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Skill fade

Toni Van Laarhoven, Adam Carreon, Wendy Bonneau, Ashli Lagerhausen
The purpose of this study was to compare mobile technologies with universally-designed prompting systems to improve the independent vocational performance of four adolescents with ASD and/or ID in school-based employment settings. Specific aims were to (1) compare the effectiveness of universally-designed prompting systems presented on iPads and HP Slates that involved participant-selection and participant-fading of available on-screen media prompts; (2) compare the usability of different mobile devices; and (3) determine if built-in decision prompts could improve problem-solving behavior during task completion...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
M Alice Shillingsburg, Bethany Hansen, Melinda Wright
Discrete trial instruction (DTI) is effective for teaching skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although effective, instructional settings can become aversive resulting in avoidant and escape-related behaviors. Given the significant social impairments associated with ASD, interventions that promote social approach and reduce avoidance are warranted. Rapport building or "pairing" the therapist and teaching setting with highly preferred activities prior to instruction can reduce problematic behaviors during subsequent instruction...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Lindi-Marie Coetzee, Deborah K Glencross
BACKGROUND: The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) offers wide-scale CD4 testing through a network of laboratories in South Africa. A new "load and go" cytometer (Aquios CL, Beckman Coulter), developed with a PLG protocol, was validated against the predicate PLG method on the Beckman Coulter FC500 MPL/CellMek platform. METHODS: Remnant routine EDTA blood CD4 reference results were compared to results from two Aquios/PLG instruments (n = 205) and a further n = 1885 samples tested to assess daily testing capacity...
2017: PloS One
Shira K Mattera, Pamela A Morris, Robin Jacob, Michelle Maier, Natalia Rojas
A growing literature has demonstrated that early math skills are associated with later outcomes for children. This research has generated interest in improving children's early math competencies as a pathway to improved outcomes for children in elementary school. The Making Pre-K Count study was designed to test the effects of an early math intervention for preschoolers. Its design was unique in that, in addition to causally testing the effects of early math skills, it also allowed for the examination of a number of additional questions about scale-up, the influence of contextual factors and the counterfactual environment, the mechanism of long-term fade-out, and the role of measurement in early childhood intervention findings...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Aprile D Benner, Anna Thornton, Robert Crosnoe
Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and school mechanisms selecting children into experiencing these practices. Analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that both family and school factors predicted children's exposure to several PK-3 sustainability practices...
2017: Applied Developmental Science
Daniel Krause, Manfred Agethen, Christina Zobe
Earlier studies addressed the effects of feedback frequency on movement accuracy and consistency. The authors additionally addressed the effects on motor automatization. High error feedback frequencies may induce attentional control processes and impede motor automatization. In a pre-post design, 42 participants were assigned to 2 groups with different feedback frequencies and practiced an arm movement sequence with 760 trials in 5 sessions. The 100% group practiced with feedback on 3 movement reversals of the sequence after each trial...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Laura M Justice, Jessica Logan, Joan N Kaderavek
Purpose: Preschoolers with language impairment (LI) are prime candidates for early-literacy interventions, given their susceptibility for future reading difficulties. To date, most studies of early-literacy interventions for this population has assessed short-term impacts, with limited attention to whether initial effects are sustained over time. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal impacts of print-focused read-alouds implemented by early childhood special education teachers for a clinic sample of children with LI...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Mansoor Khan, Christopher Streets, Nigel Tai, Rory Rickard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Brian R Belland, Andrew E Walker, Nam Ju Kim, Mason Lefler
Computer-based scaffolding assists students as they generate solutions to complex problems, goals, or tasks, helping increase and integrate their higher order skills in the process. However, despite decades of research on scaffolding in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education, no existing comprehensive meta-analysis has synthesized the results of these studies. This review addresses that need by synthesizing the results of 144 experimental studies (333 outcomes) on the effects of computer-based scaffolding designed to assist the full range of STEM learners (primary through adult education) as they navigated ill-structured, problem-centered curricula...
April 2017: Review of Educational Research
Mirela Cengher, Kimberly Shamoun, Patricia Moss, David Roll, Gina Feliciano, Daniel M Fienup
Research has demonstrated that most-to-least (MTL) and least-to-most (LTM) prompting are effective in helping children with Autism Spectrum Disorders acquire a variety of new skills. However, when directly compared to one another, the efficiency and efficacy of the prompting procedures have been variable. The inconsistencies in the literature could be due to selecting prompt topographies that do not promote correct responding. To address this, the present study began by assessing different prompt topographies and then compared most-to-least (MTL) and least-to-most (LTM) prompt-fading with only prompt topographies that were potent enough to promote correct responding...
