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Clostridium difficile AND PCR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289484/what-do-we-know-about-the-diagnostics-treatment-and-epidemiology-of-clostridioides-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-europe
#1
REVIEW
Elisabeth Nagy
Clostridium difficile, recently reclassified as Clostridioides difficile is responsible for a significant part of diarrheal diseases in the hospitals and in the community. Besides the main pathogenic factors, toxin A, toxin B and the binary toxin, several other putative virulence factors have been investigated. This manuscript summarize recent findings in Europe concerning source of infection, epidemiology of CDI, the changing pattern of PCR ribotypes of C. difficile strains in different European countries, recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of CDI...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274463/how-to-surveillance-of-clostridium-difficile-infections
#2
REVIEW
Marcela Krutova, Pete Kinross, Frédéric Barbut, Agnes Hajdu, Mark Wilcox, Ed Kuijper
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in healthcare settings in Europe since 2003 has affected both patients and healthcare systems. The implementation of effective CDI surveillance is key to enable monitoring of the occurrence and spread of C. difficile in healthcare and the timely detection of outbreaks. AIMS: The aim of this review is to provide a summary of key components of effective CDI surveillance and to provide some practical recommendations...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261736/randomized-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-initial-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-microbiome
#3
Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Eva María Gutiérrez-Delgado, Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Laura Palau-Davila, Simon D Baines, Héctor Maldonado-Garza, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fecal donor-unrelated donor mix (FMT-FURM) transplantation as first-line therapy for C. difficile infection (CDI) in intestinal microbiome. METHODS: We designed an open, two-arm pilot study with oral vancomycin (250mg every 6 h for 10-14 days) or FMT-FURM as treatments for the first CDI episode in hospitalized adult patients in Hospital Universitario "Dr. Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez". Patients were randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1: 1 ratio to either oral vancomycin or FMT-FURM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237784/low-yield-of-filmarray-gi-panel-in-hospitalized-patients-with-diarrhea-an-opportunity-for-diagnostic-stewardship-intervention
#4
Matthew M Hitchcock, Carlos A Gomez, Niaz Banaei
FilmArray GI Panel (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT) is a multiplex, on-demand, sample-to-answer, real-time PCR assay for the syndromic diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis that has become widely adopted and, in some instances, replaced conventional stool culture and parasite exams. Conventional testing has historically been restricted among hospitalized patients due to low diagnostic yield, but it is not known whether use of the FilmArray GI Panel should be circumscribed. Cary-Blair stool samples submitted for FilmArray GI Panel in adult patients admitted to an academic hospital from August 2015 to January 2017 were included in this study...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229281/potential-of-real-time-pcr-threshold-cycle-ct-to-predict-presence-of-free-toxin-and-clinically-relevant-c-difficile-infection-cdi-in-patients-with-cancer
#5
Mini Kamboj, Jennifer Brite, Tracy McMillen, Elizabeth Robilotti, Alejandro Herrera, Kent Sepkowitz, N Esther Babady
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a toxin-mediated disease. Oncology patients are at increased risk for developing CDI. Diagnosis of CDI by PCR has led to misclassification of some C. difficile carriers as CDI cases. We determined if an optimized C. difficile PCR cycle threshold value (CT) could reliably predict presence of free toxin, and in turn improve the utility of PCR in detecting clinically relevant CDI in oncology patients. METHODS: 183 consecutive patients positive for C...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225756/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-and-its-toxigenic-genotype-in-beef-samples-in-west-of-iran
#6
Malihe Kheradmand, Somayeh Jalilian, Amirhooshang Alvandi, Ramin Abiri
Background and Objectives: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The prevalence of C. difficile infection differs in various geographical areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile isolates and the prevalence of cdd3, tcdA and tcdB genes in beef samples in Kermanshah Province. Materials and Methods: One hundred ground beef samples were randomly collected from the butchers of Kermanshah province during March 2014 to March 2015...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222426/surveillance-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-common-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-in-hong-kong
#7
Viola C Y Chow, Thomas N Y Kwong, Erica W M So, Yolanda I I Ho, Sunny H Wong, Raymond W M Lai, Raphael C Y Chan
Incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is rapidly increasing and it poses a major health burden globally. However, data regarding the epidemiology of CDI in Asia are limited. We aimed to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common ribotypes of toxigenic C. difficile in Hong Kong. Fifty-three PCR ribotypes were identified among 284 toxigenic C. difficile clinical isolates. The five most prevalent ribotypes were 002 (13%), 017 (12%), 014 (10%), 012 (9.2%), and 020 (9.5%). All tested C...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218569/toxin-positivity-and-tcdb-gene-load-in-broad-spectrum-clostridium-difficile-infection
#8
Hyeong Nyeon Kim, Hanah Kim, Hee-Won Moon, Mina Hur, Yeo-Min Yun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of toxin positivity and toxin gene load, and the relation between them in the broad spectrum of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) including colonization, significant diarrhea, and severe disease. METHODS: We included 2671 fecal samples submitted for CDI diagnosis and 180 samples from healthy individuals. The clinical spectrum was categorized as category I (toxigenic C. difficile positive without clinical CDI criteria), category II (mild CDI), and category III (severe CDI)...
