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C diff and PCR

Karin Johansson, Hanna Karlsson, Torbjörn Norén
Diagnostic testing for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has, in recent years, seen the introduction of rapid dual-EIA (enzyme immunoassay) tests combining species-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) with toxin A/B. In a prospective study, we compared the C. DIFF Quik Chek Complete test to a combination of selective culture (SC) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the toxin A gene. Of 419 specimens, 68 were positive in SC including 62 positive in LAMP (14.7%). The combined EIA yielded 82 GDH positives of which 47 were confirmed toxin A/B positive (11%) corresponding to a sensitivity and specificity of 94% for GDH EIA compared to SC and for toxin A/B EIA a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 99% compared to LAMP...
November 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Hae-Sun Chung, Miae Lee
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is crucial for patient care, infection control, and efficient surveillance. We evaluated C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE (QCC; TechLab), which detects glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen (QCC-Ag) and toxin A/B (QCC-Tox) simultaneously, and compared it to the laboratory diagnostics for CDI currently in use in a tertiary hospital setting with a high prevalence of CDI. QCC, RIDASCREEN C. difficile toxin A/B assay (Toxin EIA; R-Biopharm AG), chromID C...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Maria R Pavlova, Elina G Dobreva, Katucha I Ivanova, Galina D Asseva, Ivan N Ivanov, Peter K Petrov, Valeri R Velev, Ivelina I Tomova, Maida M Tiholova, Todor V Kantardjiev
INTRODUCTION: Campylobacter spp. are important causative agents of gastrointestinal infections in humans. The most frequently isolated strains of this bacterial genus are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. To date, genetic methods for bacterial identification have not been used in Bulgaria. We optimized the multiplex PSR assay to identify Campylobacter spp. and differentiate C. jejuni from C. coli in clinical isolates. We also compared this method with the routinely used biochemical methods...
April 2016: Folia Medica
B Kullin, T Brock, N Rajabally, F Anwar, G Vedantam, S Reid, V Abratt
The C. difficile infection rate in South Africa is concerning. Many strains previously isolated from diarrhetic patients at Groote Schuur Hospital were ribotype 017. This study further characterised these strains with respect to their clonal relationships, antibiotic susceptibility, toxin production and various attributes impacting on pathogen colonisation. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was used to characterise all C. difficile isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test and PCR-based analysis of the ermB, gyrA and gyrB genes...
October 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Özlem Yoldaş, Mustafa Altındiş, Davut Cufalı, Gülşah Aşık, Recep Keşli
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a common cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, which is usually associated with previous antibiotic use. The clinical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI) may range from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Clostridium difficile should be considered in diarrhea cases with a history of antibiotic use within the last 8 weeks (community-associated CDI) or with a hospital stay of at least 3 days, regardless of the duration of antibiotic use (hospital-acquired CDI)...
January 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Tingting Zhao, Jingbin Jiang, Guan Liu, Shanshan He, He Zhang, Xiuling Chen, Jingfu Li, Xiangyang Xu
BACKGROUND: Tomato leaf mold is a common disease in tomato cultivation. This disease is caused by Cladosporium fulvum, which has many physiological races and differentiates rapidly. Cf genes confer resistance to C. fulvum, and the C. fulvum-tomato pathosystem is a model for the study of gene-for-gene interactions. Plants carrying the Cf-19 gene show effective resistance to C. fulvum in the field, and can be used in breeding and resistance mechanism studies as new resistant materials. In this study, we used F2 bulk specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) and parental resequencing methods to locate and characterize the Cf-19 gene...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Guoping Cheng, Zihua Li, Xin Dai, Zaihua Wang, Ping Cai, Li Chen, Zhen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in pediatric patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). METHOD: Clinical data of totally 577 pediatric patients with AAD seen from January 2012 to January 2014 were collected; those children were divided according to age into 4 groups, 0.25 -1 year, >1 -4 years, >4 -12 years and >12 -18 years old groups, and 220 healthy children were enrolled as controls...
March 2015: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
M Krůtová, O Nyč
OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability of the laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by C. difficile in the Czech Republic (CR), including the range of tests used, possible combinations, and adequate interpretation of model results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected through a web questionnaire survey with the participation of representatives of 61 public and private microbiological laboratories. The questionnaire addressed the use of diagnostic test kits and culture media in the diagnosis of C...
June 2015: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Youyi Xiong, Junsong Wang, Hao Yu, Xiaolin Zhang, Chenggui Miao
CONTEXT: Crocin, a diterpenoid glucoside, has multitudinous activities such as anti-inflammation, anti-allergy, anti-oxidation and relaxing smooth muscles. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the potential of crocin as an anti-asthma agent was investigated in a murine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic airway inflammation, with crocin administered one hour before every OVA challenge...
June 2015: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Wafaa Jamal, Eunice M Pauline, Vincent O Rotimi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the GeneXpert C. difficile assay and C. diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) kit for the detection of toxins from fecal specimens and cooked meat broth (CMB) culture using toxigenic stool culture as reference method, for the diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI) in a community setting. METHODS: Non-repeat stool samples were tested simultaneously by GeneXpert and QCC. Toxin detection was done on neat stool samples, inoculated CMB, and isolated colonies...
