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Clinical currency

Clare F Heal, Jennifer L Banks, Phoebe D Lepper, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) can delay wound healing, impair cosmetic outcome and increase healthcare costs. Topical antibiotics are sometimes used to reduce microbial contaminant exposure following surgical procedures, with the aim of reducing SSIs. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to determine whether the application of topical antibiotics to surgical wounds that are healing by primary intention reduces the incidence of SSI and whether it increases the incidence of adverse outcomes (allergic contact dermatitis, infections with patterns of antibiotic resistance and anaphylaxis)...
November 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Keith Harrison, John Peek, Michael Chapman, Mark Bowman
BACKGROUND: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics in Australia and New Zealand are accredited and licensed against a Code of Practice audited by certifying bodies accredited by the Joint Accreditation System for Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ). The system is administered by the Reproductive Technology Accreditation Committee (RTAC) of the Fertility Society of Australia. AIMS: To review the incidence of variances and findings identified by certifying bodies in Australian and New Zealand ART clinics within the currency of a single version of the Code of Practice...
October 21, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Christine Dennis, Pamela Baxter, Jenny Ploeg, Susan Blatz
AIMS: A discussion of partnership in the context of family-centred care in the acute paediatric setting, through a critical analysis of partnership models. BACKGROUND: Paediatric healthcare practitioners understand the importance of family-centred care, but struggle with how to translate the core tenets into action and are confused by several rival terms. Partnering relationships are included in definitions of family-centred care, yet less is known about strategies to fully engage or support parents in these partnerships...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Elizabeth Park, Tiny Masupe, Joseph Joseph, Ari Ho-Foster, Afton Chavez, Swetha Jammalamadugu, Andrew Marek, Ruth Arumala, Dineo Ketshogileng, Ryan Littman-Quinn, Carrie Kovarik
BACKGROUND: Since the UN Human Rights Council's recognition on the subject in 2011, the right to access the Internet and information is now considered one of the most basic human rights of global citizens [1,2]. Despite this, an information gap between developed and resource-limited countries remains, and there is scant research on actual information needs of workers themselves. The Republic of Botswana represents a fertile ground to address existing gaps in research, policy, and practice, due to its demonstrated gap in access to information and specialists among rural health care workers (HCWs), burgeoning mHealth capacity, and a timely offer from Orange Telecommunications to access Wikipedia for free on mobile platforms for Botswana subscribers...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Ayesha Nathoo
In 1972, a British charity, Relaxation for Living, was established "to promote the teaching of physical relaxation, to combat stress, strain, anxiety and the tension of modern life, and to reduce fatigue". This article explores the origins and development of "physical relaxation" techniques and ideologies, starting in the interwar period, and the development of practical, therapeutic, social and cultural frameworks necessary for such an organization to come into being in 1970s Britain. It traces how relaxation was reconstituted as a scientifically-based skill that could be learnt and taught, imbued with therapeutic value for combating and preventing specific physical ailments and enhancing individual health and wellbeing...
July 19, 2016: Palgrave Communications
V Ten Cate, H Ten Cate, F W A Verheugt
There are over 385,000 cases of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Netherlands, with over 45,000 new cases each year. Among other things, AF patients are at high risk of stroke. Patients are often prescribed oral anticoagulation, such as vitamin K antagonists (VKA), to mitigate these risks. A recently introduced class of oral anticoagulants, non-vitamin K antagonists (NOAC), is quickly gaining currency in global clinical practice. This study provides insight into the changes these new drugs will bring about in Dutch clinical practice...
October 2016: Netherlands Heart Journal
James A Bourgeois
OBJECTIVES: Clinical neuropsychologists benefit from clinical currency in recently ascertained neuropsychiatric illness, such as fragile X premutation (FXPM) disorders. The author reviewed the clinical literature through 2016 for neuropsychiatric phenotypes in FXPM disorders, including patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). METHODS: A PubMed search using the search terms 'Fragile X,' 'Premutation,' 'Carriers,' 'Psychiatric,' 'Dementia,' 'Mood,' and 'Anxiety' for citations in the clinical literature through 2016 was reviewed for studies specifically examining the neuropsychiatric phenotype in FXPM patients...
August 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Elizabeth Ford, John Carroll, Helen Smith, Kevin Davies, Rob Koeling, Irene Petersen, Greta Rait, Jackie Cassell
OBJECTIVES: Much research with electronic health records (EHRs) uses coded or structured data only; important information captured in the free text remains unused. One dimension of EHR data quality assessment is 'currency' or timeliness, that is, data are representative of the patient state at the time of measurement. We explored the use of free text in UK general practice patient records to evaluate delays in recording of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) diagnosis. We also aimed to locate and quantify disease and diagnostic information recorded only in text...
2016: BMJ Open
Michael Fordis, Jason E King, Francesca Bonaduce de Nigris, Robert Morrow, Robert B Baron, John R Kues, James C Norton, Harold Kessler, Paul E Mazmanian, Lois Colburn
INTRODUCTION: Although systematic reviews represent a source of best evidence to support clinical decision-making, reviews are underutilized by clinicians. Barriers include lack of awareness, familiarity, and access. Efforts to promote utilization have focused on reaching practicing clinicians, leaving unexplored the roles of continuing medical education (CME) directors and faculty in promoting systematic review use. This study explored the feasibility of working with CME directors and faculty for that purpose...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Niclas Skyttberg, Joana Vicente, Rong Chen, Hans Blomqvist, Sabine Koch
BACKGROUND: Vital sign data are important for clinical decision making in emergency care. Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) have been advocated to increase patient safety and quality of care. However, the efficiency of CDSS depends on the quality of the underlying vital sign data. Therefore, possible factors affecting vital sign data quality need to be understood. This study aims to explore the factors affecting vital sign data quality in Swedish emergency departments and to determine in how far clinicians perceive vital sign data to be fit for use in clinical decision support systems...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Natasha Hackett, Jane Harvey-Lloyd, Nickey Rooke
AIM: To examine the benefits and challenges of dual posts, defined here as lecturers who work in clinical practice and have separate contracts with different organisations. METHODS: A case study approach was used to collate different perspectives. Equal numbers of participants were selected from lecturers (n=3) and dual post holders (n= 3), and one manager was included (n=1). Semi-structured interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim to collect data. Key words were identified then highlighted throughout the transcripts and text retrievers searched the large amounts of data gathered...