December 7, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202797/clinical-and-economic-impact-of-the-introduction-of-a-nucleic-acid-amplification-assay-for-clostridium-difficile
#9
Margaret M Guinta, Kristen Bunnell, Amanda Harrington, Susan Bleasdale, Larry Danziger, Eric Wenzler
BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes and cost implications of a diagnostic shift from an EIA- to PCR-based assay for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have not been completely described in the literature. METHODS: The impact of the PCR-based assay on the incidence and duration of CDI therapy was compared to the EIA assay for patients with a negative CDI diagnostic result. Secondary clinical and economic outcomes were also evaluated. Independent predictors of receipt of antibiotic therapy were assessed via logistic regression...
December 4, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193458/high-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-on-retail-root-vegetables-western-australia
#10
S C Lim, N F Foster, B Elliott, T V Riley
AIMS: The incidence of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) in Australia has increased since mid-2011. With reports of clinically important C. difficile strains being isolated from retail foods in Europe and North America, a foodborne source of C. difficile in cases of CA-CDI is a possibility. This study represents the first to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of C. difficile in Australian retail vegetables. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 300 root vegetables grown in Western Australia (WA) were collected from retail stores and farmers' markets...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180685/evaluating-the-effect-of-clostridium-difficile-conditioned-medium-on-fecal-microbiota-community-structure
#11
Sabina Horvat, Aleksander Mahnic, Martin Breskvar, Saso Dzeroski, Maja Rupnik
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is typically associated with disturbed gut microbiota and changes related to decreased colonization resistance against C. difficile are well described. However, nothing is known about possible effects of C. difficile on gut microbiota restoration during or after CDI. In this study, we have mimicked such a situation by using C. difficile conditioned medium of six different C. difficile strains belonging to PCR ribotypes 027 and 014/020 for cultivation of fecal microbiota...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164044/characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-patients-with-c-difficile-associated-disease-in-korea
#12
Seung-Hak Cho, Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo, Young Kwon Kim, Jung-Beom Kim, Young-Seok Bak, Woon-Won Jung, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Jong Tae Choi
Objectives: Studies on Clostridium difficile are rare in Korea. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of C. difficile isolates from patients with C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in Korea. Methods: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of tcdA and tcdB toxin genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by the disk-dilution method. C. difficile strains were subtyped by automated repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR)...
