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Clostridium difficile AND PCR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#1
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117204/prevalence-of-binary-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-in-diarrhoeal-humans-in-the-absence-of-epidemic-ribotype-027
#2
Alan M McGovern, Grace O Androga, Daniel R Knight, Mark W Watson, Briony Elliott, Niki F Foster, Barbara J Chang, Thomas V Riley
Virulence of Clostridium difficile is primarily attributed to the large clostridial toxins A and B while the role of binary toxin (CDT) remains unclear. The prevalence of human strains of C. difficile possessing only CDT genes (A-B-CDT+) is generally low (< 5%), however, this genotype is commonly found in neonatal livestock both in Australia and elsewhere. Zoonotic transmission of C. difficile has been suggested previously. Most human diagnostic tests will not detect A-B-CDT+ strains of C. difficile because they focus on detection of toxin A and/or B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104169/asymptomatic-clostridium-difficile-carriage-rate-post-fecal-microbiota-transplant-is-low-a-prospective-clinical-and-stool-assessment
#3
Jessica R Allegretti, Andrew Allegretti, Emmalee Phelps, Huiping Xu, Zain Kassam, Monika Fischer
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the asymptomatic C. difficile carriage rates following FMT. METHODS: All patients who underwent FMT for recurrent CDI via colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy between June 2013 and April 2015 and had a minimum of 8-week follow-up post-FMT at two tertiary care referral centers were included in the study. Patients were prospectively followed both clinically and with stool assessments for 8 weeks post FMT. Assessments occurred at 1 week and 4 weeks post-FMT to assess for failure...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103690/clostridium-difficile-in-beef-cattle-farms-farmers-and-their-environment-assessing-the-spread-of-the-bacterium
#4
Cristina Rodriguez, Djalal-Eddine Hakimi, Raphael Vanleyssem, Bernard Taminiau, Johan Van Broeck, Michel Delmée, Nicolas Korsak, Georges Daube
In recent years, several studies have described the presence of Clostridium difficile in healthy and diarrhoeic farm and domestic animals. In pigs and cattle, the isolation of some PCR-ribotypes associated with human infection, especially PCR-ribotypes 014 and 078, has led us to hypothesize about the zoonotic transmission of C. difficile infections. If these animals are reservoirs of C. difficile, farmers in close contact with their animals are particularly at risk of acquiring and spreading the bacterium. This study investigates the presence of C...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099868/evaluation-of-a-multiplex-panel-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-infectious-diarrhea-in-immunocompromised-hematologic-patients
#5
Izaskun Alejo-Cancho, Francesc Fernández Avilés, Alicia Capón, Cristina Rodríguez, Josep Barrachina, Pilar Salvador, Mª Eugenia Valls, Miriam J Álvarez-Martínez, Yuliya Zboromyrska, Jordi Vila, Mª Ángeles Marcos
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a frequent complication in hematologic patients, being an infectious cause frequently suspected. Rapid and accurate detection of gastrointestinal pathogens is vital in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to compare routine diagnostic methods versus a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea in immunocompromised hematologic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study from March 2015 to January 2016 to compare conventional methods for the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea with FIlmArray GI Panel (BioFire-bioMérieux, France)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098156/identification-of-clostridium-difficile-asymptomatic-carriers-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#6
André Luiz de Oliveira Silva, Alexandre R Marra, Marinês Dalla Valle Martino, Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes Mafra, Michael B Edmond, Oscar Fernando Pavao Dos Santos
Background: The diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) increases concern that asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic C. difficile may be diagnosed with CDI. Methods: A matched case control study was conducted in inpatients in a tertiary care center. The first 50 patients with diarrhea and a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test beginning February 1, 2015, were identified as cases. Control patients were hospitalized patients receiving antibiotics, but with no diarrhea, housed in a room as close as possible to each case during the same admission time...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067276/characteristics-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-hospitalized-with-myelodysplastic-syndrome-or-acute-myelogenous-leukemia
#7
Kamini Shah, Bryan F Curtin, Christopher Chu, Daniel Hwang, Mark H Flasar, Erik von Rosenvinge
AIM: To evaluate factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outcomes of CDI in the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) population. METHODS: After IRB approval, all MDS/AML patients hospitalized at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center between August 2011 and December 2013 were identified. Medical charts were reviewed for demographics, clinical information, development of CDI, complications of CDI, and mortality...
