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Clostridium difficile AND PCR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511200/enteric-infection-in-relapse-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-the-utility-of-stool-microbial-pcr-testing
#1
Jordan E Axelrad, Andrew Joelson, Yael R Nobel, Garrett Lawlor, Peter H R Green, Simon Lichtiger, Benjamin Lebwohl
BACKGROUND: The similar presentations in relapse of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and enteric infection pose substantial barriers to diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, etiology, predictors, and treatment of enteric infection in patients with IBD. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 214 patients with IBD who underwent 295 gastrointestinal pathogen panel and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stool tests during an exacerbation of symptoms...
June 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501926/an-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-027-in-spain-risk-factors-for-recurrence-and-a-novel-treatment-strategy
#2
E Bouza, L Alcalá, M Marín, M Valerio, E Reigadas, P Muñoz, M González-Del Vecchio, V de Egea
An outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by ribotype 027 (B1/NAP1) began in our hospital in November 2014, and produced 141 episodes in the following months. The aim of this study is to describe this outbreak, assess risk factors for recurrence of CDI-027 and to analyze the implementation of a novel treatment strategy. This is a prospective study of all patients with CDI-027, from November 2014 to November 2015. The epidemiological data were collected daily for each patient. We compared clinical characteristics and treatment between patients with and without recurrence of CDI-027...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501554/molecular-typing-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-cultured-from-patient-stool-samples-and-gastroenterological-medical-devices-in-a-single-iranian-hospital
#3
Masoumeh Azimirad, Marcela Krutova, Otakar Nyc, Zahra Hasani, Leili Afrisham, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Reza Zali
This study aimed to characterize Clostridium difficile isolates cultured from stool samples of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) and swabs from a medical environment in a gastroenterology centre in Tehran, Iran. A total of 158 samples (105 stool samples from hospitalized patients and 53 swabs from medical devices and the environment) were collected from January 2011 to August 2011 and investigated for the presence of C. difficile by direct anaerobic culture on a selective media for C. difficile. C...
May 10, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441827/-colonization-rate-of-clostridium-difficile-in-healthy-children
#4
Y Wang, S Guo, C N Zhao, X W Xu
Objective: To learn the colonization of Clostridium difficile in local healthy children and to investigate the colonization rate and toxin types of Clostridium difficile at different ages. Method: From September 2014 to January 2015 in a case observational study, healthy children's fecal specimens from the health care department of Beijing Children's Hospital were collected. The children were divided into four groups according to age: <1 year old(n=53), 1-<3 years old(n=50), 3-<6 years old(n=50) and 6-<14 years old(n=50) respectively...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435086/toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-colonization-among-hospitalised-adults-risk-factors-and-impact-on-survival
#5
Laura Behar, David Chadwick, Angela Dunne, Christopher I Jones, Claire Proctor, Chakravarthi Rajkumar, Paula Sharratt, Philip Stanley, Angela Whiley, Mark Wilks, Martin J Llewelyn
OBJECTIVES: To establish risk factors for Clostridium difficile colonization among hospitalized patients in England. METHODS: Patients admitted to elderly medicine wards at three acute hospitals in England were recruited to a prospective observational study. Participants were asked to provide a stool sample as soon as possible after enrolment and then weekly during their hospital stay. Samples were cultured for C. difficile before ribotyping and toxin detection by PCR...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417271/antimicrobial-effects-of-manuka-honey-on-in-vitro-biofilm-formation-by-clostridium-difficile
#6
M Piotrowski, P Karpiński, H Pituch, A van Belkum, P Obuch-Woszczatyński
Clostridium difficile is the cause of the nosocomial C. difficile infection (CDI). The conventional antibiotics used in CDI therapy are often unsuccessful, and recurrent infections may occur. Biofilm formation by C. difficile is associated with chronic or recurrent infections; biofilms may contribute to virulence and impaired antimicrobial efficacy. Manuka honey, derived from the Manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium), is known to exhibit antimicrobial properties that are associated with its significant content of methylglyoxal, a natural antibiotic...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412380/colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-italy-a-point-prevalence-study
#7
Maria Giufrè, Enrico Ricchizzi, Marisa Accogli, Fabrizio Barbanti, Monica Monaco, Fernanda Pimentel de Araujo, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Romano Mattei, Mario Sarti, Agostino Barozzi, Rossella Buttazzi, Marina Cosentino, Maria Nardone, Vincenzo Savini, Patrizia Spigaglia, Annalisa Pantosti, Maria Luisa Moro, Marina Cerquetti
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors for colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents in Italy. Genotypes of MDRO isolates were investigated. METHODS: A point-prevalence study was conducted at 12 LTCFs located in 4 Italian cities (2 February-14 March 2015). Rectal swabs, faeces and nasal/auxiliary swabs were cultured for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), respectively...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401147/toxinotyping-and-sequencing-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-patients-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-northern-india
#8
Meenakshi Singh, Chetana Vaishnavi, Safrun Mahmood, Rakesh Kochhar
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is an important cause of infectious colitis among hospitalized patients across the globe. The pathogenic potential of C. difficile in producing significant morbidity and mortality is mainly due to production of toxins A and B. The outbreaks of C. difficile infection (CDI) are due to changes in the genetic sequences of the organism. There is hardly any molecular study reported on the prevalent types of C. difficile strains in India. Toxinotyping and sequencing of locally circulating C...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389190/detection-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-vre-in-stool-specimens-submitted-for-clostridium-difficile-toxin-testing
#9
Sevim Özsoy, Arzu İlki
The aim of this study was to determine the association between Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and efficacy of screening stools submitted for C. difficile toxin assay for prevalence of VRE. Between April 2012 and February 2014, 158 stool samples submitted for C. difficile toxin to the Marmara University Microbiology Laboratory, were included in the study. Stool samples were analyzed by enzyme immuno assay test; VIDAS (bioMerieux, France) for Toxin A&B. Samples were inoculated on chromID VRE (bioMerieux, France) and incubated 24h at 37°C...
