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Clostridium difficile AND PCR

Natalia Blanco, Seth Walk, Anurag N Malani, Alexander Rickard, Michele Benn, Marisa Eisenberg, Min Zhang, Betsy Foxman
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the correlation between Clostridium difficile spore and toxin levels within the human host. In addition, we assessed whether overgrowth of Candida albicans modified this association. METHODOLOGY: We measured toxin, spore and Candida albicans levels among 200 successively collected stool samples that tested positive for C. difficile, and PCR ribotyped these C. difficile isolates. Analysis of variance and linear regression were used to test the association between spore and toxin levels...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Myreen E Tomas, Thriveen S C Mana, Brigid M Wilson, Michelle M Nerandzic, Joussef Samira, Miguel Quinones-Mateu, Curtis J Donskey
Vancomycin taper regimens are commonly used for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. One rationale for tapering and pulsing of the dose at the end of therapy is to reduce the selective pressure of vancomycin on the indigenous intestinal microbiota. Here, we used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that the indigenous microbiota that provide colonization resistance against C. difficile and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is re-populated during tapering courses of vancomycin. Mice were treated orally with vancomycin daily for 10 days, vancomycin in a tapering dose for 42 days, fidaxomicin for 10 days, or saline...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Majda Biasizzo, Stanka Vadnjal, Urska Henigman, Manja Krizman, Andrej Kirbis, Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki
There is no recommended protocol for detecting and isolating Clostridium difficile present in food samples. Here, we have evaluated the recovery of C. difficile in meat samples after incubating them in various enrichment broths. The media were as follows: cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with taurocholic acid, d-cycloserine, cefoxitin, and lysozyme; cycloserine-cefoxitin mannitol broth with taurocholate and lysozyme; and cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with taurocholic acid, C...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Feng Liao, Wenge Li, Wenpeng Gu, Wenzhu Zhang, Xiaoshu Liu, Xiaoqing Fu, Wen Xu, Yuan Wu, Jinxing Lu
To identify the prevalence and characteristics of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) in southwest China, we conducted a cross-sectional study. 978 diarrhea patients were enrolled and stool specimens' DNA was screened for virulence genes. Bacterial culture was performed and isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing. Toxin genes tcdA and/or tcdB were found in 138/978 (14.11%) cases for fecal samples. A total of 55 C. difficile strains were isolated (5...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
F E Sachsenheimer, I Yang, O Zimmermann, C Wrede, L V Müller, K Gunka, U Groß, S Suerbaum
Infection with the emerging pathogen Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile might lead to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and mammals eventually resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, which can be mild to possibly life-threatening. Recurrences after antibiotic treatment have been described in 15-30% of the cases and are either caused by the original (relapse) or by new strains (reinfection). In this study, we describe a patient with ongoing recurrent C. difficile infections over 13 months...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Laura Tijerina-Rodríguez, Rayo Morfin-Otero, Adrián Camacho-Ortíz, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Hugo Sánchez-Alanís, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Simon D Baines, Samantha Flores-Treviño, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: To assess drug susceptibility and characterize Clostridium difficile ribotypes in isolates from two tertiary-care hospitals in Mexico. METHODS: Isolates were evaluated for genotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection of mutations associated with drug resistance. PCR ribotyping was performed using a combination of gel-based and capillary electrophoresis-based approaches. RESULTS: MIC50 and MIC90 were ≥128 mg/L for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and rifampicin...
February 27, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Denise Rabold, Werner Espelage, Muna Abu Sin, Tim Eckmanns, Alexander Schneeberg, Heinrich Neubauer, Nadine Möbius, Katja Hille, Lothar H Wieler, Christian Seyboldt, Antina Lübke-Becker
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in humans range from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening intestinal disease. Findings on C. difficile in various animal species and an overlap in ribotypes (RTs) suggest potential zoonotic transmission. However, the impact of animals for human CDI remains unclear. METHODS: In a large-scale survey we collected 1,447 fecal samples to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in small companion animals (dogs and cats) and their owners and to assess potential epidemiological links within the community...
2018: PloS One
James A Karlowsky, Heather J Adam, Tyler Kosowan, Melanie R Baxter, Kim A Nichol, Nancy M Laing, George Golding, George G Zhanel
Clostridium difficile toxin-positive diarrheal stool specimens submitted to eight Canadian hospital laboratories from 2013 to 2015 were cultured. Polymerase chain reaction ribotyping of isolates was performed using an internationally standardized, high-resolution capillary gel-based electrophoresis protocol and antimicrobial susceptibility testing conducted by CLSI-defined agar dilution (M11-A8, 2012). Among the 1310 isolates of C. difficile cultured, 141 different ribotypes were identified; the most common ribotypes were 027 (24...
January 31, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Thomas V Riley, Tomomi Kimura
To increase understanding of the epidemiology, risks, consequences and resource utilization of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Japan, a systematic literature review was undertaken of relevant publications from January 2006 to November 2017. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and methods, 55 articles met the criteria for full review. The majority (58%) of studies were from a single site, with the most recent data from 2015. The incidence, reported prevalence and recurrence rate of CDI in Japan were 0...
