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Clostridium difficile AND PCR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417271/antimicrobial-effects-of-manuka-honey-on-in-vitro-biofilm-formation-by-clostridium-difficile
#1
M Piotrowski, P Karpiński, H Pituch, A van Belkum, P Obuch-Woszczatyński
Clostridium difficile is the cause of the nosocomial C. difficile infection (CDI). The conventional antibiotics used in CDI therapy are often unsuccessful, and recurrent infections may occur. Biofilm formation by C. difficile is associated with chronic or recurrent infections; biofilms may contribute to virulence and impaired antimicrobial efficacy. Manuka honey, derived from the Manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium), is known to exhibit antimicrobial properties that are associated with its significant content of methylglyoxal, a natural antibiotic...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412380/colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-italy-a-point-prevalence-study
#2
Maria Giufrè, Enrico Ricchizzi, Marisa Accogli, Fabrizio Barbanti, Monica Monaco, Fernanda Pimentel de Araujo, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Romano Mattei, Mario Sarti, Agostino Barozzi, Rossella Buttazzi, Marina Cosentino, Maria Nardone, Vincenzo Savini, Patrizia Spigaglia, Annalisa Pantosti, Maria Luisa Moro, Marina Cerquetti
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors for colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents in Italy. Genotypes of MDRO isolates were investigated. METHODS: A point-prevalence study was conducted at 12 LTCFs located in 4 Italian cities (2 February-14 March 2015). Rectal swabs, faeces and nasal/auxiliary swabs were cultured for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), respectively...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401147/toxinotyping-and-sequencing-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-patients-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-northern-india
#3
Meenakshi Singh, Chetana Vaishnavi, Safrun Mahmood, Rakesh Kochhar
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is an important cause of infectious colitis among hospitalized patients across the globe. The pathogenic potential of C. difficile in producing significant morbidity and mortality is mainly due to production of toxins A and B. The outbreaks of C. difficile infection (CDI) are due to changes in the genetic sequences of the organism. There is hardly any molecular study reported on the prevalent types of C. difficile strains in India. Toxinotyping and sequencing of locally circulating C...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389190/detection-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-vre-in-stool-specimens-submitted-for-clostridium-difficile-toxin-testing
#4
Sevim Özsoy, Arzu İlki
The aim of this study was to determine the association between Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and efficacy of screening stools submitted for C. difficile toxin assay for prevalence of VRE. Between April 2012 and February 2014, 158 stool samples submitted for C. difficile toxin to the Marmara University Microbiology Laboratory, were included in the study. Stool samples were analyzed by enzyme immuno assay test; VIDAS (bioMerieux, France) for Toxin A&B. Samples were inoculated on chromID VRE (bioMerieux, France) and incubated 24h at 37°C...
March 17, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376944/use-of-a-perianal-swab-compared-with-a-stool-sample-to-detect-symptomatic-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
Marisa A Montecalvo, Emnet Sisay, Donna McKenna, Guiqing Wang, Paul Visintainer, Gary P Wormser
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a perianal swab to detect CDI. METHODS A perianal swab was collected from each inpatient with a positive stool sample for C. difficile (by polymerase chain reaction [PCR] test) and was tested for C. difficile by PCR and by culture. The variables evaluated included demographics, CDI severity, bathing before perianal swab collection, hours between stool sample and perianal swab, cycle threshold (Ct) to PCR positivity, and doses of CDI treatment before stool sample and before perianal swab...
April 5, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366929/strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-united-states-of-america-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#6
Laia Jimena Vazquez Guillamet, Zane Saul, Goran Miljkovich, Gabriel Alejandro Vilchez, Nikolai Mendonca, Venkata Gourineni, Nicholas Lillo, Marguerite Pinto, Aurengzaib Baig, Louie Mar Gangcuangco
BACKGROUND Strongyloides stercoralis infection is endemic in subtropical and tropical regions but is reported rather sporadically in temperate countries. In the USA, the highest rates of infection are from the southeastern states, predominantly among immigrants. There is paucity of case reports on S. stercoralis infection among HIV-infected patients who were born and raised in the USA. CASE REPORT A 61-year-old male with known HIV infection (CD4 count: 235 cells/uL, undetectable HIV RNA, on antiretroviral therapy) presented with a 3-month history of diarrhea...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363494/clinical-and-endoscopic-features-in-patients-with-hospital-acquired-diarrhea-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#7
J A Velarde Ruiz-Velasco, J M Aldana-Ledesma, M A Ibarra-Estrada, S A Aguirre Díaz, J A Fernández-Ramírez, F Cárdenas-Lara, F Álvarez López, L E Rodríguez-Noriega, H R Pérez-Gómez, M R Morfín-Otero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clostridium difficile (CD) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea. Clinical and endoscopic findings are poorly described in our country. The aim of this study is to depict those findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study, which included patients with CD associated hospital-acquired diarrhea, diagnosed by means of fecal PCR and testing for the presence of hypervirulent strain NAP027. We analyzed clinical and endoscopic features, as well as the variables associated with severe disease...
