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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340657/ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae-reservoir-host-diversity-and-abundance-impacts-on-dilution-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-spirochaetales-spirochaetaceae-in-residential-and-woodland-habitats-in-connecticut-united-states
#1
Megan A Linske, Scott C Williams, Kirby C Stafford, Isaac M Ortega
The dilution effect in the zoonotic disease transmission cycle theorizes that an increased diversity of host species will alter transmission dynamics, result in a decrease in pathogen prevalence, and potentially lower human disease incidence. The interrelationship of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner) (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiological agent of Lyme disease (LD), and its primary vector, blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a commonly used example of the dilution effect, suggesting that an increased diversity of host species will be found in large, undisturbed forested tracts and lower diversity in fragmented forests...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340592/neuroimmunomodulators-in-neuroborreliosis-and-lyme-encephalopathy
#2
Elizabeth A Eckman, Javier Pacheco-Quinto, Aimee R Herdt, John J Halperin
Background: Lyme encephalopathy, characterized by non-specific neurobehavioral symptoms including mild cognitive difficulties, may occur in patients with systemic Lyme disease and is often mistakenly attributed to CNS infection. Identical symptoms occur in innumerable other inflammatory states and may reflect the effect of systemic immune mediators on the CNS. Methods: Multiplex immunoassays were used to characterize the inflammatory profile in serum and CSF from Lyme and non-Lyme patients with a range of symptoms to determine if there are specific markers of active CNS infection (neuroborreliosis), or systemic inflammatory mediators associated with neurobehavioral syndromes...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336985/the-blacklegged-tick-ixodes-scapularis-an-increasing-public-health-concern
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca J Eisen, Lars Eisen
In the United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of seven human pathogens, including those causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, Powassan virus disease, and ehrlichiosis associated with Ehrlichia muris eauclarensis. In addition to an accelerated rate of discovery of I. scapularis-borne pathogens over the past two decades, the geographic range of the tick, and incidence and range of I. scapularis-borne disease cases, have increased. Despite knowledge of when and where humans are most at risk of exposure to infected ticks, control of I...
January 11, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330323/il-10-deficiency-reveals-a-role-for-tlr2-dependent-bystander-activation-of-t-cells-in-lyme-arthritis
#4
Sarah K Whiteside, Jeremy P Snook, Ying Ma, F Lynn Sonderegger, Colleen Fisher, Charisse Petersen, James F Zachary, June L Round, Matthew A Williams, Janis J Weis
T cells predominate the immune responses in the synovial fluid of patients with persistent Lyme arthritis; however, their role in Lyme disease remains poorly defined. Using a murine model of persistent Lyme arthritis, we observed that bystander activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells leads to arthritis-promoting IFN-γ, similar to the inflammatory environment seen in the synovial tissue of patients with posttreatment Lyme disease. TCR transgenic mice containing monoclonal specificity toward non-Borrelia epitopes confirmed that bystander T cell activation was responsible for disease development...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326960/risk-factors-for-clinician-diagnosed-lyme-arthritis-facial-palsy-carditis-and-meningitis-in-patients-from-high-incidence-states
#5
Natalie A Kwit, Christina A Nelson, Ryan Max, Paul S Mead
Background: Clinical features of Lyme disease (LD) range from localized skin lesions to serious disseminated disease. Information on risk factors for Lyme arthritis, facial palsy, carditis, and meningitis is limited but could facilitate disease recognition and elucidate pathophysiology. Methods: Patients from high-incidence states treated for LD during 2005-2014 were identified in a nationwide insurance claims database using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for LD (088...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326870/lyme-carditis-with-isolated-left-bundle-branch-block-and-myocarditis-successfully-treated-with-oral-doxycycline
#6
Burke A Cunha, Maekal Elyasi, Prince Singh, Ismail Jimada
