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Skill fade

Mirela Cengher, Kimberly Shamoun, Patricia Moss, David Roll, Gina Feliciano, Daniel M Fienup
Research has demonstrated that most-to-least (MTL) and least-to-most (LTM) prompting are effective in helping children with Autism Spectrum Disorders acquire a variety of new skills. However, when directly compared to one another, the efficiency and efficacy of the prompting procedures have been variable. The inconsistencies in the literature could be due to selecting prompt topographies that do not promote correct responding. To address this, the present study began by assessing different prompt topographies and then compared most-to-least (MTL) and least-to-most (LTM) prompt-fading with only prompt topographies that were potent enough to promote correct responding...
June 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Ralf C Buckley
People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Karen L Bierman, Brenda S Heinrichs, Janet A Welsh, Robert L Nix, Scott D Gest
BACKGROUND: Growing up in poverty undermines healthy development, producing disparities in the cognitive and social-emotional skills that support early learning and mental health. Preschool and home-visiting interventions for low-income children have the potential to build early cognitive and social-emotional skills, reducing the disparities in school readiness that perpetuate the cycle of poverty. However, longitudinal research suggests that the gains low-income children make during preschool interventions often fade at school entry and disappear by early elementary school...
February 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Daan Smit, Edward Spruit, Jenny Dankelman, Gabrielle Tuijthof, Jaap Hamming, Tim Horeman
BACKGROUND: Visual force feedback allows trainees to learn laparoscopic tissue manipulation skills. The aim of this experimental study was to find the most efficient visual force feedback method to acquire these skills. Retention and transfer validity to an untrained task were assessed. METHODS: Medical students without prior experience in laparoscopy were randomized in three groups: Constant Force Feedback (CFF) (N = 17), Bandwidth Force Feedback (BFF) (N = 16) and Fade-in Force Feedback (N = 18)...
January 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
Juha Lehti
When an individual is facing a stressor and normal stress-response mechanism cannot guarantee sufficient adaptation, special emotional states, adaptive modes, are activated (for example a depressive reaction). Adaptive modes are involuntary states of mind, they are of comprehensive nature, they interfere with normal functioning, and they cannot be repressed or controlled the same way as many emotions. Their transformational nature differentiates them from other emotional states. The object of the adaptive mode is to optimize the problem-solving abilities according to the situation that has provoked the mode...
May 2016: Medical Hypotheses
(no author information available yet)
This conference was conceived in 1991 when a small group of individuals envisioned how virtual reality, then in its first era of widespread enthusiasm, might transform medicine by immersing physicians, students, and patients in data more completely. They predicted that interactive learning tools might better engage medical students by assessing real-time performance and customizing lessons in sync. Simulation could enhance the "see one, do one, teach one" model with the repetition that athletes and musicians used to perfect their skills...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Bethany Harriage, Kwang-Sun Cho Blair, Raymond Miltenberger
This study evaluated an in situ pedestrian safety skills intervention for three individuals with autism , as implemented by their parents. Specifically, this study examined the utility of behavioral skills training (BST) in helping parents implement most-to-least prompting procedures in training their children to use pedestrian safety skills in community settings. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess parent implementation of in situ pedestrian safety skills training as well as the correct use of safety skills independently by the participating individuals with autism...
2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
N G Holmes, Carl E Wieman, D A Bonn
The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models...
September 8, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shahabeddin Vahdat, Ovidiu Lungu, Julien Cohen-Adad, Veronique Marchand-Pauvert, Habib Benali, Julien Doyon
The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning...
June 2015: PLoS Biology
Douglas L Weeks, Anthony A Whitney, Angelique G Tindall, Gregory T Carter
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two biofeedback schedules on long-term improvement in physical and psychologic reactivity to chronic nonmalignant pain. DESIGN: This study is a prospective, randomized pilot trial. METHODS: Twenty adults with chronic pain engaged in heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training for nine sessions with HRV presented visually. Two groups, formed by random assignment, were compared: The faded feedback group received concurrent visual HRV biofeedback in session 1, with the amount of biofeedback systematically reduced for ensuing sessions so that, by session 9, the participants were controlling HRV without external feedback...
October 2015: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Kevin J Schlichenmeyer, William V Dube, Mariela Vargas-Irwin
A hallmark of applied behavior analysis is the development of function-based interventions for problem behavior. A widely recommended function-based intervention is differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), in which reinforcement is contingent upon socially acceptable alternatives to problem behavior (e.g., teaching communication skills). Typically, DRA is introduced under rich schedules of reinforcement. Although effective for initiating behavior change, rich schedules are often impractical in the natural setting...