June 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Ralf C Buckley
People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Karen L Bierman, Brenda S Heinrichs, Janet A Welsh, Robert L Nix, Scott D Gest
BACKGROUND: Growing up in poverty undermines healthy development, producing disparities in the cognitive and social-emotional skills that support early learning and mental health. Preschool and home-visiting interventions for low-income children have the potential to build early cognitive and social-emotional skills, reducing the disparities in school readiness that perpetuate the cycle of poverty. However, longitudinal research suggests that the gains low-income children make during preschool interventions often fade at school entry and disappear by early elementary school...
February 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Daan Smit, Edward Spruit, Jenny Dankelman, Gabrielle Tuijthof, Jaap Hamming, Tim Horeman
BACKGROUND: Visual force feedback allows trainees to learn laparoscopic tissue manipulation skills. The aim of this experimental study was to find the most efficient visual force feedback method to acquire these skills. Retention and transfer validity to an untrained task were assessed. METHODS: Medical students without prior experience in laparoscopy were randomized in three groups: Constant Force Feedback (CFF) (N = 17), Bandwidth Force Feedback (BFF) (N = 16) and Fade-in Force Feedback (N = 18)...
January 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
Juha Lehti
When an individual is facing a stressor and normal stress-response mechanism cannot guarantee sufficient adaptation, special emotional states, adaptive modes, are activated (for example a depressive reaction). Adaptive modes are involuntary states of mind, they are of comprehensive nature, they interfere with normal functioning, and they cannot be repressed or controlled the same way as many emotions. Their transformational nature differentiates them from other emotional states. The object of the adaptive mode is to optimize the problem-solving abilities according to the situation that has provoked the mode...
May 2016: Medical Hypotheses
(no author information available yet)
This conference was conceived in 1991 when a small group of individuals envisioned how virtual reality, then in its first era of widespread enthusiasm, might transform medicine by immersing physicians, students, and patients in data more completely. They predicted that interactive learning tools might better engage medical students by assessing real-time performance and customizing lessons in sync. Simulation could enhance the "see one, do one, teach one" model with the repetition that athletes and musicians used to perfect their skills...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Bethany Harriage, Kwang-Sun Cho Blair, Raymond Miltenberger
This study evaluated an in situ pedestrian safety skills intervention for three individuals with autism , as implemented by their parents. Specifically, this study examined the utility of behavioral skills training (BST) in helping parents implement most-to-least prompting procedures in training their children to use pedestrian safety skills in community settings. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess parent implementation of in situ pedestrian safety skills training as well as the correct use of safety skills independently by the participating individuals with autism...
June 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
N G Holmes, Carl E Wieman, D A Bonn
The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models...
September 8, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shahabeddin Vahdat, Ovidiu Lungu, Julien Cohen-Adad, Veronique Marchand-Pauvert, Habib Benali, Julien Doyon
The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning...
June 2015: PLoS Biology
Douglas L Weeks, Anthony A Whitney, Angelique G Tindall, Gregory T Carter
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two biofeedback schedules on long-term improvement in physical and psychologic reactivity to chronic nonmalignant pain. DESIGN: This study is a prospective, randomized pilot trial. METHODS: Twenty adults with chronic pain engaged in heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training for nine sessions with HRV presented visually. Two groups, formed by random assignment, were compared: The faded feedback group received concurrent visual HRV biofeedback in session 1, with the amount of biofeedback systematically reduced for ensuing sessions so that, by session 9, the participants were controlling HRV without external feedback...
October 2015: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Kevin J Schlichenmeyer, William V Dube, Mariela Vargas-Irwin
A hallmark of applied behavior analysis is the development of function-based interventions for problem behavior. A widely recommended function-based intervention is differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), in which reinforcement is contingent upon socially acceptable alternatives to problem behavior (e.g., teaching communication skills). Typically, DRA is introduced under rich schedules of reinforcement. Although effective for initiating behavior change, rich schedules are often impractical in the natural setting...
February 2015: Behavioral Interventions: Theory & Practice in Residential & Community-based Clinical Programs
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