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Geographic information systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922592/distributed-solar-photovoltaic-array-location-and-extent-dataset-for-remote-sensing-object-identification
#1
Kyle Bradbury, Raghav Saboo, Timothy L Johnson, Jordan M Malof, Arjun Devarajan, Wuming Zhang, Leslie M Collins, Richard G Newell
Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919235/geographical-distribution-of-typhoid-risk-factors-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#2
Jung-Seok Lee, Vijayalaxmi V Mogasale, Vittal Mogasale, Kangsung Lee
BACKGROUND: While the global burden of typhoid fever has been often brought up for attention, the detailed surveillance information has only been available for the limited number of countries. As more efficacious vaccines will be available in the near future, it is essential to understand the geographically diverse patterns of typhoid risk levels and to prioritize the right populations for vaccination to effectively control the disease. METHODS: A composite index called the typhoid risk factor (TRF) index was created based on data with the Global Positioning System (GPS)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909157/area-monitoring-of-ambient-dose-rates-in-parts-of-south-western-nigeria-using-a-gps-integrated-radiation-survey-meter
#3
I C Okeyode, J A Rabiu, O O Alatise, V Makinde, F G Akinboro, D Al-Azmi, A O Mustapha
A radiation monitoring system comprising a Geiger-Muller counter connected to a smart phone via Bluetooth was used for a dose rate survey in some parts of south-western Nigeria. The smart phone has the Geographical Positioning System, which provides the navigation information and saves it along with the dose rate data. A large number of data points was obtained that shows the dose rate distribution within the region. The results show that the ambient dose rates in the region range from 60 to 520 nSv (-1) and showed a bias that is attributable to the influence of geology on the ambient radiation dose in the region...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907836/implications-of-adopting-a-biodiversity-based-vulnerability-index-versus-a-shoreline-environmental-sensitivity-index-on-management-and-policy-planning-along-coastal-areas
#4
G Harik, I Alameddine, R Maroun, G Rachid, D Bruschi, D Astiaso Garcia, M El-Fadel
In this study, a multi-criteria index was developed to assess anthropogenic stressors along the Mediterranean coastline. The index aimed at geo-locating pollution hotspots for informed decision making related to coastal zone management. The index was integrated in a Geographical Information System based geodatabase implemented at several pilot areas along the Northern (Italy and France), Eastern (Lebanon), and Southern (Tunisia) Mediterranean coastlines. The generated stressor maps were coupled with a biodiversity richness index and an environmental sensitivity index to produce vulnerability maps that can form the basis for prioritizing management and mitigation interventions towards the identification of pollution hotspots and the promotion of sustainable coastal zone management...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905980/temporal-evolution-of-the-risk-factors-associated-with-low-birth-weight-rates-in-brazilian-capitals-1996-2011
#5
Viviane Costa de Souza Buriol, Vânia Hirakata, Marcelo Zubaran Goldani, Clécio Homrich da Silva
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend of low birth weight (LBW) and its determinants in Brazilian state capitals between 1996 and 2011. We intended to determine which variables are associated with LBW during the period studied. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the National Information System of Live Births from 26 state capitals and Brasilia (the federal capital), divided into five geographical regions. The Average Annual Percentage of Change (AAPC) was used to assess the possible time trend in the low birth weight rates for considering all regions together and each region separately, according to each variable, and the Poisson regression was calculated in order to demonstrate time trends in low birth weight and the impact of variables (age and educational maternal level, antenatal visits, type of delivery, and gestational age) during the period...
May 3, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903063/smartphone-assisted-spatial-data-collection-improves-geographic-information-quality-pilot-study-using-a-birth-records-dataset
#6
Xiaohui Xu, Hui Hu, Sandie Ha, Daikwon Han
It is well known that the conventional, automated geocoding method based on self-reported residential addresses has many issues. We developed a smartphone-assisted aerial image-based method, which uses the Google Maps application programming interface as a spatial data collection tool during the birth registration process. In this pilot study, we have tested whether the smartphone-assisted method provides more accurate geographic information than the automated geocoding method in the scenario when both methods can get the address geocodes...
November 23, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903062/geographically-weighted-regression-for-modelling-the-accessibility-to-the-public-hospital-network-in-concepci%C3%A3-n-metropolitan-area-chile
#7
Marcela Martínez Bascuñán, Carolina Rojas Quezada
Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA), the second largest city in Chile. The city's public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted regression (GWR) and ordinary least squares (OLS) for modelling accessibility with socioeconomic and transport variables is proposed...