March 28, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355613/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-returning-travellers
#8
A Michal Stevens, Douglas H Esposito, Rhett J Stoney, Davidson H Hamer, Jose Flores-Figueroa, Emmanuel Bottieau, Bradley A Connor, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Abraham Goorhuis, Noreen A Hynes, Michael Libman, Rogelio Lopez-Velez, Anne E McCarthy, Frank von Sonnenburg, Eli Schwartz, Perry J J van Genderen, L Scott Benson, Daniel T Leung
Background: There is increasing recognition of the contribution of community-acquired cases to the global burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The epidemiology of CDI among international travellers is poorly understood, and factors associated with international travel, such as antibiotic use and changes in gut microbiota, could potentially put travellers at higher risk. Methods: We summarized demographic, travel-associated and geographic characteristics of travellers with CDI in the GeoSentinel database from 1997 to 2015...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348781/human-clostridium-difficile-infection-caused-by-a-livestock-associated-pcr-ribotype-237-strain-in-western-australia
#9
Alan M Mc Govern, Niki F Foster, Lynette A Pereira, Daniel R Knight, Briony Elliott, Barbara J Chang, Thomas V Riley
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant gastrointestinal disease in the developed world and increasingly recognised as a zoonotic infection. In North America and Europe, the PCR ribotype (RT) 078 strain of C. difficile is commonly found in production animals and as a cause of disease in humans although proof of transmission from animals is lacking. This strain is absent in Australian livestock. We report a case of human CDI caused by a strain of C. difficile belonging to known Australian livestock-associated RT 237...
August 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332133/molecular-typing-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-to-six-antimicrobials-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-three-czech-hospitals-in-eastern-bohemia-in-2011-2012
#10
V Beran, E J Kuijper, C Harmanus, I M Sanders, S M van Dorp, C W Knetsch, J Janeckova, A Seidelova, L Barekova, J Tvrdik, D Chmelar, I Ciznar
In 2011-2012, a survey was performed in three regional hospitals in the Czech Republic to determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and to characterize bacterial isolates. C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping, toxin genes detection, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to fidaxomicin, vancomycin, metronidazole, clindamycin, LFF571, and moxifloxacin using agar dilution method. The incidence of CDI in three studied hospitals was 145, 146, and 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011 and 177, 258, and 67 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012...
March 22, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318702/antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-clinical-characteristics-and-the-presence-of-clostridium-difficile
#11
A Rodríguez-Varón, O M Muñoz, J Pulido-Arenas, S B Amado, M Tobón-Trujillo
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Evidence in Colombia and Latin America has been insufficient for establishing the clinical characteristics of patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). The present study attempts to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with AAD and to determine the presence of Clostridium difficile, utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with AAD, managed at the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio in Bogotá, Colombia, were evaluated...
March 18, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303388/the-impact-of-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-combating-quinolone-resistance-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations-for-more-efficient-interventions
#12
REVIEW
Vasiliki Pitiriga, Georgia Vrioni, George Saroglou, Athanasios Tsakris
Quinolones are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide. A clear relationship has been demonstrated between excessive quinolone use and the steady increase in the incidence of quinolone-resistant bacterial pathogens, both in hospital and community sites. In addition, exposure to quinolones has been associated with colonization and infection with healthcare-associated pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients. Therefore, the management of quinolone prescribing in hospitals through antibiotic stewardship programs is considered crucial...
March 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279489/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-in-spain-the-procrid-study
#13
Antonio Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, Luis Martín-Villén, Luis Alcalá-Hernández, Mercedes Marín Arriaza, Bárbara Balandín-Moreno, César Aragón-González, José Ferreres-Franco, Miguel Ángel Chiveli Monleón, Paloma Anguita-Alonso, Emilio Bouza-Santiago, José Garnacho-Montero
INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in critically ill patients and to determine C. difficile PCR-ribotypes. METHODS: Prospective, observational study in 26 Spanish ICUs. Patients with diarrhea meeting ESCMID criteria for CDI were included. Molecular characterization of isolates was performed using PCR ribotyping. RESULTS: Of 4258 patients admitted to the ICUs, 190 (4...
