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Clostridium difficile AND PCR

Xiao-Shu Liu, Wen-Ge Li, Wen-Zhu Zhang, Yuan Wu, Jin-Xing Lu
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a worldwide public health problem causing high mortality and a large disease burden. Molecular typing and analysis is important for surveillance and infection control of CDI. However, molecular characterization of C . difficile across China is extremely rare. Here, we report on the toxin profiles, molecular subtyping with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR ribotyping, and epidemiological characteristics of 199 C. difficile isolates collected between 2010 through 2015 from 13 participating centers across China...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dae Bum Kim, Kang-Moon Lee, Sang Hyoung Park, You Sun Kim, Eun Soo Kim, Jun Lee, Sung-Ae Jung, Geom Seog Seo, Ji Min Lee
Background/Aims: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been reported to be a cause of flare-ups in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We evaluated the prevalence and clinical outcomes of CDI in patients with UC hospitalized for flare-ups. Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter study including 7 academic teaching hospitals in Korea. All consecutive patients with UC admitted for disease flare-up were enrolled. We detected the presence of CDI by using enzyme immunoassay, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for toxin genes, and sigmoidoscopy...
April 2018: Intestinal Research
Angela M Theiss, Agnes Balla, Angie Ross, Denise Francis, Christina Wojewoda
Clostridium difficile is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States. Methods for identifying the organism in stool include molecular platforms, enzyme immunoassays for toxin, and culture. Controversy persists over whether molecular tests are too sensitive at identifying C. difficile and have raised questions about how additional laboratory information could inform clinical management and reduce over treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether clinical factors were related to toxin status of patients and whether information about toxin status could potentially inform clinical management of patients...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Marwah Bakri
Background:Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial infection associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalized patients especially old patients. In my previous studies, it was shown the occurrence of C. difficile in animals feces and vegetables which may act as a source of infection to humans. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile in retail raw cow, sheep, and goat, meat in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Method: A total of 600 raw meat samples from cow, sheep, and goat were collected during June-December 2015, and tested for the presence of C...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Shik Luk, Alex Yat Man Ho, Eliza Hoi Ying Chan, Iris Hoi Ling Tsang, Tak Keung Ng, Wing Kin To, Kin Wing Choi, Andrew Tin Yau Wong
OBJECTIVETo determine the incidence and risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile colonization among residents of nursing homes and to identify the ribotypes of circulating C. difficile strains.DESIGNA prospective cohort study with a follow-up duration of 22 months.SETTINGNursing homes.PARTICIPANTSOf the 375 residents in 8 nursing homes, 300 residents (80.0%) participated in the study. A further prospective study of 4 nursing homes involving 141 residents with a minimum of 90 days of follow-up was also performed...
May 7, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
N Jazmati, E Kirpal, E Piepenbrock, Y Stelzer, M J G T Vehreschild, H Seifert
Background: For the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), microbiological testing is almost always accomplished through analysis of stool specimens. We evaluated the performance of rectal swabs with liquid transport medium (FS) and nylon flocked dry swabs for the detection of C. difficile Additionally, the impact on the diagnostic yield of storing swabs at -80°C for up to three months was evaluated. Methods: Sixty clinical stool samples positive for C. difficile by PCR were used for simulating rectal swabbing...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
David R Snydman, Laura A McDermott, Cheleste M Thorpe, Justin Chang, Jenna Wick, Seth T Walk, Richard J Vickers
Objectives: We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility and ribotypes of Clostridium difficile isolates from participants in a Phase 2 study of ridinilazole, a novel targeted-spectrum agent for treatment of C. difficile infection. Methods: Participants received ridinilazole (200 mg twice daily) or vancomycin (125 mg four times daily) for 10 days ( NCT02092935). The MICs of ridinilazole and comparators for C. difficile isolates from stool samples were determined by agar dilution...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
William E Trick, Stephen J Sokalski, Stuart Johnson, Kristen L Bunnell, Joseph Levato, Michael J Ray, Robert A Weinstein
OBJECTIVETo evaluate probiotics for the primary prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among hospital inpatients.DESIGNA before-and-after quality improvement intervention comparing 12-month baseline and intervention periods.SETTINGA 694-bed teaching hospital.INTERVENTIONWe administered a multispecies probiotic comprising L. acidophilus (CL1285), L. casei (LBC80R), and L. rhamnosus (CLR2) to eligible antibiotic recipients within 12 hours of initial antibiotic receipt through 5 days after final dose...