February 13, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Pil Hun Song, Jung Hwa Min, You Sun Kim, Soo Yeon Jo, Eun Jin Kim, Kyung Jin Lee, Jeonghun Lee, Hyun Sung, Jeong Seop Moon, Dong Hee Whang
Background/Aims: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased worldwide, resulting in a need for rapid and accurate diagnostic methods. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to compare CDI diagnosis methods between January 2014 and December 2014. The stool samples, which were obtained in presumptive CDI patients, were compared for their diagnostic accuracy and rapidity, including real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of toxin genes, C...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
Dejan Micic, Andres Yarur, Alex Gonsalves, Vijaya L Rao, Susan Broadaway, Russell Cohen, Sushila Dalal, John N Gaetano, Laura R Glick, Ayal Hirsch, Joel Pekow, Atsushi Sakuraba, Seth T Walk, David T Rubin
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the most commonly isolated stool pathogen in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional risk factors for C. difficile may not exist in patients with IBD, and no prior studies have assessed the risk factors for the isolation of C. difficile in both symptomatic and asymptomatic IBD outpatients. METHODS: We prospectively recruited consecutive IBD patients presenting to our outpatient clinic between April 2015 and February 2016...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
D S Pickering, J J Vernon, J Freeman, M H Wilcox, C H Chilton
BACKGROUND: A variety of supplemented solid media are used within Clostridium difficile research to optimally recover spores. Our study sought to investigate different media and additives, providing a method of optimised C. difficile spore recovery. Additionally, due to the results observed in the initial experiments, the inhibitory effects of three amino acids (glycine, L-histidine & L-phenylalanine) on C. difficile spore outgrowth were investigated. METHODS: Spores of five C...
January 31, 2018: Anaerobe
Mi-Ran Seo, Jieun Kim, Yangsoon Lee, Dong-Gyun Lim, Hyunjoo Pai
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection. Aim of this study was to investigate the genetic relatedness of the endemic C. difficile PCR ribotype 018 strains in an institution and changes to their characteristics during five-year period. A total of 207 isolates obtained from inpatients at Hanyang University Hospital from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of several antibiotics were determined...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Gabriella Mallia, Jane Van Toen, Joyce Rousseau, Latha Jacob, Patrick Boerlin, Amy Greer, Devon Metcalf, JScott Weese
BACKGROUND: While Clostridium difficile has been extensively studied in acute care facilities (ACFs), there is limited information about long-term care facilities (LTCFs), despite the high occurrence of putative risk factors (e.g. age, antimicrobial use, healthcare system contact). AIM: To evaluate C. difficile colonization in elderly patients and residents from ACF and its associated LTCF. METHODS: Stool swabs were collected from 884 LTCF and elderly (>65 years) hospital patients...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Larry K Kociolek, Dale N Gerding, David W Hecht, Egon A Ozer
Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 106 (also identified as restriction endonuclease analysis [REA] group DH) recently emerged as the most common strain causing C. difficile infection (CDI) among US adults. We previously identified this strain predominating our pediatric cohort. Pediatric clinical CDI isolates previously characterized by REA underwent antibiotic resistance testing and whole genome sequencing. Of 134 isolates collected from children, 31 (23%) were REA group DH. We performed a comparative genomics analysis to identify DH-associated accessory genes...
January 29, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Jeanne Couturier, Kerrie Davies, Cécile Gateau, Frédéric Barbut
Clostridium difficile is a major bacterial cause of post-antibiotic diarrhoea. The epidemiology of C. difficile infections (CDI) has dramatically changed since the early 2000s, with an increasing incidence and severity across Europe. This trend is partly due to the emergence and rapid worldwide spread of the hypervirulent and epidemic PCR ribotype 027. Profiles of patients with CDI have also evolved, with description of community-acquired (CA) infections in patients with no traditional risk factors for CDI...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sandra Milena Gualtero, Lina Alejandra Abril, Nathalia Camelo, Susi Daniela Sanchez, Fabián Antonio Davila, Gerson Arias, Edwin Silva, Ingrid Gissel Bustos, Diego Fernando Josa, Isabel Cristina Torres, Luis Carlos Zambrano, María José Pareja
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the main pathogen related to healthcare-associated diarrhea and it is the cause of 20 to 30% of diarrhea cases caused by antibiotics. In Colombia and Latin America, the knowledge about the epidemiological behavior of this infection is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a series of patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive case series study of patients with C...
December 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Anna K Barker, Benjamin Krasity, Jackson Musuuza, Nasia Safdar
OBJECTIVE To identify facilitators and barriers to implementation of a Clostridium difficile screening intervention among bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients and to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the intervention on the rate of hospital-onset C. difficile infection (HO-CDI). DESIGN Before-and-after trial SETTING A 505-bed tertiary-care medical center PARTICIPANTS All 5,357 patients admitted to the BMT and general medicine wards from January 2014 to February 2017 were included in the study. Interview participants included 3 physicians, 4 nurses, and 4 administrators...
February 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Elisabeth Nagy
Clostridium difficile, recently reclassified as Clostridioides difficile is responsible for a significant part of diarrheal diseases in the hospitals and in the community. Besides the main pathogenic factors, toxin A, toxin B and the binary toxin, several other putative virulence factors have been investigated. This manuscript summarize recent findings in Europe concerning source of infection, epidemiology of CDI, the changing pattern of PCR ribotypes of C. difficile strains in different European countries, recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of CDI...
March 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
M Krutova, P Kinross, F Barbut, A Hajdu, M H Wilcox, E J Kuijper
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in healthcare settings in Europe since 2003 has affected both patients and healthcare systems. The implementation of effective CDI surveillance is key to enable monitoring of the occurrence and spread of C. difficile in healthcare and the timely detection of outbreaks. AIMS: The aim of this review is to provide a summary of key components of effective CDI surveillance and to provide some practical recommendations...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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