March 17, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376944/use-of-a-perianal-swab-compared-with-a-stool-sample-to-detect-symptomatic-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
Marisa A Montecalvo, Emnet Sisay, Donna McKenna, Guiqing Wang, Paul Visintainer, Gary P Wormser
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a perianal swab to detect CDI. METHODS A perianal swab was collected from each inpatient with a positive stool sample for C. difficile (by polymerase chain reaction [PCR] test) and was tested for C. difficile by PCR and by culture. The variables evaluated included demographics, CDI severity, bathing before perianal swab collection, hours between stool sample and perianal swab, cycle threshold (Ct) to PCR positivity, and doses of CDI treatment before stool sample and before perianal swab...
April 5, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366929/strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-united-states-of-america-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
Laia Jimena Vazquez Guillamet, Zane Saul, Goran Miljkovich, Gabriel Alejandro Vilchez, Nikolai Mendonca, Venkata Gourineni, Nicholas Lillo, Marguerite Pinto, Aurengzaib Baig, Louie Mar Gangcuangco
BACKGROUND Strongyloides stercoralis infection is endemic in subtropical and tropical regions but is reported rather sporadically in temperate countries. In the USA, the highest rates of infection are from the southeastern states, predominantly among immigrants. There is paucity of case reports on S. stercoralis infection among HIV-infected patients who were born and raised in the USA. CASE REPORT A 61-year-old male with known HIV infection (CD4 count: 235 cells/uL, undetectable HIV RNA, on antiretroviral therapy) presented with a 3-month history of diarrhea...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363494/clinical-and-endoscopic-features-in-patients-with-hospital-acquired-diarrhea-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
J A Velarde Ruiz-Velasco, J M Aldana-Ledesma, M A Ibarra-Estrada, S A Aguirre Díaz, J A Fernández-Ramírez, F Cárdenas-Lara, F Álvarez López, L E Rodríguez-Noriega, H R Pérez-Gómez, M R Morfín-Otero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clostridium difficile (CD) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea. Clinical and endoscopic findings are poorly described in our country. The aim of this study is to depict those findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study, which included patients with CD associated hospital-acquired diarrhea, diagnosed by means of fecal PCR and testing for the presence of hypervirulent strain NAP027. We analyzed clinical and endoscopic features, as well as the variables associated with severe disease...
March 28, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355613/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-returning-travellers
#13
A Michal Stevens, Douglas H Esposito, Rhett J Stoney, Davidson H Hamer, Jose Flores-Figueroa, Emmanuel Bottieau, Bradley A Connor, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Abraham Goorhuis, Noreen A Hynes, Michael Libman, Rogelio Lopez-Velez, Anne E McCarthy, Frank von Sonnenburg, Eli Schwartz, Perry J J van Genderen, L Scott Benson, Daniel T Leung
Background: There is increasing recognition of the contribution of community-acquired cases to the global burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The epidemiology of CDI among international travellers is poorly understood, and factors associated with international travel, such as antibiotic use and changes in gut microbiota, could potentially put travellers at higher risk. Methods: We summarized demographic, travel-associated and geographic characteristics of travellers with CDI in the GeoSentinel database from 1997 to 2015...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348781/human-clostridium-difficile-infection-caused-by-a-livestock-associated-pcr-ribotype-237-strain-in-western-australia
#14
Alan M Mc Govern, Niki F Foster, Lynette A Pereira, Daniel R Knight, Briony Elliott, Barbara J Chang, Thomas V Riley
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant gastrointestinal disease in the developed world and increasingly recognised as a zoonotic infection. In North America and Europe, the PCR ribotype (RT) 078 strain of C. difficile is commonly found in production animals and as a cause of disease in humans although proof of transmission from animals is lacking. This strain is absent in Australian livestock. We report a case of human CDI caused by a strain of C. difficile belonging to known Australian livestock-associated RT 237...
