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Geographic information systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805164/modelling-the-spatial-distribution-of-fasciola-hepatica-in-bovines-using-decision-tree-logistic-regression-and-gis-query-approaches-for-brazil
#1
S C Bennema, M B Molento, R G Scholte, O S Carvalho, I Pritsch
Fascioliasis is a condition caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica. In this paper, the spatial distribution of F. hepatica in bovines in Brazil was modelled using a decision tree approach and a logistic regression, combined with a geographic information system (GIS) query. In the decision tree and the logistic model, isothermality had the strongest influence on disease prevalence. Also, the 50-year average precipitation in the warmest quarter of the year was included as a risk factor, having a negative influence on the parasite prevalence...
August 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803376/debris-flow-induced-topographic-changes-effects-of-recurrent-debris-flow-initiation
#2
Chien-Yuan Chen, Qun Wang
Chushui Creek in Shengmu Village, Nantou County, Taiwan, was analyzed for recurrent debris flow using numerical modeling and geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis. The two-dimensional water flood and mudflow simulation program FLO-2D were used to simulate debris flow induced by rainfall during typhoon Herb in 1996 and Mindulle in 2004. Changes in topographic characteristics after the debris flows were simulated for the initiation of hydrological characteristics, magnitude, and affected area. Changes in topographic characteristics included those in elevation, slope, aspect, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), and hypsometric curve integral (HI), all of which were analyzed using GIS spatial analysis...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802756/feasibility-of-using-global-system-for-mobile-communication-gsm-based-tracking-for-vaccinators-to-improve-oral-poliomyelitis-vaccine-campaign-coverage-in-rural-pakistan
#3
Subhash Chandir, Vijay Kumar Dharma, Danya Arif Siddiqi, Aamir Javed Khan
Despite multiple rounds of immunization campaigns, it has not been possible to achieve optimum immunization coverage for poliovirus in Pakistan. Supplementary activities to improve coverage of immunization, such as door-to-door campaigns are constrained by several factors including inaccurate hand-drawn maps and a lack of means to objectively monitor field teams in real time, resulting in suboptimal vaccine coverage during campaigns. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) - based tracking of mobile subscriber identity modules (SIMs) of vaccinators provides a low-cost solution to identify missed areas and ensure effective immunization coverage...
August 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799937/multi-criteria-analysis-of-site-selection-for-groundwater-recharge-with-treated-municipal-wastewater
#4
Mohammad Mehdi Ahmadi, Hadi Mahdavirad, Bahram Bakhtiari
Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques are used as a decision support system to identify potential soil aquifer treatment (SAT) sites for groundwater recharge of Kerman aquifer, which is located in the southeast of Iran. These sites are identified using a single-objective multi-criteria analysis. To ensure technical feasibility, environmental sustainability, social acceptability and economical viability a number of criteria are considered for the site selection. The criteria selected for the different variables and acceptable ranges are based on standards published in national and international guidelines and technical documents...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794620/spreading-improvements-for-advanced-copd-care-through-a-canadian-collaborative
#5
Graeme M Rocker, Claudia Amar, Wendy L Laframboise, Jane Burns, Jennifer Y Verma
BACKGROUND: A year-long pan-Canadian quality improvement collaborative (QIC) led by the Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement (CFHI) supported the spread of the successful Halifax, Nova Scotia-based INSPIRED COPD Outreach Program™ to 19 teams in the 10 Canadian provinces. We describe QIC results, addressing two main questions: 1) Can the results of the Nova Scotia INSPIRED model be replicated elsewhere in Canada? 2) How did the teams implement and evaluate their versions of the INSPIRED program? METHODS: Collaborative faculty selected measures that were evidence-based, relatively simple to collect, and relevant to local context...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794579/temporal-and-geographic-patterns-of-kinship-structure-in-common-dolphins-delphinus-delphis-suggest-site-fidelity-and-female-biased-long-distance-dispersal
#6
Laura Ball, Kypher Shreves, Małgorzata Pilot, André E Moura
ABSTRACT: Social structure plays a crucial role in determining a species' dispersal patterns and genetic structure. Cetaceans show a diversity of social and mating systems, but their effects on dispersal and genetic structure are not well known, in part because of technical difficulties in obtaining robust observational data. Here, we combine genetic profiling and GIS analysis to identify patterns of kin distribution over time and space, to infer mating structure and dispersal patterns in short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792976/relationship-between-ancient-bridges-and-population-dynamics-in-the-lower-yangtze-river-basin-china