October 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160203/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-hospitals-during-a-4-year-period-in-china
#13
Yun-Bo Chen, Si-Lan Gu, Ping Shen, Tao Lv, Yun-Hui Fang, Ling-Ling Tang, Lan-Juan Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform molecular characterization for and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Clostridium difficile collected from hospitals during a 4-year period (2009-2013) in China. METHODS: Strains of toxigenic C. difficile were isolated from patients with diarrhoea, and this was followed by typing using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and testing for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials by using the E-test. The mechanisms of resistance to moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were investigated by PCR...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#14
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117204/prevalence-of-binary-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-in-diarrhoeal-humans-in-the-absence-of-epidemic-ribotype-027
#15
Alan M McGovern, Grace O Androga, Daniel R Knight, Mark W Watson, Briony Elliott, Niki F Foster, Barbara J Chang, Thomas V Riley
Virulence of Clostridium difficile is primarily attributed to the large clostridial toxins A and B while the role of binary toxin (CDT) remains unclear. The prevalence of human strains of C. difficile possessing only CDT genes (A-B-CDT+) is generally low (< 5%), however, this genotype is commonly found in neonatal livestock both in Australia and elsewhere. Zoonotic transmission of C. difficile has been suggested previously. Most human diagnostic tests will not detect A-B-CDT+ strains of C. difficile because they focus on detection of toxin A and/or B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104169/asymptomatic-clostridium-difficile-carriage-rate-post-fecal-microbiota-transplant-is-low-a-prospective-clinical-and-stool-assessment
#16
Jessica R Allegretti, Andrew Allegretti, Emmalee Phelps, Huiping Xu, Zain Kassam, Monika Fischer
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the asymptomatic C. difficile carriage rates following FMT. METHODS: All patients who underwent FMT for recurrent CDI via colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy between June 2013 and April 2015 and had a minimum of 8-week follow-up post-FMT at two tertiary care referral centers were included in the study. Patients were prospectively followed both clinically and with stool assessments for 8 weeks post FMT. Assessments occurred at 1 week and 4 weeks post-FMT to assess for failure...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103690/clostridium-difficile-in-beef-cattle-farms-farmers-and-their-environment-assessing-the-spread-of-the-bacterium
#17
Cristina Rodriguez, Djalal-Eddine Hakimi, Raphael Vanleyssem, Bernard Taminiau, Johan Van Broeck, Michel Delmée, Nicolas Korsak, Georges Daube
In recent years, several studies have described the presence of Clostridium difficile in healthy and diarrhoeic farm and domestic animals. In pigs and cattle, the isolation of some PCR-ribotypes associated with human infection, especially PCR-ribotypes 014 and 078, has led us to hypothesize about the zoonotic transmission of C. difficile infections. If these animals are reservoirs of C. difficile, farmers in close contact with their animals are particularly at risk of acquiring and spreading the bacterium. This study investigates the presence of C...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099868/evaluation-of-a-multiplex-panel-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-infectious-diarrhea-in-immunocompromised-hematologic-patients
#18
Izaskun Alejo-Cancho, Francesc Fernández Avilés, Alicia Capón, Cristina Rodríguez, Josep Barrachina, Pilar Salvador, Mª Eugenia Valls, Miriam J Álvarez-Martínez, Yuliya Zboromyrska, Jordi Vila, Mª Ángeles Marcos
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a frequent complication in hematologic patients, being an infectious cause frequently suspected. Rapid and accurate detection of gastrointestinal pathogens is vital in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to compare routine diagnostic methods versus a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea in immunocompromised hematologic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study from March 2015 to January 2016 to compare conventional methods for the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea with FIlmArray GI Panel (BioFire-bioMérieux, France)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098156/identification-of-clostridium-difficile-asymptomatic-carriers-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#19
André Luiz de Oliveira Silva, Alexandre R Marra, Marinês Dalla Valle Martino, Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes Mafra, Michael B Edmond, Oscar Fernando Pavao Dos Santos
Background: The diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) increases concern that asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic C. difficile may be diagnosed with CDI. Methods: A matched case control study was conducted in inpatients in a tertiary care center. The first 50 patients with diarrhea and a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test beginning February 1, 2015, were identified as cases. Control patients were hospitalized patients receiving antibiotics, but with no diarrhea, housed in a room as close as possible to each case during the same admission time...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067276/characteristics-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-hospitalized-with-myelodysplastic-syndrome-or-acute-myelogenous-leukemia
#20
Kamini Shah, Bryan F Curtin, Christopher Chu, Daniel Hwang, Mark H Flasar, Erik von Rosenvinge
AIM: To evaluate factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outcomes of CDI in the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) population. METHODS: After IRB approval, all MDS/AML patients hospitalized at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center between August 2011 and December 2013 were identified. Medical charts were reviewed for demographics, clinical information, development of CDI, complications of CDI, and mortality...
October 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
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