March 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274126/-selection-of-laboratory-procedures-to-detect-toxigenic-by-the-2-step-method
#14
Yoko Tanino, Mai Kodama, Hiroomi Daicho, Yoshito Miyauchi, Towa Yasumoto, Yukiji Yamada, Noriko Kyotani, Satoko Kurahashi, Masaji Ushiyama, Takeshi Kimura, Toshiaki Komori, Yumiko Fujitomo, Masaki Nakanishi, Naohisa Fujita
The 2-step method is an algorithm to detect toxigenic Clostridium difficile. We herein compared the sensitivities and specificities of an enzyme immunoassay (toxin A/B-EIA), toxigenic culture (TC-EIA), Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification assay (LAMP), and Xpert C. difficile (Xpert) with the detection of the toxin B gene by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results obtained showed that the sensitivities and specificities of toxin A/B-EIA, Xpert, TC-EIA, and LAMP were 30 and 100%, 87.2 and 100%, 97.5 and 89...
March 22, 2017: JARMAM: Journal of the Association for Rapid Method and Automation in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251812/risk-factors-and-clinical-outcome-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-ibd-a-chinese-single-center-retrospective-study-of-260-cases
#15
YuBei Gu, Mao Chen Zhang, Jing Sun, KeZhi Lv, Jie Zhong
AIM: Clostridium difficile infection(CDI) may lead to poor outcome in inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) patients. This study was designed to investigate the cumulative incidence, risk factors, and outcome of CDI in patients with IBD in one Chinese single center. METHODS: Clinical features and endoscopic profiles of consecutive IBD patients from RuiJin Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. CDI was diagnosed based on the positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based stool test...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219893/toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-latently-infect-mouse-colonies-and-protect-against-highly-pathogenic-c-difficile
#16
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Benoit Chassaing, Oluwaseyi Adekunle, Lisa M Mattei, Frederic D Bushman, Andrew T Gewirtz
OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile is a toxin-producing bacterium and a leading cause of antibiotic-associated disease. The ability of C. difficile to form spores and infect antibiotic-treated persons at low multiplicity of infection (MOI) underlies its large disease burden. However, C. difficile-induced disease might also result from long-harboured C. difficile that blooms in individuals administered antibiotics. DESIGN: Mice purchased from multiple vendors and repeatedly testing negative for this pathogen by quantitative PCR bloomed C...
February 20, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215602/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-acute-flares-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-prospective-study
#17
Harry Sokol, Valérie Lalande, Cecilia Landman, Anne Bourrier, Isabelle Nion-Larmurier, Sylvie Rajca, Julien Kirchgesner, Philippe Seksik, Jacques Cosnes, Frédéric Barbut, Laurent Beaugerie
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common complication in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and has been associated with poor IBD outcome. The aims of our study were to look for predictive factors of CDI in patients hospitalized for IBD flare and to evaluate a rapid testing strategy in this population. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized for IBD flare in Saint-Antoine Hospital (Paris, France) were prospectively tested for CDI with a defined strategy involving rapid testing and reference methods...
January 30, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192156/evaluation-of-two-novel-chemiluminescence-immunoassays-for-the-detection-of-clostridium-difficile-glutamate-dehydrogenase-and-toxin-a-b
#18
Annette Blaich, Reno Frei, Carine Castellano, Christine Kiessling, Angelika Geschke, Katharina M Rentsch, Adrian Egli
A novel immunoassay for Clostridium difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A&B (LIAISON, DiaSorin) was compared to another GDH assay (Alere), PCR and toxigenic culture. The GDH-DiaSorin is slightly more sensitive than the GDH-Alere. Sensitivity of the Toxin-Diasorin test is in accordance to the sensitivity of other immunoassays in literature.
February 10, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187144/a-mathematical-model-of-clostridium-difficile-transmission-in-medical-wards-and-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-comparing-different-strategies-for-laboratory-diagnosis-and-patient-isolation
#19
Vered Schechner, Yehuda Carmeli, Moshe Leshno
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common and potentially fatal healthcare-associated infection. Improving diagnostic tests and infection control measures may prevent transmission. We aimed to determine, in resource-limited settings, whether it is more effective and cost-effective to allocate resources to isolation or to diagnostics. METHODS: We constructed a mathematical model of CDI transmission based on hospital data (9 medical wards, 350 beds) between March 2010 and February 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182338/evaluation-of-nested-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-immunoassay-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-in-children-with-community-acquired-diarrhea
#20
Ahmed Elewa, Maysaa El Sayed-Zaki
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a known pathogen associated with diarrhea especially in hospital acquired diarrhea. Yet, it is being recognized as a probable etiology for community acquired diarrhea. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of C. difficile as a pathogen causing community acquired diarrhea in children and to verify the value of different laboratory methods for diagnosis, namely specific culture, immunoassay for toxin detection, and nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
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