October 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066403/the-closer-study-results-from-a-three-year-pan-european-longitudinal-surveillance-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-prevalent-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-2011-2014
#8
Jane Freeman, Jonathan Vernon, Sally Pilling, Kirsti Morris, Scott Nicholson, Sharie Shearman, Chris Longshaw, Mark H Wilcox
OBJECTIVES: Until the introduction of fidaxomicin, antimicrobial treatment for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was limited to metronidazole and vancomycin. The changing epidemiology of CDI and emergence of epidemic C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 necessitates continued surveillance to identify shifts in antibiotic susceptibility. ClosER, currently the largest pan-European epidemiological study of C. difficile ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility, aimed to undertake antimicrobial resistance surveillance pre- and post-introduction of fidaxomicin...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066337/clostridium-difficile-causing-pediatric-infections-new-findings-from-a-hospital-based-study-in-italy
#9
Patrizia Spigaglia, Fabrizio Barbanti, Elio Castagnola, Maria Cristina Diana, Luisa Pescetto, Roberto Bandettini
Recent studies support a change of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) epidemiology in pediatric patients. Since limited information is available about C. difficile in this population, we investigated the epidemiology of CDI in a large pediatric hospital that acts as reference centre in Italy and analyzed C. difficile isolates to identify the prevalent PCR-ribotypes (RTs), the binary toxin (CDT)-positive strains and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The CDI incidence was 6.6 cases/1000 admissions and the majority (92%) of CDI were healthcare-associated (47% occurred in the Hematology-Oncology and in the Gastroenterology units)...
October 21, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058256/simultaneous-detection-and-characterization-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-directly-from-clinical-stool-specimens
#10
Hanjiang Lai, Chen Huang, Jian Cai, Julian Ye, Jun She, Yi Zheng, Liqian Wang, Yelin Wei, Weijia Fang, Xianjun Wang, Yi-Wei Tang, Yun Luo, Dazhi Jin
We employed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with capillary electrophoresis (mPCR-CE) targeting six Clostridium difficile genes, including tpi, tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, cdtB, and a deletion in tcdC for simultaneous detection and characterization of toxigenic C. difficile directly from fecal specimens. The mPCR-CE had a limit of detection of 10 colony-forming units per reaction with no cross-reactions with other related bacterial genes. Clinical validation was performed on 354 consecutively collected stool specimens from patients with suspected C...
October 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044436/preterm-infant-associated-clostridium-tertium-clostridium-cadaveris-and-clostridium-paraputrificum-strains-genomic-and-evolutionary-insights
#11
Raymond Kiu, Shabhonam Caim, Cristina Alcon-Giner, Gusztav Belteki, Paul Clarke, Derek Pickard, Gordon Dougan, Lindsay J Hall
Clostridium species (particularly Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens) are associated with a range of human and animal diseases. Several other species including Clostridium tertium, Clostridium cadaveris, and Clostridium paraputrificum have also been linked with sporadic human infections, however there is very limited, or in some cases, no genomic information publicly available. Thus, we isolated one C. tertium strain, one C. cadaveris strain and three C...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037938/non-clostridium-difficile-bacterial-infections-are-rare-in-patients-with-flares-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Yuri Hanada, Sahil Khanna, Edward V Loftus, Laura E Raffals, Darrell S Pardi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes flares in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated the frequency and outcomes of non-CDI bacterial enteric infections in symptomatic patients with IBD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) from whom stool samples were collected and analyzed by PCR or culture for bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni or C coli, Salmonella species, Shigella species, entero-invasive Escherichia coli, shiga toxin-producing E coli, or Yersinia species) from November 19, 2011, through June 30, 2014...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024758/pcr-ribotype-distribution-of-clostridium-difficile-in-irish-pigs
#13
Katharina Stein, Sarah Egan, Helen Lynch, Céline Harmanus, Lorraine Kyne, Celine Herra, Sinead McDermott, Ed Kuijper, Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Susan FitzGerald, Lynda Fenelon, Denise Drudy
Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen in humans causing infections in the healthcare environment and the community. Carriage of C. difficile and C. difficile-related enterocolitis has been reported in piglets worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of C. difficile isolation from pigs in Ireland. Faecal samples from piglet litters and sows were collected from six farms in 2015. The sows were non-diarrhoeal at the time of sampling. The diarrhoeal status of the piglets was unknown...
