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Hui Yin Lim, Harshal Nandurkar, Prahlad Ho
The advent of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has revolutionized anticoagulation management in both stroke prevention and venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment/prevention. Clinical trials and secondary real-world data have shown that DOACs have similar efficacy and, in some cases, improved bleeding safety profiles compared with vitamin K antagonists. Together with benefits of patient convenience, this has shifted the risk-benefit ratio toward long-term anticoagulation. However, current VTE risk assessment models are based on vitamin K antagonists and do not take into account the new paradigm of DOACs...
March 20, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Alireza Vakilian, Seyed Moein Razavi-Nasab, Ali Ravari, Tayebeh Mirzaei, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi, Nazanin Jalali, Reza Bahramabadi, Mohammadtaghi Rezayati, Amin Yazdanpanah-Ravari, Farhad Bahmaniar, Mohammad Reza Bagheri, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) suffer from psychotic symptoms including pain. The current antipsychotic drugs confer limited effectiveness, and hence new strategies are being designed to decrease pain in order to increase antipsychological effectiveness. Vitamin B12 is a safe supplementary drug to decrease pain. Additionally, cytokines participate in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases such as AD. Thus, the main aim of this clinical trial study was to determine the effects of treatment with risperidone and quetiapine, as antipsychotic drugs, with and without vitamin B12 on the psychotic symptoms of AD patients and the expression of IL-6, IL-8, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and endothelin (ET)-1)...
March 20, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Burak DiK, Emre Bahcivan, Hatice Eser Faki, Kamil Uney
In the present study, combined treatment with etanercept and anakinra were tested in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups; healthy control (HC), diabetic control (DC), diabetic+anakinra (DAT), diabetic+etanercept (DET), and diabetic+etanercept+anakinra (DEAT). HC and DC groups received subcutaneous (sc.) injection with a saline solution, while DAT and DET groups received anakinra (10 mg/kg/day, sc.) or etanercept (10 mg/kg, twice a week, sc.), and DEAT rats received both anakinra and etanercept treatments for 21 days after diabetes has developed...
March 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Rebecca Voelker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Zsolt Zador, Andrew T King, Nophar Geifman
BACKGROUND: Atypical meningiomas are common central nervous system neoplasms with high recurrence rate and poorer prognosis compared to their grade I counterparts. Surgical excision and radiotherapy remains the mainstay therapy but medical treatments are limited. We explore new drug candidates using computational drug repurposing based on the gene expression signature of atypical meningioma tissue with subsequent analysis of drug-generated expression profiles. We further explore possible mechanisms of action for the identified drug candidates using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
2018: PloS One
Xingyu Zhang, Di Chen, Guifeng Xu, Weichun Huang, Xing Wang
Infection by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is a public health challenge worldwide, in particular among children, which was associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There was limited data in pediatric populations, thus this study aimed to investigate molecular epidemiology and drug resistant mechanism of CR-KP strains from pediatric patients in Shanghai, China. A total of 41 clinical CR-KP isolates from sputum, urine, blood or drainage fluid were collected between July 2014 and May 2015 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center...
2018: PloS One
Jelena Krstic, Markus Galhuber, Tim J Schulz, Michael Schupp, Andreas Prokesch
Lifestyle-related disorders, such as the metabolic syndrome, have become a primary risk factor for the development of liver pathologies that can progress from hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis, to the most severe condition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While the prevalence of liver pathologies is steadily increasing in modern societies, there are currently no approved drugs other than chemotherapeutic intervention in late stage HCC. Hence, there is a pressing need to identify and investigate causative molecular pathways that can yield new therapeutic avenues...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Heather Armstrong, Michael Bording-Jorgensen, Stephanie Dijk, Eytan Wine
Cancer is a multifaceted condition, in which a senescent cell begins dividing in an irregular manner due to various factors such as DNA damage, growth factors and inflammation. Inflammation is not typically discussed as carcinogenic; however, a significant percentage of cancers arise from chronic microbial infections and damage brought on by chronic inflammation. A hallmark cancer-inducing microbe is Helicobacter pylori and its causation of peptic ulcers and potentially gastric cancer. This review discusses the recent developments in understanding microbes in health and disease and their potential role in the progression of cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Hee Kyoung Kang, Moon-Chang Choi, Chang Ho Seo, Yoonkyung Park
Various organisms exist in the oceanic environment. These marine organisms provide an abundant source of potential medicines. Many marine peptides possess anticancer properties, some of which have been evaluated for treatment of human cancer in clinical trials. Marine anticancer peptides kill cancer cells through different mechanisms, such as apoptosis, disruption of the tubulin-microtubule balance, and inhibition of angiogenesis. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents have side effects and depress immune responses...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Han-Yu Jiang, Jin-Lin Zhang, Jiang-Wei Yang, Hui-Ling Ma
Creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera ) is the preferred green lawn grass, with excellent turf characteristics but poor disease resistance. At present, the mechanisms of disease resistance in creeping bentgrass are poorly understood, especially the ethylene signal transduction pathway under the induced systemic resistance (ISR) response. In this study, butanediol (BDO), as a new type of disease-resistance compound, was applied to creeping bentgrass seedlings to induce the ISR response. Then, we measured ethylene production and related enzyme activities...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sebastian Povlsen, Bo Povlsen
The diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) has long been a controversial and challenging one. Despite common presentations with pain in the neck and upper extremity, there are a host of presenting patterns that can vary within and between the subdivisions of neurogenic, venous, and arterial TOS. Furthermore, there is a plethora of differential diagnoses, from peripheral compressive neuropathies, to intrinsic shoulder pathologies, to pathologies at the cervical spine. Depending on the subdivision of TOS suspected, diagnostic investigations are currently of varying importance, necessitating high dependence on good history taking and clinical examination...