Lyme disease may present with a variety of cardiac manifestations ranging from first degree to third degree heart block. Cardiac involvement with Lyme disease may be asymptomatic, or symptomatic. Atrioventrical conduction abnormalities are the most common manifestation of Lyme carditis. Less common, are alternating right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left bundle branch block (LBBB). We present an interesting case of a young male whose main manifestation of Lyme carditis was isolated LBBB. He also had mild Lyme myocarditis...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317049/autoimmunity-against-a-glycolytic-enzyme-as-a-possible-cause-for-persistent-symptoms-in-lyme-disease
#7
Paolo Maccallini, Serena Bonin, Giusto Trevisan
Some patients with a history of Borrelia burgdorferi infection develop a chronic symptomatology characterized by cognitive deficits, fatigue, and pain, despite antibiotic treatment. The pathogenic mechanism that underlines this condition, referred to as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), is currently unknown. A debate exists about whether PTLDS is due to persistent infection or to post-infectious damages in the immune system and the nervous system. We present the case of a patient with evidence of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi sl and a long history of debilitating fatigue, cognitive abnormalities and autonomic nervous system issues...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311239/induction-of-il-10-by-borrelia-burgdorferi-is-regulated-by-the-action-of-cd14-dependent-p38-mapk-and-camp-mediated-chromatin-remodeling
#8
Bikash Sahay, Kathleen Bashant, Nicole J Nelson, Rebeca L Patsey, Shiva Kumar Gadila, Rebecca Boohaker, Ashutosh Verma, Klemen Strle, Timothy J Sellati
Host genotype influences the severity of murine Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi C57BL/6 (B6) mice develop mild, whereas C3H/HeN (C3H) mice develop severe Lyme arthritis. Differential expression of interleukin 10 (IL-10) has long been associated with mouse strain differences in Lyme pathogenesis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) of this genotype-specific IL-10 regulation remained elusive. Herein we reveal a cAMP-mediated mechanism of IL-10 regulation in B6 macrophages that is substantially diminished in C3H macrophages...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310722/habitat-properties-are-key-drivers-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-s-l-prevalence-in-ixodes-ricinus-populations-of-deciduous-forest-fragments
#9
Steffen Ehrmann, Sanne C Ruyts, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Jürgen Bauhus, Jörg Brunet, Sara A O Cousins, Marc Deconchat, Guillaume Decocq, Pieter De Frenne, Pallieter De Smedt, Martin Diekmann, Emilie Gallet-Moron, Stefanie Gärtner, Karin Hansen, Annette Kolb, Jonathan Lenoir, Jessica Lindgren, Tobias Naaf, Taavi Paal, Marcus Panning, Maren Prinz, Alicia Valdés, Kris Verheyen, Monika Wulf, Jaan Liira
BACKGROUND: The tick Ixodes ricinus has considerable impact on the health of humans and other terrestrial animals because it transmits several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) such as B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis (LB). Small forest patches of agricultural landscapes provide many ecosystem services and also the disservice of LB risk. Biotic interactions and environmental filtering shape tick host communities distinctively between specific regions of Europe, which makes evaluating the dilution effect hypothesis and its influence across various scales challenging...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300119/single-photon-emission-tomography-imaging-in-patients-with-lyme-disease-treated-with-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Geeta Shroff
Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in brain perfusion in patients with Lyme disease treated with human embryonic stem cells. Material and methods The study included 59 (age range 41.68 ± 16.37 years) patients with Lyme disease whose single-photon emission tomography imaging was performed before and after the human embryonic stem cell therapy. Technetium-hexa methyl propylene aminoxime single-photon emission tomography imaging was used to assess the hypoperfused lesions/regions in the brain prior to the therapy, as well as the improvement in perfusion after human embryonic stem cell treatment...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298961/-actual-guidelines-of-borreliosis-treatment
#11
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
The treatment of patients infected with Borrelia burgdorferi was the subject of studies by numerous experts. The discrepancy of the recommendations is quite significant, especially in the choice of antibiotic, which is most important in the first stage of infection. The recommended doxycycline is in all recommendations although its MIC90 is 2.0 mg/L. Other antibiotics have better parameters, especially azithromycin topically administered in the first stage of infection, can be fully effective. In addition to the morphological and immunological variability of Borrelia burgdorferi, antibiotics that have an ability to enter the cell, such as azithromycin, should be noted...