October 9, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994447/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-and-ribotype-027-infection-in-patients-with-nosocomial-diarrhoea-in-southern-italy
#14
Raffaele Del Prete, Luigi Ronga, Grazia Addati, Raffaella Magrone, Giuseppe Miragliotta
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare-associated infections. The increasing frequency and severity is attributed to highly virulent ribotypes such as 027. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of CDI and ribotype 027 in 481 clinical samples collected from hospitalized patients and sent to the laboratory of molecular biology, UOC Microbiology and Virology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria, Policlinico of Bari, Italy. Toxins A+B and DNA C. difficile detections were performed using immunochromatographic test and a multiplex real-time PCR assay, respectively...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988901/detection-of-toxigenic-clostridioides-clostridium-difficile-usefulness-of-two-commercially-available-enzyme-immunoassays-and-a-pcr-assay-on-stool-samples-and-stool-isolates
#15
María C Legaria, Raquel Rollet, Ana Di Martino, Liliana Castello, Claudia Barberis, María A Rossetti, María C Guardati, Liliana Fernández Canigia, Graciela Carloni, Mirta Litterio, Marta Rocchi, Eduardo G Anchart, Fernando M Trejo, Jessica Minnaard, Diana Klajn, Silvia C Predari
The best laboratory diagnostic approach to detect Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile infection (CDI) is a subject of ongoing debate. With the aim of evaluating four laboratory diagnostic methods, 250 unformed stools from patients with suspected CDI submitted to nine medical center laboratories from November 2010 to December 2011, were studied using: (1) an immunochromatographic rapid assay test that combines the qualitative determination of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plus toxins A and B (QAB), the CDIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE assay; (2) an enzyme immunoassay for qualitative determination of toxins A and B, the RIDASCREEN™ C...
October 5, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988773/rifaximin-resistant-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-symptomatic-patients
#16
E Reigadas, P Muñoz-Pacheco, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martin, E Bouza
BACKGROUND: Rifaximin has been proposed as an alternative treatment for specific cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and intestinal decontamination. Rifaximin-resistant C. difficile has occasionally been reported. Antibiotic susceptibility testing relies on anaerobic agar dilution (reference method), which is cumbersome and not routinely used. There is no commercial test for detection of resistance to rifaximin. OBJECTIVES: To assess resistance to rifaximin by C...
October 6, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987390/molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-brazilian-cancer-hospital
#17
Cecília Leite Costa, Cibele Barreto Mano de Carvalho, Rafael Holanda González, Markus Andret Cavalcante Gifoni, Ronaldo de Albuquerque Ribeiro, Carlos Quesada-Gómez, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore forming anaerobic bacterium and the main cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. This study aimed to perform the phenotypic characterization and molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates among patients at a cancer hospital in Brazil. During 18 months, 48 diarrheic fecal samples were collected, of these 48% were positive in either one or both of the performed tests: detection of toxins A/B and culture. Clostridium difficile was recovered from four samples (17%)...
October 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986313/impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-caused-by-the-nap1-rt027-strain-on-severity-and-recurrence-during-an-outbreak-and-transition-to-endemicity-in-a-mexican-tertiary-care-center
#18
Karla María Tamez-Torres, Pedro Torres-González, Francisco Leal-Vega, Ariana García-Alderete, Norma Irene López García, Raquel Mendoza-Aguilar, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Miriam Bobadilla-Del Valle, Alfredo Ponce de León, José Sifuentes-Osornio
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to ribotype 027 (RT027) and recurrence, including an outbreak period, with transition to endemicity. METHODS: A case-control study was performed. Clinical and demographic data were collected for patients with CDI during the period January 2008 to December 2015. Ribotyping of the isolates and PCR for toxin A, B, and binary were performed...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970055/a-two-step-approach-improves-the-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
Melina Kachrimanidou, Zoi Tegou, Maria Chasampalioti, Kostoula Arvaniti, Efthymia Protonotariou, Lemonia Skoura
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of health care-associated diarrhea. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a two-step approach for the diagnosis of CDI. The two-step procedure consisted of GDH-toxin A/B EIA (Enzyme immunoassay targeting enterotoxin A and Cytotoxin B), followed by PCR detecting toxigenic C. difficile. Results indicate that EIAs provide a rapid screening assay for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI but, in GDH-positive and toxins-negative samples, EIA should be always followed by PCR to distinguish toxigenic vs nontoxigenic strains...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929960/-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-and-molecular-characterization-of-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-isolates-the-first-report-on-the-presence-of-hypervirulent-strains-from-turkey
#20
Emrah Salman, Belkıs Levent, Zeynep Ceren Karahan
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
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