March 20, 2018: Diagnostics
Ewa Wielosz, Maria Majdan
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease characterized by vascular damage with non-specific inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The disease exhibits a large heterogeneity in both clinical and serological features. This diversity refers to the course of the disease, which is difficult to predict in many cases. Although poor prognostic factors are well known, it is not always possible to predict the course of the disease and the prognosis. Furthermore, the activity of disease is difficult to assess since both reversible and irreversible lesions can occur in one patient...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Zbigniew Zdrojewski
Recognizing the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in patients with lupus (SLE) can be difficult and therefore underestimated. Detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in each patient with SLE should be done as a rule. Introduction of the new classification criteria of this syndrome will certainly improve the recognition of APS in the future. The Sapporo APS classification criteria (1998) were replaced by the Sydney criteria in 2006. Based on the most recent criteria, classification with APS requires one clinical and one laboratory manifestation...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Donato Traversa, Leonardo Della Salda, Anastasia Diakou, Chiara Sforzato, Mariarita Romanucci, Antonio Frangipane di Regalbono, Raffaella Iorio, Valentina Colaberardino, Angela Di Cesare
Parasitic nematodes affecting the respiratory system of cats are gaining much attention in the scientific community and new knowledge has recently been acquired on their epizootiology, biology and clinical aspects. In particular, in the past few years, different studies have indicated that the metastrongyloid lungworm Troglostrongylus brevior can be vertically transmitted in cats, although information on its basic biology is still poor. The present paper describes a case of troglostrongylosis in a litter of three suckling kittens, with a focus on anatomo-pathological and biological features of the infection in two of these three animals...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Guoqing Chen, Yong Li, Wei Wang, Liping Deng
Introduction Mangosteen as a rare and precious fruit looks like a queen crown, known as "Queen of Fruit". α-Mangostin (α-MG) is the most representative xanthone isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen, possessing extensive biological activities and pharmacological properties, which can be considered as an antineoplastic agent, antioxidant, anti-proliferation and induces apoptosis in various types of human cancer cells, and has protective effect on induced apoptotic damage. Areas covered The bioactivity and pharmacological Properties of α-MG are being actively investigated by various industrial and academic institutions...
March 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Sean Conroy, Nicholas D Kindon, Jacqueline Glenn, Leigh A Stoddart, Richard James Lewis, Stephen J Hill, Barrie Kellam, Michael John Stocks
The human P2Y2 receptor (hP2Y2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that shows promise as a therapeutic target for many important conditions including anti-metastatic cancer therapy and more recently for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. As such, there is a need for new hP2Y2R antagonists and molecular probes to study this receptor. Herein, we report the development of a new series of non-nucleotide hP2Y2R antagonists leading to the discovery of a series of fluorescent ligands containing different linkers and fluorophores based on the known, non-nucleotide hP2Y2R antagonist AR-C118925 (1)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Petter Lundborg, Erik Plug, Astrid Wurtz Rasmussen
This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF (in vitro fertilization) induced fertility variation among childless women to estimate the causal effect of having children on their career. For this purpose, we use administrative data on IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Our IV estimates indicate that fertility effects on earnings are: (i) negative, large, and long-lasting; (ii) driven by fertility effects on hourly earnings and not so much on labor supply; and (iii) much stronger at the extensive margin than at the intensive margin...
June 2017: American Economic Review
Oğuz Ahmet Hasdemir, Serhat Tokgöz, Fulya Köybaşıoğlu, Harun Karabacak, Cüneyt Yücesoy, Gökşen İnanç İmamoğlu
BACKGROUND: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MpBC) is defined as a group of heterogeneous malignant neoplasms that contain glandular and non-glandular components with mixed epithelial and mesenchymal differentiations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to research the clinical and pathological characteristics of MpBC determining its rank among all breast cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast was found in 7 out of 1,164 patients who had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the period of 12 years in our hospital...
March 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Olga Dergachyova, Yulong Zhao, Claire Haegelen, Pierre Jannin, Caroline Essert
PURPOSE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a procedure requiring accurate targeting and electrode placement. The two key elements for successful planning are preserving patient safety by ensuring a safe trajectory and creating treatment efficacy through optimal selection of the stimulation point. In this work, we present the first approach of computer-assisted preoperative DBS planning to automatically optimize both the safety of the electrode's trajectory and location of the stimulation point so as to provide the best clinical outcome...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Francesco Plotti, Roberto Montera, Corrado Terranova, Daniela Luvero, Francesca Marrocco, Andrea Miranda, Alessandra Gatti, Carlo De Cicco Nardone, Roberto Angioli, Giuseppe Scaletta
OBJECTIVE: Implantation of bulking agents represents a noninvasive procedure for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in all patients where a more invasive procedure may increase perioperative risks. The primary aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy over time of bulking agent implantation. As secondary aims, we evaluated long-term (patients' subjective) satisfaction rate, rate of de novo urinary symptoms, and the impact of urinary incontinence on the quality of life...
March 19, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
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