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Geographic information systems

Anna E Greer, Brianna Castrogivanni, Richard Marcello
BACKGROUND: Limited research has examined park use and physical activity among economically and ethnically diverse families. This study fills that gap. METHODS: Parents (n=326) completed a questionnaire about their park use (yes/no, parks visited, reasons for non-use) and physical activity (Godin Leisure Time questionnaire). Geographical Information Systems was used to calculate the distance from respondents' home address to their nearest park. The number of activity features (e...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Nathalie Goutté, Philippe Sogni, Noelle Bendersky, Jean Claude Barbare, Bruno Falissard, Olivier Farges
BACKGROUND: Information on the incidence, management, and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is derived from population samples, regional data, or registries. Comprehensive national evaluations within a given country are lacking. METHODS: This observational study analysed data from French administrative databases for more than 30,000 patients with HCC diagnosed between 2009 and 2012, followed up to 2013. The incidence of HCC, access to surgery, and survival, at both the national level and two geographical levels (the 21 French regions and 95 French departments into which France is divided administratively), were determined...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Alexandre Pedro Tavares da Fonseca Magalhães, Maria de Fátima Rodrigues Pereira de Pina, Elisabete da Conceição Pereira Ramos
PURPOSE: Adolescence may be a period particularly relevant for acquisition of lifelong habits of physical activity (PA). We investigated the tracking of leisure-time PA from 13 to 17 years old and the influence of urban environment and other determinants. METHODS: As part of the EPITeen cohort (Portugal), we evaluated 969 adolescents living in the city of Porto. Participants were assembled in public and private schools at 13 years and reevaluated at 17 years. Leisure-time PA was evaluated by self-reported questionnaires...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Yinjun Zhao, Aizhong Ding
River classification is a very useful tool for river management yet still a difficult task. This paper proposed a new decision classifier (DCF) to classify rivers for Chinese river management based on existing classification systems. Aimed at river function management, the DCF with the five-layers frame was developed on reach level in a spatially nested pattern that from top to bottom are natural province, basin, valley, reach, habitat and microhabitat. Five indexes (artificial degree, closeness, sinuosity, bed material texture, geomorphic units (GUs)) were selected and organized into the DCF according to the importance of the influence on river structure from macro to micro, large to small and top to bottom, because they represent main aspects of river structures and are easy to obtain...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Stella Maris Martin, Ana C Díaz
Heleobia piscium (d'Orbigny, 1835), a member of the Cochliopidae family found only in South America, is distributed from Entre Ríos, Delta del Paraná, and the littoral of the Río de la Plata down as far as to Punta Indio (Buenos Aires), the southernmost limit of the snail's geographical distribution. To date, little information is available regarding the reproductive cycle of species within this family either in Argentina or throughout South America. The present work analyzed the histology of the reproductive system of the gonochoric species H...
2016: PeerJ
Jeremy B Yoder
Decades of research on the evolution of mutualism has generated a wealth of possible ways whereby mutually beneficial interactions between species persist in spite of the apparent advantages to individuals that accept the benefits of mutualism without reciprocating - but identifying how any particular empirical system is stabilized against cheating remains challenging. Different hypothesized models of mutualism stability predict different forms of coevolutionary selection, and emerging high-throughput sequencing methods allow examination of the selective histories of mutualism genes and, thereby, the form of selection acting on those genes...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Botany
António Dos Anjos Luis, Pedro Cabral
BACKGROUND: Access to healthcare services has an essential role in promoting health equity and quality of life. Knowing where the places are and how much of the population is covered by the existing healthcare network is important information that can be extracted from Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and used in effective healthcare planning. The aim of this study is to measure the geographic accessibility of population to existing Healthcare Centers (HC), and to estimate the number of persons served by the health network of Mozambique...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Ulrike Stentzel, Jens Piegsa, Daniel Fredrich, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Neeltje van den Berg
BACKGROUND: The accessibility of medical care facilities in sparsely populated rural regions is relevant especially for elderly people which often represent a large segment of the population in such regions. Elderly people have higher morbidity risks and a higher demand for medical care. Although travelling with private cars is the dominating traffic mode in rural regions, accessibility by public transport is increasingly important especially because of limited mobility of elderly people...
October 19, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Guilherme V T Ribeiro, Alberto L Teixido, Newton P U Barbosa, Fernando A O Silveira
Sampling biases permeate ecological research and result in knowledge gaps that have vital consequences for conservation planning. The consequences of knowledge gaps on species identity and distribution (the Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls, respectively) have become apparent recently, but we know little about the extent that research biases and knowledge gaps on traits that influence species' niches (the Hutchinsonian shortfall) affect conservation policy. To examine whether knowledge of species' traits based on seed ecology is geographically, phylogenetically, and ecologically biased, we retrieved research data on seed germination, seed dormancy, seed dispersal, seed banks, seed predation, and seed removal from a database of 847 papers, 1648 species, and 5322 cases...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Lin Zhao, Dongxue Guan, Jianhua Cheng, Xiaomin Xu, Zaihui Fei
A ship experiences the random motion of sea waves during its travels. Hence, the coarse alignment of the marine strapdown Inertial Navigation System (INS) suffers from rocking disturbances such as pitch and roll. In this paper, a novel approach of marine coarse alignment was proposed for avoiding the resulting loss of accuracy from rocking disturbances. Unlike several current techniques, our alignment scheme is intuitional and concise. Moreover, the coarse alignment can be implemented without any external information...