June 2016: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Nikolaos Evangelatos, Matthias Reumann, Hans Lehrach, Angela Brand
BACKGROUND: Knowledge in the era of Omics and Big Data has been increasingly conceptualized as a public good. Sharing of de-identified patient data has been advocated as a means to increase confidence and public trust in the results of clinical trials. On the other hand, research has shown that the current research and development model of the biopharmaceutical industry has reached its innovation capacity. In response to that, the biopharmaceutical industry has adopted open innovation practices, with sharing of clinical trial data being among the most interesting ones...
2016: Public Health Genomics
Vilas Saldanha, Fia Yi, Jeffrey D Lewis, Nichole K Ingalls
INTRODUCTION: Surgical currency is a critical component of medical corps readiness. We report a review of surgeons embedded into a civilian institution and analyze whether this improves surgical currency and wartime readiness. METHODS: Patient management and operative volume were acquired from four surgeons embedded at a civilian institution and compared to operative case loads of surgeons based at a military treatment facility (MTF). RESULTS: The surgeons embedded in the civilian institution had a mean of 49...
May 2016: Military Medicine
James Offord, Lori L Isom
In the post-genomic era, the idea of using the sequence of a protein to determine its potential role as a drug target has gained currency. The goal of this approach to drug discovery is to use the sequence of a protein that is known to bind a specific ligand or drug, along with the known structure of the ligand binding site, to predict other similar proteins that are also "druggable". Gabapentin (Neurontin) and pregabalin (Lyrica) are drugs currently in the clinic that were developed based on the hypothesis that generating non-hydrolyzable analogs of GABA would lead to the development of antiepileptic agents...
July 2015: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nai Ming Lai, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Nai An Lai, Elizabeth O'Riordan, Wilson Shu Cheng Pau, Sanjay Saint
BACKGROUND: The central venous catheter (CVC) is essential in managing acutely ill patients in hospitals. Bloodstream infection is a major complication in patients with a CVC. Several infection control measures have been developed to reduce bloodstream infections, one of which is impregnation of CVCs with various forms of antimicrobials (either with an antiseptic or with antibiotics). This review was originally published in June 2013 and updated in 2016. OBJECTIVES: Our main objective was to assess the effectiveness of antimicrobial impregnation, coating or bonding on CVCs in reducing clinically-diagnosed sepsis, catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), all-cause mortality, catheter colonization and other catheter-related infections in adult participants who required central venous catheterization, along with their safety and cost effectiveness where data were available...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lars E Peterson, Aimee Eden, Anneli Cochrane, Michael Hagen
INTRODUCTION: Physician payment in the United States will be increasingly tied to quality measurement and performance. Whether participation in quality improvement (QI) through Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians Performance in Practice Modules (PPMs) is useful and results in practice change remains unknown. METHODS: All PPM feedback data from inception to April 2014 were analyzed using descriptive statistics by year, topic, and number of PPMs completed...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Zakkoyya H Lewis, Maria C Swartz, Elizabeth J Lyons
Rewards are commonly used in interventions to change behavior, but they can inhibit development of intrinsic motivation, which is associated with long-term behavior maintenance. Gamification is a novel intervention strategy that may target intrinsic motivation through fun and enjoyment. Before the effects of gamified interventions on motivation can be determined, there must be an understanding of how gamified interventions operationalize rewards, such as point systems. The purpose of this review is to determine the prevalence of different reward types, specifically point systems, within gamified interventions...
April 2016: Games for Health
Quentin M Nunes, Yong Li, Changye Sun, Tarja K Kinnunen, David G Fernig
Cell communication is central to the integration of cell function required for the development and homeostasis of multicellular animals. Proteins are an important currency of cell communication, acting locally (auto-, juxta-, or paracrine) or systemically (endocrine). The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family contributes to the regulation of virtually all aspects of development and organogenesis, and after birth to tissue maintenance, as well as particular aspects of organism physiology. In the West, oncology has been the focus of translation of FGF research, whereas in China and to an extent Japan a major focus has been to use FGFs in repair and regeneration settings...
2016: PeerJ
Gerard Laden
Increased access to any treatment sensibly follows the clinical and cost benefit being established. For many treatments this requires multiple, high-quality clinical trials and supporting cost analysis. Cost analysis may be applied to a single treatment or used to compare two or more treatments. Clinical efficacy and cost benefit are best scrutinised and validated by publication in the peer-reviewed literature. True peer review is most effectively achieved 'after publication' by the wider scientific community, i...
December 2015: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Fred K Weigel, Timothy L Switaj, Jessica Hamilton
PURPOSE: Healthcare delivery in America is extremely complex because it is comprised of a fragmented and nonsystematic mix of stakeholders, components, and processes. Within the US healthcare structure, the federal healthcare system is poised to lead American medicine in leveraging health information technology to improve the quality of healthcare. We posit that through developing, adopting, and refining health information technology, the federal healthcare system has the potential to transform federal healthcare quality by managing the complexities associated with healthcare delivery...
October 2015: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
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