December 2014: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Daniel R Knight, Michele M Squire, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile is a well-known enteric pathogen of humans and the causative agent of high-morbidity enteritis in piglets aged 1 to 7 days. C. difficile prevalence in Australian piglets is as high as 70%. The current diagnostic assays have been validated only for human infections, and there are no published studies assessing their performance in Australian piglets. We evaluated the suitability of five assays for detecting C. difficile in 157 specimens of piglet feces. The assays included a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMIA)-PCR for tcdA (illumigene C...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Shipeng Yu, Ahmed Abdelkarim, Ali Nawras, Bryan Thomas Hinch, Chimaka Mbaso, Shahul Valavoor, Fadi Safi, Jeffrey Hammersley, Jianlin Tang, Ragheb Assaly
Clostridium difficile (C diff) colitis infection is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea and the prevalence is increasing worldwide. Toxic megacolon is a severe complication of C diff colitis associated with high mortality. Gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidity and impaired smooth muscle contraction are risk factors for the development of C diff-associated toxic megacolon. We present a case of fulminant C diff colitis with toxic megacolon in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in the intensive care unit...
March 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
J Hart, P Putsathit, D R Knight, L Sammels, T V Riley, A Keil
The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in paediatric hospitalised populations, combined with the emergence of hypervirulent strains, community-acquired CDI and the need for prompt treatment and infection control, makes the rapid, accurate diagnosis of CDI crucial. We validated commonly used C. difficile diagnostic tests in a paediatric hospital population. From October 2011 to January 2012, 150 consecutive stools were collected from 75 patients at a tertiary paediatric hospital in Perth, Western Australia...
September 2014: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
L Bareková, E Zálabská, I Hanovcová
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is currently a significant cause of nosocomial diarrhea. For several years, the number of infectious cases in the community has also been increasing. Since the beginning of 2010, quite a large increase in the number of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) has been noted in Pardubice Regional Hospital (PRH). The objectives of this study were to describe and evaluate the methods used in the laboratory diagnosis of CDIs in PRH, and to describe the laboratory diagnostic algorithm used here...
September 2013: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Noah A Brown, William D Lebar, Carol L Young, Rosemary E Hankerd, Duane W Newton
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by toxigenic strains of C. difficile is primarily a nosocomial infection with increasing prevalence. Stool specimens are typically collected in Cary-Blair transport medium to maximize culture-based detection of common stool pathogens. The goal of this study was to establish an analytically accurate and efficient algorithm for the detection of CDI in our patient population using samples collected in Cary-Blair transport medium. In addition, we wished to determine whether the sensitivity and specificity of PCR was affected by freezing samples before testing...
March 8, 2011: Infectious Disease Reports
Marie L Landry, David Ferguson, Jeffrey Topal
Simplexa Clostridium difficile universal direct PCR, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of the C. difficile toxin B (tcdB) gene using the 3M integrated cycler, was compared with a two-step algorithm which includes the C. Diff Chek-60 glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen assay followed by cytotoxin neutralization. Three hundred forty-two liquid or semisolid stools submitted for diagnostic C. difficile testing, 171 GDH antigen positive and 171 GDH antigen negative, were selected for the study. All samples were tested by the C...
January 2014: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Zmira Samra, Liora Madar-Shapiro, Mahanez Aziz, Jihad Bishara
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection is considered the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea among adults in the developed world. It is responsible for virtually all cases of pseudomembranous colitis. The Tox A/B enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is the most widely used test for the detection of C. difficile toxins A and B. However, it is associated with poor sensitivity and an unacceptable high rate of false-negative results. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the C...
July 2013: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Bryan L Betz, Catherine A Dixon, Helmut C Weigelin, Stewart M Knoepp, Michael H Roh
BACKGROUND: Rearrangements involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene are present in approximately 5% of lung adenocarcinomas. Crizotinib is approved for the treatment of lung adenocarcinomas harboring ALK rearrangements. Patients with advanced stage lung cancer are not candidates for surgical resection of their primary tumors. For these patients, cytologic specimens often represent the only diagnostic tissue available. Cell blocks (CBs) are routinely used for molecular studies; however, insufficient CB cellularity can impede the performance of these assays...
September 2013: Cancer Cytopathology
Shawn Vasoo, Jane Stevens, Lena Portillo, Ruby Barza, Debra Schejbal, May May Wu, Christina Chancey, Kamaljit Singh
The analytical performance and cost-effectiveness of the Wampole Toxin A/B EIA, the C. Diff. Quik Chek Complete (CdQCC) (a combined glutamate dehydrogenase antigen/toxin enzyme immunoassay), two RT-PCR assays (Progastro Cd and BD GeneOhm) and a modified two-step algorithm using the CdQCC reflexed to RT-PCR for indeterminate results were compared. The sensitivity of the Wampole Toxin A/B EIA, CdQCC (GDH antigen), BD GeneOhm and Progastro Cd RT-PCR were 85.4%, 95.8%, 100% and 93.8%, respectively. The algorithm provided rapid results for 86% of specimens and the remaining indeterminate results were resolved by RT-PCR, offering the best balance of sensitivity and cost savings per test (algorithm ∼US$13...
February 2014: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Karissa Culbreath, Edward Ager, Ronald J Nemeyer, Alan Kerr, Peter H Gilligan
We present the evolution of testing algorithms at our institution in which the C. Diff Quik Chek Complete immunochromatographic cartridge assay determines the presence of both glutamate dehydrogenase and Clostridium difficile toxins A and B as a primary screen for C. difficile infection and indeterminate results (glutamate dehydrogenase positive, toxin A and B negative) are confirmed by the GeneXpert C. difficile PCR assay. This two-step algorithm is a cost-effective method for highly sensitive detection of toxigenic C...
September 2012: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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