November 22, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903061/geographic-distribution-of-canine-heartworm-dirofilaria-immitis-infection-in-stray-dogs-of-eastern-romania
#8
Lavinia Ciucă, Vincenzo Musella, Liviu D Miron, Maria Paola Maurelli, Giuseppe Cringoli, Antonio Bosco, Laura Rinaldi
A survey was conducted in the eastern part of Romania to assess the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Plasma samples were collected from 458 stray dogs hosted in shelters in 8 counties and tested serologically for the presence of heartworm. In addition, 45 blood samples from dogs of a shelter in Galati city were examined by the modified Knott and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The immmunological assay showed a heartworm infection prevalence of 8...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901244/trends-in-mortality-from-ill-defined-causes-among-the-elderly-in-brazil-1979-2013-ecological-study
#9
Davi Félix Martins, Ridalva Dias Martins Felzemburg, Acácia Batista Dias, Tania Maria Costa, Pedro Nascimento Prates Santos
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Mortality measurements are traditionally used as health indicators and are useful in describing a population's health situation through reporting injuries that lead to death. The aim here was to analyze the temporal trend of proportional mortality from ill-defined causes (IDCs) among the elderly in Brazil from 1979 to 2013. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological study using data from the Mortality Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900408/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-pericardial-effusions-requiring-readmission-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#10
Matthew D Elias, Andrew C Glatz, Matthew J O'Connor, Susan Schachtner, Chitra Ravishankar, Christoper E Mascio, Meryl S Cohen
Pericardial effusion (PE) may require readmission after cardiac surgery and has been associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify the prevalence and risk factors for postoperative PE requiring readmission in children. A retrospective analysis of the Pediatric Health Information System database was performed between January 1, 2003, and September 30, 2014. All patients ≤18 years old who underwent cardiac surgery were identified by ICD-9 codes. Those readmitted within 1 year with an ICD-9 code for PE were identified...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898772/a-gis-based-upscaling-estimation-of-nutrient-runoff-losses-from-rice-paddy-fields-to-a-regional-level
#11
Xiaoxiao Sun, Xinqiang Liang, Feng Zhang, Chaodong Fu
Nutrient runoff losses from cropping fields can lead to nonpoint source pollution; however, the level of nutrient export is difficult to evaluate, particularly at the regional scale. This study aimed to establish a novel yet simple approach for estimating total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) runoff losses from regional paddy fields. In this approach, temporal changes of nutrient concentrations in floodwater were coupled with runoff-processing functions in rice ( L.) fields to calculate nutrient runoff losses for three site-specific field experiments...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898665/extending-contact-tracing-into-the-community-within-a-50-metre-radius-of-an-index-tuberculosis-patient-using-xpert-mtb-rif-in-urban-pakistan-did-it-increase-case-detection
#12
Razia Fatima, Ejaz Qadeer, Aashifa Yaqoob, Mahboob Ul Haq, Suman S Majumdar, Hemant D Shewade, Robert Stevens, Jacob Creswell, Nasir Mahmood, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: Currently, only 62% of incident tuberculosis (TB) cases are reported to the national programme in Pakistan. Several innovative interventions are being recommended to detect the remaining 'missed' TB cases. One such intervention involved expanding contact investigation to the community using the Xpert MTB/RIF test. METHODS: This was a before and after intervention study involving retrospective record review. Passive case finding and household contact investigation was routinely done in the pre-intervention period July 2011-June 2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896669/detection-of-autoantibodies-to-dsf70-ledgfp75-in-mexican-hispanics-using-multiple-complementary-assay-platforms
#13
Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado, Eduardo Gómez-Bañuelos, Rosa Elena Navarro-Hernández, Oscar Pizano-Martinez, Adan Saldaña-Millán, Efrain Chavarria-Avila, Lorena Gonzalez-Rosas, Lilia Andrade-Ortega, Miguel Angel Saavedra, Olga Lidia Vera-Lastra, Luis Javier Jara, Gabriel Medrano-Ramírez, Claudia Cruz-Reyes, Ignacio García-De la Torre, Marta Escarra-Senmarti, Lisiane Maria Enriconi-Dos Anjos, Anamika Basu, Roger Albesa, Michael Mahler, Carlos A Casiano
PURPOSE: Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) targeting the dense fine speckled antigen DFS70, also known as lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), are attracting attention due to their low frequency in systemic rheumatic diseases but increased frequency in clinical laboratory referrals and healthy individuals (HI). These ANA specifically recognize the stress protein DFS70/LEDGFp75, implicated in cancer, HIV-AIDS, and inflammation. While their frequency has been investigated in various ethnic populations, there is little information on their frequency among Hispanics/Latinos...