#7
Yang Zhao, Xin Jia, Harry F Lee, Hongqiang Zhao, Shuliang Cai, Xianjin Huang
It has been suggested that population growth dynamics may be revealed by the geographic distribution and the physical structure of ancient bridges. Yet, this relationship has not been empirically verified. In this study, we applied the archaeological records for ancient bridges to reveal the population growth dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin in late imperial China. We investigated 89 ancient bridges in Yixing that were built during the Ming and Qing dynasties (AD1368-1911). Global Position System information and structure (length, width, and span) of those bridges was measured during our field investigations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783136/the-earth-s-population-can-reach-14-billion-in-the-23rd-century-without-significant-adverse-effects-on-survivability
#8
Vladimir F Krapivin, Costas A Varotsos, Vladimir Yu Soldatov
This paper presents the results obtained from the study of the sustainable state between nature and human society on a global scale, focusing on the most critical interactions between the natural and anthropogenic processes. Apart from the conventional global models, the basic tool employed herein is the newly proposed complex model entitled "nature-society system (NSS) model", through which a reliable modeling of the processes taking place in the global climate-nature-society system (CNSS) is achieved. This universal tool is mainly based on the information technology that allows the adaptive conformance of the parametric and functional space of this model...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782441/connecting-remote-populations-to-public-health-the-case-for-a-digital-immunisation-information-system-in-nunavut
#9
Lindsay A Wilson, Barry Pakes, Malia S Q Murphy, Katherine M Atkinson, Cameron Bell, Kumanan Wilson
Despite the best efforts of local healthcare workers and health officials, Nunavut, a large geographical region in Northern Canada, has struggled with outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). We contend that the implementation of an immunisation information system (IIS) could strengthen prevention and response efforts to this and future outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Developing an IIS in Nunavut that builds on the existing CANImmunize infrastructure would reduce the cost and complexity of developing a new IIS, and allow Nunavut to benefit from the ongoing efforts to secure data on the CANImmunize platform...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780908/temporal-and-spatial-distribution-characteristics-in-the-natural-plague-foci-of-chinese-mongolian-gerbils-based-on-spatial-autocorrelation
#10
Hai-Wen Du, Yong Wang, Da-Fang Zhuang, Xiao-San Jiang
BACKGROUND: The nest flea index of Meriones unguiculatus is a critical indicator for the prevention and control of plague, which can be used not only to detect the spatial and temporal distributions of Meriones unguiculatus, but also to reveal its cluster rule. This research detected the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the plague natural foci of Mongolian gerbils by body flea index from 2005 to 2014, in order to predict plague outbreaks. METHODS: Global spatial autocorrelation was used to describe the entire spatial distribution pattern of the body flea index in the natural plague foci of typical Chinese Mongolian gerbils...
August 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774350/correlation-of-age-and-rurality-with-low-urgency-use-of-emergency-medical-services-luems-a-geographic-analysis
#11
Mikiko Terashima, Alix J E Carter
OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that addressing the needs of the older population in rural areas may substantially reduce their low-urgency use of emergency medical services (LUEMS). It may ultimately also help improve the efficiency in our health system. There is, however, a dearth of evidence substantiating geographic patterns in LUEMS by different age cohorts. This exploratory study was aimed to clarify the understanding of emergency medical services (EMS) use in Nova Scotia through a geographic analysis...
August 4, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774280/public-health-implications-of-changing-patterns-of-recruitment-into-the-south-african-mining-industry-1973-2012-a-database-analysis
#12
Rodney Ehrlich, Alex Montgomery, Paula Akugizibwe, Gregg Gonsalves
BACKGROUND: The triple epidemic of silicosis, tuberculosis and HIV infection among migrant miners from South Africa and neighbouring countries who have worked in the South African mining industry is currently the target of regional and international control efforts. These initiatives are hampered by a lack of information on this population. METHODS: This study analysed the major South African mining recruitment database for the period 1973 to 2012 by calendar intervals and demographic and occupational characteristics...