April 26, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Matthew Ziegler, Daniel Landsburg, David Pegues, Kevin Alby, Cheryl Gilmar, Kristen Bink, Theresa Gorman, Amy Moore, Brittaney Bonhomme, Jacqueline Omorogbe, Dana Tango, Pam Tolomeo, Jennifer H Han
In a cohort of inpatients with hematologic malignancy and positive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Clostridium difficile tests, we found that clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar between these groups. The method of testing is unlikely to predict infection in this population, and PCR-positive results should be treated with concern.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
April 25, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sandra Janezic, Sabina Mlakar, Maja Rupnik
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes intestinal infections. Although C. difficile is still predominantly considered as a nosocomial pathogen, there has been an increase in the number of community-associated infections. Since C. difficile is ubiquitous and can be isolated from nearly any environment, one of the possibilities for community acquisition could be exposure to spores in the domestic environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of C. difficile spores on shoes, slippers and on dog paws and to explore the importance of these surfaces as vectors for the dissemination of C...
April 23, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Issei Tokimatsu, Katsumi Shigemura, Kayo Osawa, Shinya Kinugawa, Koichi Kitagawa, Noriko Nakanishi, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Soichi Arakawa, Masato Fujisawa
We conducted a nationwide molecular epidemiological study of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Japan investigated the correlation between the presence of binary toxin genes and CDI severity. This is the first report on molecular epidemiological analyses for CDI in multiple university hospitals in Japan, to our knowledge. We examined 124,484 hospitalized patients in 25 national and public university hospitals in Japan between December 2013 and March 2014, investigating antimicrobial susceptibilities and toxin-related genes for C...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Simon H Williams, Xiaoyu Che, Ashley Paulick, Cheng Guo, Bohyun Lee, Dorothy Muller, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Franklin D Lowy, Robert M Corrigan, W Ian Lipkin
House mice ( Mus musculus ) thrive in large urban centers worldwide. Nonetheless, little is known about the role that they may play in contributing to environmental contamination with potentially pathogenic bacteria. Here, we describe the fecal microbiome of house mice with emphasis on detection of pathogenic bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes by molecular methods. Four hundred sixteen mice were collected from predominantly residential buildings in seven sites across New York City over a period of 13 months...
April 17, 2018: MBio
Hanna Pituch, Piotr Obuch-Woszczatyński, Dominika Lachowicz, Robert Kuthan, Katarzyna Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, Agnieszka Mikucka, Katarzyna Jermakow, Aleksandra Pituch-Zdanowska, Kerrie Davies
PURPOSE: We aimed to measure the underdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection across Poland and the distribution of PCR-ribotypes of C. difficile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven Polish healthcare facilities (HCFs) participated in this prospective study. Each HCF systematically sent all diarrhoeal stools received from inpatients at their laboratories on two days (one in January 2013 and one in July 2013), independently of CDI test request, to the National Coordinating Laboratory (NCL) for standardized testing of CDI...
April 13, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
Clara Lina Salazar, Catalina Reyes, Astrid Vanessa Cienfuegos-Gallet, Emma Best, Santiago Atehortua, Patricia Sierra, Margarita M Correa, Warren N Fawley, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, Mark Wilcox, Angel Gonzalez
We aimed to achieve a higher typing resolution within the three dominant Clostridium difficile ribotypes (591,106 and 002) circulating in Colombia. A total of 50 C. difficile isolates we had previously typed by PCR-ribotyping, representing the major three ribotypes circulating in Colombia, were analyzed. Twenty-seven isolates of ribotype 591, 12 of ribotype 106 and 11 of ribotype 002 were subtyped by multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). The presence of the PaLoc genes (tcdA/tcdB), toxin production in culture and antimicrobial susceptibility were also determined...