February 2015: Behavioral Interventions: Theory & Practice in Residential & Community-based Clinical Programs
J M Monica van de Ridder, Claudia M M Peters, Karel M Stokking, J Alexander de Ru, Olle Th J Ten Cate
Feedback is considered important to acquire clinical skills. Research evidence shows that feedback does not always improve learning and its effects may be small. In many studies, a variety of variables involved in feedback provision may mask either one of their effects. E.g., there is reason to believe that the way oral feedback is framed may affect its effect if other variables are held constant. In a randomised controlled trial we investigated the effect of positively and negatively framed feedback messages on satisfaction, self-efficacy, and performance...
August 2015: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Jessica L Seaver, Jason C Bourret
Individuals who have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders can have difficulty acquiring new skills, and teaching procedures found to be efficient with 1 individual may not be efficient with others. However, relatively little research has evaluated methods to identify efficient, individualized response-prompt and prompt-fading procedures. We evaluated an assessment of multiple response prompts and prompt-fading procedures with 10 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. The prompt types assessed were verbal and gestural, model, and physical...
2014: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joel C Grow, Susan E Collins, Erin N Harrop, G Alan Marlatt
INTRODUCTION: Mindfulness-based treatments have received increasing interest and empirical support in the clinical psychology literature. There are, however, no studies to date that have systematically examined treatment enactment, which is the amount and type of home practice participants incorporate into their daily lives. Because treatment enactment has been cited as a key aspect of treatment fidelity, this study examined the relationships between treatment enactment (i.e., home mindfulness practice) and alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and craving in the context of a larger study of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP)...
January 2015: Addictive Behaviors
Barbara Backer Condon
Teaching-learning environments in nursing education encourage students to think and recall hordes of factual information while checking off a skills list too numerous to mention. In efforts to impart all of this information to students, has the use of imagination been ignored? The author in this column presents a discussion on imagination. First, there is a discussion of the literature, followed by a discussion of imagination in light of the humanbecoming school of thought. A glimpse at the presence of imagination in qualitative research methodologies is also highlighted...
July 2014: Nursing Science Quarterly
Eva Svoboda, Brian Richards, Christie Yao, Larry Leach
In an earlier paper we described a structured, theory-driven training programme which was administered to 10 individuals with moderate-to-severe memory impairment. All individuals received an errorless-fading-of-cues protocol in the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) or smartphones (Svoboda, Richards, Leach, & Mertens, 2012) and demonstrated generalisation of acquired skills to day-to-day memory challenges. Maintenance of intervention gains over the long-term is another indicator of successful generalisation...
2015: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Mindy C Scheithauer, Jeffrey H Tiger
Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only small gaps between characters. The current study extended previous line-tracking instruction using stimulus fading to teach tracking across larger gaps. After instruction, all participants showed improvement in line tracking, and 2 of 3 participants met mastery criteria for tracking across extended spaces...
2014: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rosanne L Rademaker, Daw-An Wu, Ilona M Bloem, Alexander T Sack
The brain׳s representation of the body can be extended to include objects that are not originally part of the body. Various studies have found both extremely rapid extensions that occur as soon as an object is held, as well as extremely slow extensions that require weeks of training. Due to species and methodological differences, it is unclear whether the studies were probing different representations, or revealing multiple aspects of the same representation. Here, we present evidence that objects (cotton balls) held by a tool (chopsticks) are rapidly integrated into the body representation, as indexed by fading of the cotton balls (or 'second-order extensions') from a positive afterimage...
April 2014: Neuropsychologia
Martin D Batstone, Carly M Fox, Mary E Dingley, C Peter Cornelius
Free flap reconstruction of the head and neck is a widespread procedure. The aesthetic outcome is frequently compromised by color mismatch between the donor site skin and the complex pigmentation of the face. Various surgical procedures have been described to improve the appearance of external skin paddles. Medical tattooing is commonly used for nipple pigmentation in breast reconstruction and cosmetic procedures such as permanent makeup. This article describes the technique and its application to head and neck reconstruction...
March 2013: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
Cheryl Elman, Linda A Wray, Juan Xi
Recent studies find lasting effects of poor youth health on educational attainment but use young samples and narrow life course windows of observation to explore outcomes. We apply a life course framework to three sets of Health and Retirement Study birth cohorts to examine early health status effects on education and skills attainment measured late in life. The older cohorts that we study were the earliest recipients of U.S. policies promoting continuing education through the GI Bill, community college expansions and new credentials such as the GED...
January 2014: Social Science Research
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