August 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332133/molecular-typing-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-to-six-antimicrobials-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-three-czech-hospitals-in-eastern-bohemia-in-2011-2012
#15
V Beran, E J Kuijper, C Harmanus, I M Sanders, S M van Dorp, C W Knetsch, J Janeckova, A Seidelova, L Barekova, J Tvrdik, D Chmelar, I Ciznar
In 2011-2012, a survey was performed in three regional hospitals in the Czech Republic to determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and to characterize bacterial isolates. C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping, toxin genes detection, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to fidaxomicin, vancomycin, metronidazole, clindamycin, LFF571, and moxifloxacin using agar dilution method. The incidence of CDI in three studied hospitals was 145, 146, and 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011 and 177, 258, and 67 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012...
March 22, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318702/antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-clinical-characteristics-and-the-presence-of-clostridium-difficile
#16
A Rodríguez-Varón, O M Muñoz, J Pulido-Arenas, S B Amado, M Tobón-Trujillo
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Evidence in Colombia and Latin America has been insufficient for establishing the clinical characteristics of patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). The present study attempts to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with AAD and to determine the presence of Clostridium difficile, utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with AAD, managed at the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio in Bogotá, Colombia, were evaluated...
March 18, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303388/the-impact-of-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-combating-quinolone-resistance-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations-for-more-efficient-interventions
#17
REVIEW
Vasiliki Pitiriga, Georgia Vrioni, George Saroglou, Athanasios Tsakris
Quinolones are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide. A clear relationship has been demonstrated between excessive quinolone use and the steady increase in the incidence of quinolone-resistant bacterial pathogens, both in hospital and community sites. In addition, exposure to quinolones has been associated with colonization and infection with healthcare-associated pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients. Therefore, the management of quinolone prescribing in hospitals through antibiotic stewardship programs is considered crucial...
March 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279489/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-in-spain-the-procrid-study
#18
Antonio Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, Luis Martín-Villén, Luis Alcalá-Hernández, Mercedes Marín Arriaza, Bárbara Balandín-Moreno, César Aragón-González, José Ferreres-Franco, Miguel Ángel Chiveli Monleón, Paloma Anguita-Alonso, Emilio Bouza-Santiago, José Garnacho-Montero
INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in critically ill patients and to determine C. difficile PCR-ribotypes. METHODS: Prospective, observational study in 26 Spanish ICUs. Patients with diarrhea meeting ESCMID criteria for CDI were included. Molecular characterization of isolates was performed using PCR ribotyping. RESULTS: Of 4258 patients admitted to the ICUs, 190 (4...
March 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274126/-selection-of-laboratory-procedures-to-detect-toxigenic-by-the-2-step-method
#19
Yoko Tanino, Mai Kodama, Hiroomi Daicho, Yoshito Miyauchi, Towa Yasumoto, Yukiji Yamada, Noriko Kyotani, Satoko Kurahashi, Masaji Ushiyama, Takeshi Kimura, Toshiaki Komori, Yumiko Fujitomo, Masaki Nakanishi, Naohisa Fujita
The 2-step method is an algorithm to detect toxigenic Clostridium difficile. We herein compared the sensitivities and specificities of an enzyme immunoassay (toxin A/B-EIA), toxigenic culture (TC-EIA), Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification assay (LAMP), and Xpert C. difficile (Xpert) with the detection of the toxin B gene by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results obtained showed that the sensitivities and specificities of toxin A/B-EIA, Xpert, TC-EIA, and LAMP were 30 and 100%, 87.2 and 100%, 97.5 and 89...
March 22, 2017: JARMAM: Journal of the Association for Rapid Method and Automation in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251812/risk-factors-and-clinical-outcome-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-ibd-a-chinese-single-center-retrospective-study-of-260-cases
#20
YuBei Gu, Mao Chen Zhang, Jing Sun, KeZhi Lv, Jie Zhong
AIM: Clostridium difficile infection(CDI) may lead to poor outcome in inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) patients. This study was designed to investigate the cumulative incidence, risk factors, and outcome of CDI in patients with IBD in one Chinese single center. METHODS: Clinical features and endoscopic profiles of consecutive IBD patients from RuiJin Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. CDI was diagnosed based on the positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based stool test...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
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