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Burn and trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817438/alternatively-activated-macrophages-drive-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-burns
#1
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Christopher Auger, Mile Stanojcic, David Patsouris, Alexandra Parousis, Slava Epelman, Marc G Jeschke
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to uncover the mediators and mechanistic events that facilitate the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to burns. BACKGROUND: In hypermetabolic patients (eg, burns, cancer), the browning of WAT has presented substantial clinical challenges related to cachexia, atherosclerosis, and poor clinical outcomes. Browning of the adipose tissue has recently been found to induce and sustain hypermetabolism. Although browning appears central in trauma-, burn-, or cancer-induced hypermetabolic catabolism, the mediators are essentially unknown...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814441/left-of-bang-interventions-in-trauma-ethical-implications-for-military-medical-prophylaxis
#2
Neil Eisenstein, David Naumann, Daniel Burns, Sarah Stapley, Heather Draper
Advances in medical capability should be accompanied by discussion of their ethical implications. In the military medical context there is a growing interest in developing prophylactic interventions that will mitigate the effects of trauma and improve survival. The ethics of this novel capability are currently unexplored. This paper describes the concept of trauma prophylaxis (Left Of Bang Interventions in Trauma) and outlines some of the ethical issues that need to be considered, including within concept development, research and implementation...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803752/optimal-dose-timing-and-ratio-of-blood-products-in-massive-transfusion-results-from-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Zoe K McQuilten, Gemma Crighton, Susan Brunskill, Jessica K Morison, Tania H Richter, Neil Waters, Michael F Murphy, Erica M Wood
Optimal dose, timing and ratio to red blood cells (RBC) of blood component therapy (fresh frozen plasma [FFP], platelets, cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrate) to reduce morbidity and mortality in critically bleeding patients requiring massive transfusion is unknown. We performed a systematic review for randomized controlled trials (RCT) in MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed the Transfusion Evidence Library and using multiple clinical trials registries to 21 February 2017. Sixteen RCTs were identified: six completed (five in adult trauma patients, one pediatric burn patients) and ten ongoing trials...
July 6, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803606/effect-of-dermabrasion-and-recell-%C3%A2-on-large-superficial-facial-scars-caused-by-burn-trauma-and-acnes
#4
Pan-Xi Yu, Wen-Qi Diao, Zuo-Liang Qi, Jing-Long Cai
Objective To explore the effects of dermabrasion combined with ReCell(®) on large superficial facial scars caused by burn, trauma and acnes.Methods Nineteen patients with large superficial facial scars were treated by the same surgeon with dermabrasion combined with ReCell(®). According to the etiology, patients were classified into post-burning group (n=5), post-traumatic group (n=7) and post-acne group (n=7). Fifteen patients completed the follow-ups, 5 patients in each group. Healing time, complication rate, the preoperative and 18-month-post-operative assessments using Patient Satisfaction Score (PSS), Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), and Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) of each group were analyzed to compare the effect of the combined therapy on outcomes...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792428/influences-of-macrohemodynamic-conditions-on-systemic-microhemodynamic-changes-in-burns
#5
Jochen-Frederick Hernekamp, Florian Neubrech, Tomke Cordts, Volker J Schmidt, Ulrich Kneser, Thomas Kremer
PURPOSE: The clinical course after major burns is characterized by microcirculatory changes and consecutive capillary leakage. However, current clinical monitoring does not properly assess microcirculation, whereas macrohemodynamic changes are continuously evaluated. Here, we assess if macrohemodynamic and microhemodynamic parameters after burn trauma are correlated in a rat model. METHODS: Burn plasma harvested from donor rats 4 hours after thermal injury (30% total body surface area, 100 °C water, 12 seconds) was administered intravenously to healthy animals during 2 hours of intravital microscopy (burn group [BG])...
November 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771181/ghrelin-therapy-decreases-incidents-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-mice-after-whole-body-ionizing-irradiation-combined-with-burn-trauma
#6
Nikolai V Gorbunov, Juliann G Kiang
Nuclear industrial accidents and the detonation of nuclear devices cause a variety of damaging factors which, when their impacts are combined, produce complicated injuries challenging for medical treatment. Thus, trauma following acute ionizing irradiation (IR) can deteriorate the IR-induced secondary reactive metabolic and inflammatory impacts to dose-limiting tissues, such as bone marrow/lymphatic, gastrointestinal tissues, and vascular endothelial tissues, exacerbating the severity of the primary injury and decreasing survival from the exposure...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765489/embryonal-carcinoma-presenting-as-a-calcified-solitary-testicular-mass-on-ultrasound
#7
Daniel Gerber, Henry Collier Wright, Rachael D Sussman, Lambros Stamatakis
A 24-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of a painless right testicular mass; ultrasound demonstrated a dense, solitary calcified mass. The patient elected observation after further workup showed no evidence of metastasis.A repeat ultrasound 3 months later showed interval growth and the patient underwent right radical orchiectomy. Pathology was consistent with pure embryonal carcinoma of the testis. Calcified testicular masses are typically benign but do carry a differential of spermatic granuloma, large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour, trauma, tuberculosis, filariasis, calcified Leydig cell tumour and burned-out testicular tumour...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761330/epigenetic-memory-of-oxidative-stress-does-nephrilin-exert-its-protective-effects-via-rac1
#8
Desmond D Mascarenhas, David N Herndon, Istvan Arany
AIM: Nephrilin peptide, a designed inhibitor of Rictor complex (mTORC2), exerts pleiotropic protective effects in metabolic, xenobiotic and traumatic stress models. Stress can generate enduring epigenetic changes in gene function. In this work we examine the possibility that nephrilin treatment protects against acute and enduring global changes in oxidative metabolism, with a focus on the Rictor-complex-mediated activation of Rac1, a subunit of NADPH oxidase (Nox) via PKCs, Prex1 and p66shc...
