-phosphatidylserine-on-the-surface-of-cancer-cells
#16
Umme Ayesa, Brian D Gray, Koon Y Pak, Parkson Lee-Gau Chong
Here we used a lipid-soluble Zn(II)-bis-dipicolylamine derivative as a membrane component to develop liposomal carriers that have potential to be targeted to phosphatidylserine (PS) rich surfaces on cancer cells and to preferentially kill cancer cells without using anticancer drugs. This DPA derivative (abbreviated as DPA-Cy3[22,22]) contains the fluorophore cyanine 3 (Cy3) and two 22-carbon chains that can be anchored into liposomal membrane bilayers. DPA-Cy3[22,22]/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) unilamellar vesicles (∼150 nm) showed selective binding to PS-containing liposomes as demonstrated by anion exchange chromatography...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034634/binding-of-cationic-model-peptides-kx-4k-to-anionic-lipid-bilayers-lipid-headgroup-size-influences-secondary-structure-of-bound-peptides
#17
André Hädicke, Alfred Blume
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transformed Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to test the influence of acyl chain length, acyl chain saturation, and chemical structure of anionic phospholipids on the interaction with cationic model peptides (KX)4K, with amino acid X=A, Abu, and L. The lipids used were phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidic acid (PA), and cardiolipin (CL). DSC was used to monitor the phase transition of lipid vesicles before and after peptide binding...
December 26, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029652/tumor-suppressor-blu-promotes-trail-induced-apoptosis-by-downregulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#18
Jiahui Zhou, Zunnan Huang, Ziyou Wang, Shumin Liu, Alf Grandien, Ingemar Ernberg, Zhiwei He, Xiangning Zhang
A putative tumor suppressor BLU mapped on the chromosomal 3p21 region, is frequently lost in human tumors including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). To explore the underlying mechanism of tumor suppression by BLU, its potential to promote apoptosis induced by TRAIL, an effector molecule elaborated by natural killer-T (NKT) cells was investigated. BLU was re-expressed in NPC-derived HNE1 cells by recombinant adenoviral infection and the cells were challenged with recombinant TRAIL. The growth inhibition of BLU was assayed and apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry-based tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) and annexin V staining, cleavage of pro-caspase-8 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP)...
December 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029283/evaluation-of-procoagulant-tissue-factor-expression-in-canine-hemangiosarcoma-cell-lines
#19
Lauren E Witter, Erika J Gruber, Fabian Z X Lean, Tracy Stokol
OBJECTIVE To evaluate expression of procoagulant tissue factor (TF) by canine hemangiosarcoma cells in vitro. SAMPLES 4 canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines (SB-HSA [mouse-passaged cutaneous tumor], Emma [primary metastatic brain tumor], and Frog and Dal-1 [primary splenic tumors]) and 1 nonneoplastic canine endothelial cell line (CnAoEC). PROCEDURES TF mRNA and TF antigen expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Thrombin generation was measured in canine plasma and in coagulation factor-replete or specific coagulation factor-deficient human plasma by calibrated automated thrombography...
January 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028735/mapping-of-surface-exposed-epitopes-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-aggregated-species-of-alpha-synuclein
#20
Leire Almandoz-Gil, Veronica Lindström, Jessica Sigvardson, Philipp J Kahle, Lars Lannfelt, Martin Ingelsson, Joakim Bergström
Aggregated alpha-synuclein is the main component of Lewy bodies, intraneuronal deposits observed in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The objective of the study was to identify surface-exposed epitopes of alpha-synuclein in vitro and in vivo formed aggregates. Polyclonal immunoglobulin Y antibodies were raised against short linear peptides of the alpha-synuclein molecule. An epitope in the N-terminal region (1-10) and all C-terminal epitopes (90-140) were found to be exposed in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant monomeric, oligomeric, and fibrillar alpha-synuclein...
December 27, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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