December 22, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291075/model-based-risk-assessment-and-public-health-analysis-to-prevent-lyme-disease
#12
Nasser Sharareh, Nasim S Sabounchi, Amanda Roome, Rita Spathis, Ralph M Garruto
The number of Lyme disease (LD) cases in the northeastern United States has been dramatically increasing with over 300 000 new cases each year. This is due to numerous factors interacting over time including low public awareness of LD, risk behaviours and clothing choices, ecological and climatic factors, an increase in rodents within ecologically fragmented peri-urban built environments and an increase in tick density and infectivity in such environments. We have used a system dynamics (SD) approach to develop a simulation tool to evaluate the significance of risk factors in replicating historical trends of LD cases, and to investigate the influence of different interventions, such as increasing awareness, controlling clothing risk and reducing mouse populations, in reducing LD risk...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285146/isoforskolin-downregulates-proinflammatory-responses-induced-by-borrelia-burgdorferi-basic-membrane-protein-a
#13
Hua Zhao, Aihua Liu, Longqiang Shen, Cuiping Xu, Ziwei Zhu, Jiaru Yang, Xinling Han, Fukai Bao, Weimin Yang
The plant Coleus forskohlii is distributed primarily in India, Thailand, China, Egypt and Brazil and has a history of use in the treatment of multiple diseases. Isoforskolin (ISOF) is the principle active component of C. forskohlii native to China and has previously been studied for its biological effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ISOF on the proinflammatory responses induced by recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (rBmpA). In in vitro experiments, the proinflammatory effects of rBmpA and the anti-inflammatory function of ISOF were evaluated in murine macrophages, human macrophages and dendritic cells by detecting the transcription and expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284249/design-construction-and-evaluation-of-multi-epitope-antigens-for-diagnosis-of-lyme-disease
#14
Eva Schreterova, Mangesh Bhide, Lenka Potocnakova, Lucia Borszekova Pulzova
INTRODUCTION: Introduction and objective. Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne disease in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis of LD is mainly based on clinical symptoms supported with serology (detection of anti-<i>Borrelia</i> antibodies) and is often misdiagnosed in areas of endemicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, the chimeric proteins (A/C-2, A/C-4 and A/C-7.1) consisting of B-cell epitopes of outer surface proteins OspA and OspC from <i>Borrelia</i> genospecies prevalent in Eastern Slovakia, were designed, over-expressed in <i>E...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284115/straight-talk-about-chronic-lyme-disease
#15
EDITORIAL
Phillip J Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 25, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282568/development-of-a-sensitive-pcr-dot-blot-assay-to-supplement-serological-tests-for-diagnosing-lyme-disease
#16
J S Shah, I D' Cruz, S Ward, N S Harris, R Ramasamy
Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is difficult and presently dependent on detecting Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibodies in patient serum with the disadvantage that the immune response to B. burgdorferi can be weak or variable, or alternatively, the slow and inefficient culture confirmation of B. burgdorferi. PCR tests have previously shown poor sensitivity and are not routinely used for diagnosis. We developed a sensitive and specific Lyme Multiplex PCR-dot blot assay (LM-PCR assay) applicable to blood and urine samples to supplement western blot (WB) serological tests for detecting B...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281675/northward-range-expansion-of-ixodes-scapularis-evident-over-a-short-timescale-in-ontario-canada
#17
Katie M Clow, Patrick A Leighton, Nicholas H Ogden, L Robbin Lindsay, Pascal Michel, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
The invasion of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis into Ontario, Canada poses a significant risk to public health because it is a vector for numerous pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Baseline field sampling in 2014 and 2015 detected I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi at sites across southern, eastern and central Ontario, including a hot spot in eastern Ontario. A "speed of spread" model for I. scapularis developed by Leighton and colleagues (2012) estimated that the tick's range was expanding northward at 46 km/year...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279941/lyme-disease-spreading-beyond-states-with-historically-high-incidence
#18
Rita Rubin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278020/diagnosis-and-management-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#19
John J Halperin
The nervous system is involved in 10-15% of patients infected with B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii and B. garinii. This review will address widespread misconceptions about the clinical phenomenology, diagnostic approach and response to treatment of neuroborreliosis. Areas covered: Improvements in diagnostic testing have allowed better definition of the clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis, with lymphocytic meningitis and uni- or multifocal inflammation of peripheral/cranial nerves predominating. Despite widespread concern that post-treatment cognitive/behavioral symptoms might be attributable to persisting infection or aberrant inflammation within the central nervous system a large body of evidence indicates this is extremely improbable...
January 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277293/challenging-diagnosis-and-inpatient-rehabilitation-of-acute-bilateral-neuralgic-amyotrophy-possibly-attributed-to-lyme-disease-a-case-report
#20
Shangming Zhang, Lucy Q Zhang, Megan Wright, David R Gater
Neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) is a neurological syndrome of unknown etiology primarily affecting the brachial plexus. We are reporting an unusual case of acute bilateral NA that was possibly secondary to Lyme disease. The patient demonstrated significant functional gains and was discharged home after 2 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation, supporting the role of inpatient rehabilitation in acute NA. In this report, we discussed the diagnosis, electrodiagnostic progression, pain management, goals for inpatient rehabilitation and overall prognosis of NA...
December 20, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
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