December 2017: Auto- Immunity Highlights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896551/investing-for-impact-the-global-fund-approach-to-measurement-of-aids-response
#14
Suman Jain, Nathalie Zorzi
The Global Fund raises and invests nearly US$4 billion a year to support programs run in more than 140 countries. The Global Fund strategy 2012-2016 is focused on "Investing for Impact". In order to accomplish this, timely and accurate data are needed to inform strategies and prioritize activities to achieve greater coverage with quality services. Monitoring and evaluation is intrinsic to the Global Fund's system of performance-based funding. The Global Fund invests in strengthening measurement and reporting of results at all stages of the grant cycle...
November 28, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893947/challenges-in-the-uptake-of-telemedicine-in-dentistry
#15
Mohamed Estai, Estie Kruger, Marc Tennant, Stuart Bunt, Yogesan Kanagasingam
With the availability of oral care services very unevenly distributed in rural or remote areas, underserved people seek oral care from non-dental care providers. Against this backdrop, and coupled with the decreasing cost of and innovations in technology, there is a growing interest in the adoption of telemedicine services. Regardless of the lack of good-quality evidence supporting the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine, evidence already indicates that telemedicine, even with extra costs, helps in reducing the inequalities in the provision of primary health care...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891781/geographic-distribution-of-live-births-with-tetralogy-of-fallot-in-north-carolina-2003-to-2012
#16
Jennifer S Nelson, Rebecca C Stebbins, Paula D Strassle, Robert E Meyer
BACKGROUND: Geographic variation in congenital heart disease is not well-described. This study uses geographic information systems (GIS) to describe the spatial epidemiology of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), in North Carolina (NC) and to compare travel time for cases to congenital heart centers in NC. METHODS: Using the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program database, live births with TOF born between 2003 and 2012 were identified. Birth certificates provided demographic variables...
November 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891658/the-impact-of-neighborhood-conditions-and-psychological-distress-on-preterm-birth-in-african-american-women
#17
Carmen Giurgescu, Shannon N Zenk, Thomas N Templin, Christopher G Engeland, Karen Kavanaugh, Dawn P Misra
OBJECTIVE: Prior research suggests that adverse neighborhood conditions are related to preterm birth. One potential pathway by which neighborhood conditions increase the risk for preterm birth is by increasing women's psychological distress. Our objective was to examine whether psychological distress mediated the relationship between neighborhood conditions and preterm birth. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: One hundred and one pregnant African-American women receiving prenatal care at a medical center in Chicago participated in this cross-sectional design study...
November 28, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887926/geographic-clustering-of-acute-complications-and-sociodemographic-factors-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Sonia Butalia, Alka B Patel, Jeffrey A Johnson, William A Ghali, Doreen M Rabi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the geographic distribution of acute complications in patients with type 1 diabetes in a large urban centre; and to assess the association between acute complications and community-level sociodemographic factors. METHODS: Adults (aged ≥18 years old) with type 1 diabetes and acute complications were identified between 2004 and 2008 by using a diabetes centre clinical database or discharge abstracts for acute complications (diabetic ketoacidosis or hypoglycemia)...
November 23, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887676/trauma-patients-i-can-t-get-no-patient-satisfaction
#19
Karalyn Bentley-Kumar, Theresa Jackson, Danny Holland, Brian LeBlanc, Vaidehi Agrawal, Michael S Truitt
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) provides financial incentives to hospitals based on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) patient satisfaction survey. This data is made publicly available on their website to be utilized by patients and insurers. Hospitals are profoundly interested in identifying patient populations that negatively contribute to overall patient satisfaction scores. Hospitals consider trauma patients "high risk" from a HCAHPS perspective, but there is no data to inform this opinion...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886811/morphoarchitectural-variation-in-south-african-fossil-cercopithecoid-endocasts
#20
Amélie Beaudet, Jean Dumoncel, Frikkie de Beer, Benjamin Duployer, Stanley Durrleman, Emmanuel Gilissen, Jakobus Hoffman, Christophe Tenailleau, John Francis Thackeray, José Braga
Despite the abundance of well-preserved crania and natural endocasts in the South African Plio-Pleistocene cercopithecoid record, which provide direct information relevant to the evolution of their endocranial characteristics, few studies have attempted to characterize patterns of external brain morphology in this highly successful primate Superfamily. The availability of non-destructive penetrating radiation imaging systems, together with recently developed computer-based analytical tools, allow for high resolution virtual imaging and modeling of the endocranial casts and thus disclose new perspectives in comparative paleoneurology...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
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