October 15, 2016: Sensors
Jina Choo, Hye-Jin Kim, Sooyeon Park
This study aimed to identify the actual and perceived features of neighborhood environments linked to health behaviors and obesity status in vulnerable children by using geographic information systems, walking surveys, and focus group interviews. The participants were 126 children registered at community child centers and 10 mothers of study participants. Increased availability of fast food outlets and convenience stores was significantly and positively associated with fast food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and inversely with physical activity...
October 16, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Dazhi Fan, Song Wu, Wen Wang, Lihong Xin, Guo Tian, Li Liu, Jinping Feng, Xiaoling Guo, Zhengping Liu
BACKGROUND: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. METHODS: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
David Barbic, Brian Klinkenberg, Brian Grunau, Jim Christenson
OBJECTIVE: No prior work exists examining the relation between the geographic distribution of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas that may exhibit a clustering of cases. The primary objective of this study was to describe the distribution of OHCA within the Vancouver Coastal Health region using a geographic information system (GIS) analysis and appropriate statistical analyses. METHODS: This study was a post-hoc GIS-based analysis of OHCA patients in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas, using data collected by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium between September 2007 and December 2011...
October 17, 2016: CJEM
Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Maria Leonor Galindo-Marquez, Carlos Julian García-Loaiza, Juan Alejandro Sabogal-Roman, Santiago Marin-Loaiza, Andrés F Ayala, Guillermo J Lagos-Grisales, Carlos O Lozada-Riascos, Esteban Parra-Valencia, Jorge H Rojas-Palacios, Eduardo López, Pío López, Martin P Grobusch
OBJECTIVE: Geographical information systems (GIS) use for development of epidemiological maps in tropical diseases is increasingly frequently utilized. Here, we apply this technique to map the current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Colombia. METHODS: Surveillance cases data of the ongoing epidemic of ZIKV in Valle del Cauca department and its capital, Cali (2015-2016), were used to estimate cumulated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population) to develop the first maps in the department and it municipalities...
October 14, 2016: Infection
Joel D Kaufman, Elizabeth W Spalt, Cynthia L Curl, Anjum Hajat, Miranda R Jones, Sun-Young Kim, Sverre Vedal, Adam A Szpiro, Amanda Gassett, Lianne Sheppard, Martha L Daviglus, Sara D Adar
The MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information...
September 2016: Global Heart
Julie Easley, Baukje Miedema, June C Carroll, Donna P Manca, Mary Ann O'Brien, Fiona Webster, Eva Grunfeld
OBJECTIVE: To explore health care provider (HCP) perspectives on the coordination of cancer care between FPs and cancer specialists. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured telephone interviews. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 58 HCPs, comprising 21 FPs, 15 surgeons, 12 medical oncologists, 6 radiation oncologists, and 4 GPs in oncology. METHODS: This qualitative study is nested within a larger mixed-methods program of research, CanIMPACT (Canadian Team to Improve Community-Based Cancer Care along the Continuum), focused on improving the coordination of cancer care between FPs and cancer specialists...
October 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
George D Bathrellos, Hariklia D Skilodimou, Konstantinos Chousianitis, Ahmed M Youssef, Biswajeet Pradhan
Preparation of natural hazards maps are vital and essential for urban development. The main scope of this study is to synthesize natural hazard maps in a single multi-hazard map and thus to identify suitable areas for the urban development. The study area is the drainage basin of Xerias stream (Northeastern Peloponnesus, Greece) that has frequently suffered damages from landslides, floods and earthquakes. Landslide, flood and seismic hazard assessment maps were separately generated and further combined by applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and utilizing a Geographical Information System (GIS) to produce a multi-hazard map...
October 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10-54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Lina Mtwana Nordlund, Evamaria W Koch, Edward B Barbier, Joel C Creed
Threats to and loss of seagrass ecosystems globally, impact not only natural resources but also the lives of people who directly or indirectly depend on these systems. Seagrass ecosystems play a multi-functional role in human well-being, e.g. food through fisheries, control of erosion and protection against floods. Quantifying these services reveals their contributions to human well-being and helps justify seagrass conservation. There has been no comprehensive assessment as to whether seagrass ecosystem services are perceived to vary over the globe or amongst genera...
2016: PloS One
David M Schultz, Aaron K Calodney, Alon Y Mogilner, Todd W Weaver, Michelle D Wells, E Katherine Stromberg, Mollie P Roediger, Peter E Konrad, John T Sasaki
OBJECTIVES: The Implantable Systems Performance Registry (ISPR) was created to monitor the product performance of Medtronic Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) and implanted intrathecal drug infusion systems available in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected on 2605 patients from 44 centers from various geographic regions across the United States implanting and following patients with SCS systems between June 25, 2004 and January 31, 2014. Actuarial life table methods are used to estimate device performance over time...
October 12, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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