2017: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759898/unusual-mechanism-for-superior-mesenteric-artery-syndrome-after-scoliosis-surgery
#9
Daniel L Eisenson, Kalpit N Shah, Eric M Cohen, Craig P Eberson
t Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon condition caused by mechanical obstruction of the distal third of the duodenum between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta. SMA syndrome is associated with both operative and non-operative corrections of scoliosis, as well as anorexia nervosa, severe weight loss, tumors, burns, and other traumas.[1-4] We report an unusual case of SMA syndrome following corrective surgery for scoliosis in which post-operative gastric distension caused duodenal compression that subsequently resolved with gastric decompression, as opposed to the conventional, reverse series of events in which SMA syndrome causes the gastric dilatation...
August 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758942/child-supervision-and-burn-outcome-among-admitted-patients-at-major-trauma-hospitals-in-the-gambia
#10
Edrisa Sanyang, Corinne Peek-Asa, Tracy Young, Laurence Fuortes
Burn-related injuries are a significant burden in children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where more than 90% of burn-related pediatric deaths occur. Lack of adult supervision of children is a major risk for pediatric burn injuries. The goal of this paper was to examine the general characteristics of burns and identify burn injury outcomes among adult-supervised children compared to those who were not supervised. The study examined burn injury and clinical characteristics among all burn patients admitted to two trauma hospitals in The Gambia, West Africa...
July 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747716/burn-induced-muscle-metabolic-derangements-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-are-associated-with-activation-of-hif-1%C3%AE-and-mtorc1-role-of-protein-farnesylation
#11
Harumasa Nakazawa, Kazuhiro Ikeda, Shohei Shinozaki, Masayuki Kobayashi, Yuichi Ikegami, Ming Fu, Tomoyuki Nakamura, Shingo Yasuhara, Yong-Ming Yu, J A Jeevendra Martyn, Ronald G Tompkins, Kentaro Shimokado, Tomoko Yorozu, Hideki Ito, Satoshi Inoue, Masao Kaneki
Metabolic derangements are a clinically significant complication of major trauma (e.g., burn injury) and include various aspects of metabolism, such as insulin resistance, muscle wasting, mitochondrial dysfunction and hyperlactatemia. Nonetheless, the molecular pathogenesis and the relation between these diverse metabolic alterations are poorly understood. We have previously shown that burn increases farnesyltransferase (FTase) expression and protein farnesylation and that FTase inhibitor (FTI) prevents burn-induced hyperlactatemia, insulin resistance, and increased proteolysis in mouse skeletal muscle...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745705/-the-outcomes-of-lower-extremities-burn-wounds-management-by-using-of-controlled-moist-environment
#12
N N Karyakin, I A Klemenova, A S Luzan
AIM: To the outcomes of lower extremities burn wounds management by using of controlled moist environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Burn wounds management by using of controlled moist environment in 23 patients is presented in the article. Physiological moist conditions on the surface of wounds were created with isotonic sodium chloride solution and sterile polyethylene diaphanous containers. Сontrol group included 12 patients who were treated with hydrocolloid patch...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743338/-clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-high-plasma-level-of-procalcitonin-an-analysis-in-188-patients
#13
Chuli Pan, Wei Cui, Feifei Zhou, Junwei Tu, Xiuhui Lin, Libin Li, Gensheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with high level of plasma procalcitonin (PCT > 100 μg/L), and to improve the clinician's understanding, diagnosis and treatment of this kind of patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The clinical data of patients with plasma PCT over 100 μg/L within 48 hours of admission admitted to Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from February 2013 to December 2016 were collected, and the clinical characteristics were analyzed...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740997/guidelines-for-bystander-first-aid-2016
#14
Jen Heng Pek
Cardiac life support is a form of first aid for cardiac emergencies. However, research and evidence in this field is lacking compared with other forms of first aid. Having identified the common emergencies that are encountered in the hospital, based on the available evidence, we have put together what could be an evidence-based approach to the first aid management of some of these common emergencies, viz. breathlessness, chest pain, allergies, stroke, heat injury, poisoning, unconsciousness, seizures, and trauma situations such as bleeding, wounds, contusions, head injury, burns and fractures...