2018: PloS One
Tomer Avni, Tanya Babich, Haim Ben-Zvi, Alaa Atamna, Dafna Yahav, Daniel Shepshelovich, Yaara Leibovici-Weissman, Jihad Bishara
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) might result in overdiagnosis. The clinical outcomes of symptomatic CDI patients diagnosed by PCR remain uncertain. We aimed to determine whether patients whose diagnosis of CDI was based on PCR had different characteristics and clinical outcomes than those diagnosed by toxin immunoassay. Consecutive CDI patients, hospitalized at Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Petah Tikva, Israel, between January 2013 and January 2016, were identified retrospectively and included in the study...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Milica Jovanović, Tanja Tošić, Mitra Drakulović, Rajica Stošović, Snežana Jovanović
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS) and the entire Serbia has been constantly rising in the previous 5 years. We aimed to study C. difficile PCR-ribotypes isolated from patients hospitalized at two healthcare institutions: CCS and Specialized Hospital for Cerebrovascular Diseases "Sveti Sava" (SS), both of them from Belgrade, and to investigate the incidence rates of CDI in hospital settings in Serbia, from 2009 to 2013...
April 5, 2018: Anaerobe
Shaohua Wang, Wei Hong, Sheng Dong, Zhong-Tian Zhang, Jie Zhang, Luxin Wang, Yi Wang
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile is a notorious pathogenic species that can cause severe gastrointestinal infections in humans and animals. C. difficile infection (CDI) resulted in thousands of deaths worldwide every year. The elucidation of related mechanisms of CDI and exploration of potential therapeutic strategies are largely delayed due to the lack of efficient genetic engineering tools for C. difficile strains. METHODS: Plasmids carrying the CRISPR-Cas9 system were constructed and transformed into C...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ha-Young Kim, Ara Cho, Jong Wan Kim, Heejung Kim, Bumseok Kim
Clostridium difficile can cause neonatal enteritis, but has been isolated from both diseased and healthy pigs. C. difficile shedding by pigs is a potential source of zoonotic transmission to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the prevalence and genotype of C. difficile with respect to age and health status in the pig industry for the first time in Korea. Fecal samples of 910 pigs were analyzed for the presence of C. difficile. In total, 176 (19.3%) C. difficile strains were isolated. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0...
March 28, 2018: Anaerobe
Mostafa Y Abdel-Glil, Prasad Thomas, Gernot Schmoock, Kamel Abou-El-Azm, Lothar H Wieler, Heinrich Neubauer, Christian Seyboldt
C. difficile has been recognized as a potential zoonotic agent encouraging investigations of C. difficile prevalence and ribotypes in animals. Here we report the prevalence and diversity of Egyptian C. difficile in I) samples from healthy poultry (n = 50), II) samples from diseased poultry (n = 54), and III) poultry meat (n = 150). Thirteen isolates were obtained from seven healthy and five diseased animals, but no C. difficile was cultured from poultry meat. The isolated C. difficile strains belonged to 3 different PCR-ribotypes (039/2, 205 and 001/FLI01)...
March 20, 2018: Anaerobe
Thomas V Riley, Deirdre A Collins, Rina Karunakaran, Maria Abdul Kahar, Ariza Adnan, Siti Asma Hassan, Nadiah Hanim Zainul, Fr Mohammed Rustam, Z Abd Wahab, Ramliza Ramli, Yeong Yeh Lee, Hamimah Hassan
Accumulating evidence shows a high prevalence of Clostridium difficile in Southeast Asia associated with a range of clinical presentations. However, severe infections are rarely reported. We investigated C. difficile infection (CDI) across four hospitals in Kuala Lumpur and Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Enzyme immunoassays for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B were performed on diarrhoeal stool specimens collected from patients in 2015 and 2016. Specimens were also cultured and isolates of C. difficile characterised by PCR ribotyping and detection of toxin genes...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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