August 3, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771069/are-measures-derived-from-land-use-and-transport-policies-associated-with-walking-for-transport
#13
Jerome N Rachele, Vincent Learnihan, Hannah M Badland, Suzanne Mavoa, Gavin Turrell, Billie Giles-Corti
BACKGROUND: There is growing urgency for higher quality evidence to inform policy. This study developed geographic information systems (GIS) spatial measures based on land use and transport policies currently used in selected Australian states to assess which, if any, of these measures were associated with walking for transport. METHODS: Overall, 6,901 participants from 570 neighbourhoods in Brisbane, Australia were included. Participants reported their minutes of walking for transport in the previous week...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765720/a-global-map-of-saltmarshes
#14
Chris J Mcowen, Lauren V Weatherdon, Jan-Willem Van Bochove, Emma Sullivan, Simon Blyth, Christoph Zockler, Damon Stanwell-Smith, Naomi Kingston, Corinne S Martin, Mark Spalding, Steven Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Saltmarshes are extremely valuable but often overlooked ecosystems, contributing to livelihoods locally and globally through the associated ecosystem services they provide, including fish production, carbon storage and coastal protection. Despite their importance, knowledge of the current spatial distribution (occurrence and extent) of saltmarshes is incomplete. In light of increasing anthropogenic and environmental pressures on coastal ecosystems, global data on the occurrence and extent of saltmarshes are needed to draw attention to these critical ecosystems and to the benefits they generate for people...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765532/physarum-machines-imitating-a-roman-road-network-the-3d-approach
#15
Vasilis Evangelidis, Jeff Jones, Nikolaos Dourvas, Michail-Antisthenis Tsompanas, Georgios Ch Sirakoulis, Andrew Adamatzky
Physarum Polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. This is a plasmodial, vegetative stage of acellular slime mould. This single cell has myriad of nuclei which contribute to a network of bio-chemical oscillators responsible for the slime mould's distributed sensing, concurrent information processing and decision making, and parallel actuation. When presented with a spatial configuration of sources of nutrients, the slime mould spans the sources with networks of its protoplasmic tube. These networks belong to a family of planar proximity graphs...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765254/risk-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-its-association-with-cardiovascular-and-noncardiac-vascular-risk-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-population-based-study
#16
Katelynn M Wilton, Eric L Matteson, Cynthia S Crowson
OBJECTIVE: To define the incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and determine whether OSA diagnosis predicts future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and noncardiac vascular events. METHODS: Medical information pertaining to RA, OSA, CVD, and vascular diagnoses was extracted from a comprehensive medical record system for a geographically defined population of 813 patients previously diagnosed with RA and 813 age- and sex-matched comparator subjects...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764851/errors-in-accident-data-its-types-causes-and-methods-of-rectification-analysis-of-the-literature
#17
Ashar Ahmed, Ahmad Farhan Mohd Sadullah, Ahmad Shukri Yahya
Most of the decisions taken to improve road safety are based on accident data, which makes it the back bone of any country's road safety system. Errors in this data will lead to misidentification of black spots and hazardous road segments, projection of false estimates pertinent to accidents and fatality rates, and detection of wrong parameters responsible for accident occurrence, thereby making the entire road safety exercise ineffective. Its extent varies from country to country depending upon various factors...
July 29, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763652/nox-nh3-n2o-and-pn-real-driving-emissions-from-a-euro-vi-heavy-duty-vehicle-impact-of-regulatory-on-road-test-conditions-on-emissions
#18
Pablo Mendoza-Villafuerte, Ricardo Suarez-Bertoa, Barouch Giechaskiel, Francesco Riccobono, Claudia Bulgheroni, Covadonga Astorga, Adolfo Perujo
Euro VI emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) introduced for the first time limits for solid particle number (PN) and NH3 emissions. EU regulation also includes a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) based test at type approval, followed by in-service conformity (ISC) testing. A comprehensive study on the real-time on-road emissions of NOx, NH3, N2O and PN from a Euro VI HDV equipped with a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Diesel Particle Filter (DPF), a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system and an Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst (AMOX) is presented...
July 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760646/determinants-of-patient-mobility-for-prostate-cancer-surgery-a-population-based-study-of-choice-and-competition
#19
Ajay Aggarwal, Daniel Lewis, Susan C Charman, Malcolm Mason, Noel Clarke, Richard Sullivan, Jan van der Meulen
Many countries have introduced policies that enable patients to select a health care provider of their choice with the aim of improving the quality of care. However, there is little information about the drivers or the impact of patient mobility. Using administrative hospital data (n=19256) we analysed the mobility of prostate cancer patients who had radical surgery in England between 2010 and 2014. Our analysis, using geographic information systems and multivariable choice modelling, found that 33·5% (n=6465) of men bypassed their nearest prostate cancer surgical centre...
July 28, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758700/dengue-virus-infections-among-blood-donors-in-guangxi-of-china-2013-2014
#20
Z Gao, Y Zhang, Y Yang, M Xu, P Liao, W He, J Xu, Y Liu, M He
BACKGROUND: An unexpected, large dengue outbreak, spreading to 20 cities of Guangdong province, occurred in July 2014. Considering the overwhelming influence of this seasonal epidemic, whether this dengue virus outbreak has an significant impact on the blood donors of the ajacent areas in Guangdong requires at least a preliminary investigation. Liuzhou City of Guangxi was chosen as a good representative of the neighbouring geographical location of the dengue virus (DENV) outbreak areas in this research...
July 31, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
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