July 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736179/venous-thromboembolism-in-burn-patients-is-not-prevented-by-chemoprophylaxis
#15
Sheena Sikora, Anthony Papp
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolisms (VTE) including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are serious complications following burn trauma. There are inconsistencies in the literature regarding thromboembolic prevention strategies and data suggests that complications occur despite chemoprophylaxis. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of deep venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism in burn patients who are actively being treated with VTE prophylaxis and to determine factors that help predict which anti-coagulated patients are at risk for VTE and may benefit from further treatment...
July 20, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729860/burn-injury-leads-to-increase-in-relative-abundance-of-opportunistic-pathogens-in-the-rat-gastrointestinal-microbiome
#16
Guangtao Huang, Kedai Sun, Supeng Yin, Bei Jiang, Yu Chen, Yali Gong, Yajie Chen, Zichen Yang, Jing Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Yizhi Peng
The gastrointestinal microbiome is crucial in human health. With greater than 10 times the cell count of an individual, the gastrointestinal microbiome provides many benefits to the host. It plays an important role in chronic illnesses and immune diseases and also following burns and trauma. This study aimed to determine whether severe burns affect the gastrointestinal microbiome during the early stages of after burn injury and the extent to which the microbiome is disturbed by such burns. We used a rat burn model to investigate any changes occurring in the microbiome after the burn trauma using 16S rRNA sequencing and downstream α-diversity, β-diversity, and taxonomy analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720057/use-of-integra-in-the-management-of-complex-hand-wounds-from-cancer-resection-and-nonburn-trauma
#17
Michael Reynolds, David A Kelly, Nicholas J Walker, Clayton Crantford, Anthony J Defranzo
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive use of Integra in burn reconstruction, little has been published regarding its utility in complex hand wounds from nonburn trauma or cancer resection. This study aimed to review outcomes following Integra use for hand reconstruction following cancer resection or nonburn trauma with exposed bone, joints, and/or tendons. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed of patients undergoing hand reconstruction with Integra for exposed bones, joints, or tendons over a 6-year period at a single institution...
February 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719089/development-and-implementation-of-an-emergency-department-telephone-follow-up-system
#18
O John Ma, Mary Tanski, Beech Burns, Elizabeth F Spizman, James A Heilman
Implementing a telephone follow-up system after a patient's emergency department (ED) visit is challenging, but it may improve patient safety and care. This study's objective was to describe the development and implementation of a comprehensive ED telephone follow-up system over a 9-year period. Discharged patients who received a follow-up telephone call within 48 hours of their ED visit included all pediatric patients, those who left without being seen by a provider, and any adult patient with a "high-risk chief complaint," which was defined as a headache, visual problem, chest pain, dyspnea, abdominal pain, syncope, trauma, and neurological-related problems...
July 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716575/strategic-targeting-of-multiple-bmp-receptors-prevents-trauma-induced-heterotopic-ossification
#19
Shailesh Agarwal, Shawn J Loder, Christopher Breuler, John Li, David Cholok, Cameron Brownley, Jonathan Peterson, Hsiao H Hsieh, James Drake, Kavitha Ranganathan, Yashar S Niknafs, Wenzhong Xiao, Shuli Li, Ravindra Kumar, Ronald Tompkins, Michael T Longaker, Thomas A Davis, Paul B Yu, Yuji Mishina, Benjamin Levi
Trauma-induced heterotopic ossification (tHO) is a condition of pathologic wound healing, defined by the progressive formation of ectopic bone in soft tissue following severe burns or trauma. Because previous studies have shown that genetic variants of HO, such as fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), are caused by hyperactivating mutations of the type I bone morphogenetic protein receptor (T1-BMPR) ACVR1/ALK2, studies evaluating therapies for HO have been directed primarily toward drugs for this specific receptor...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716221/parkin-mutation-may-be-associated-with-serious-akinesia-in-a-patient-with-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Yuto Uchihara, Hiroshi Kataoka, Hiroyo Yoshino, Ryogo Syobatake, Nobutaka Hattori, Satoshi Ueno
Acute akinesia (AA) is an unusual motor complication in Parkinson's disease (PD). Reported risk factors for AA include infection, trauma, surgical intervention, and the withdrawal of antiparkinsonian medication. Recently, patients with genetic PD were reported to have a three-fold risk of AA than patients with non-genetic PD. We describe a patient with PD associated with a Parkin mutation in whom serious akinesia developed. A 42-year-old man with exon 2 heterozygous deletion and exon 4 heterozygous deletion in the PARK2 gene showed five unexpected AA for several 12h...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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