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Pediatric hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820870/controversies-in-the-identification-and-management-of-acute-pulmonary-hypertension-in-preterm-neonates
#1
REVIEW
Regan E Giesinger, Kiran More, Jodie Odame, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov, Patrick J McNamara
It is increasingly recognized that the abnormal physiologic consequences of pulmonary hypertension (PH) may contribute to poor cardiopulmonary health in premature babies. Conflicting literature has led to clinical uncertainty, pathological misinterpretation and variability in treatment approaches among practitioners. There are several disorders with overlapping and interrelated presentations and other disorders with a similar clinical phenotype but diverse pathophysiological contributors. In this review, we provide a diagnostic approach for acute HRF in the preterm neonate, outline the pathophysiological conditions that may present as acute PH and discuss the implications of high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) on the cardiovascular system...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820061/renin-angiotensin-system-and-cytokines-in-chronic-kidney-disease-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#2
Ariadna Andrade Saldanha Silva, Beranardo Bahia Finotti, Amanda Oliveira Lauar, Thiago Ruiz Rodrigues Prestes, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. There are many causes of CKD, being the congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract and the glomerular diseases very common in pediatric patients, while diabetic nephropathy, CKD due to chronic arterial hypertension and glomerular diseases are predominant in adult patients. Many endogenous mediators have been related to the pathophysiology of CKD, being relevant the effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the immune-inflammatory mediators including cytokines...
August 18, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819713/plasma-growth-differentiation-factor-15-is-a-potential-biomarker-for-pediatric-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-associated-with-congenital-heart-disease
#3
Gang Li, Yan Li, Xiao-Qiu Tan, Peng Jia, Jian Zhao, Dong Liu, Ting Wang, Bin Liu
We aimed to investigate plasma growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) levels in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD), and assess the association with hemodynamic parameters. Plasma GDF-15 levels were measured in children with PAH-CHD (n = 46) and compared to children with CHD without PAH (n = 39). Normal individuals (n = 30) served as health control group. Plasma GDF-15 levels were significantly elevated in patients with PAH-CHD compared with those with CHD without PAH (median 1415 ng/L, interquartile range [IQR] 926...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819545/circulating-mirnas-in-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension-show-promise-as-biomarkers-of-vascular-function
#4
Vitaly O Kheyfets, Carmen C Sucharov, Uyen Truong, Jamie Dunning, Kendall Hunter, Dunbar Ivy, Shelley Miyamoto, Robin Shandas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of vascular function in pediatric pulmonary hypertension. METHOD: Fourteen pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension patients underwent simultaneous right heart catheterization (RHC) and blood biochemical analysis. Univariate and stepwise multivariate linear regression was used to identify and correlate measures of reactive and resistive afterload with circulating miRNA levels...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811041/post-thrombotic-syndrome-in-children
#5
Marisol Betensky, Neil A Goldenberg
The post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is the most common long-term complication of pediatric deep venous thrombosis (DVT). It is a burdensome condition that can lead to severe disability and poor quality-of-life of affected children. Although its pathophysiology remains poorly understood, it is thought to be the result of chronic venous hypertension. Recent studies have shown that the inflammatory response associated with an acute DVT likely plays a key role in the development of PTS. The Manco-Johnson Instrument and the modified Villalta Scale are the most widely used instruments for the diagnosis of pediatric PTS...
July 24, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808765/presentation-and-symptom-interval-in-children-with-central-nervous-system-tumors-a-single-center-experience
#6
Chiara Stocco, Chiara Pilotto, Eva Passone, Agostino Nocerino, Raffaello Tosolini, Anna Pusiol, Paola Cogo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe the symptoms and signs of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in a pediatric population and to assess the time interval between the onset of the disease and the time of the diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at our Oncology Pediatric Unit between January 2000 and November 2011. We included 75 children between 5 months and 16 years (mean age of 7.8 ± 4.7 years), with male to female ratio of 3:2...
August 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806347/pediatric-pseudotumor-cerebri-syndrome
#7
Paul H Phillips, Claire A Sheldon
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, otherwise known as primary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), most frequently occurs in obese women of childbearing age. However, children may be affected as well. This review will address recent findings regarding demographics, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric PTCS. Prepubertal children with primary PTCS have an equal sex distribution and less frequent obesity compared with adult patients. However, female gender and obesity are risk factors for primary PTCS in postpubertal children...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804814/factors-associated-with-cardiovascular-target-organ-damage-in-children-after-renal-transplantation
#8
Bianca Borchert-Mörlins, Daniela Thurn, Bernhard M W Schmidt, Anja K Büscher, Jun Oh, Tanja Kier, Elena Bauer, Sabrina Baig, Nele Kanzelmeyer, Markus J Kemper, Rainer Büscher, Anette Melk
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the second-most common cause of death in pediatric renal transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate subclinical cardiovascular target organ damage defined as the presence of arterio- and atherosclerotic lesions and cardiac remodeling and to analyze contributing risk factors in a large cohort of children after renal transplantation (RT). METHODS: A total of 109 children aged 13.1 ± 3.3 years who had undergone RT at one of three German transplant centers were enrolled in this study...
August 13, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803593/predictors-of-obtaining-follow-up-care-in-the-province-of-ontario-canada-following-a-new-diagnosis-of-atrial-fibrillation-heart-failure-and-hypertension-in-the-emergency-department
#9
Clare L Atzema, Bing Yu, Noah M Ivers, Paula A Rochon, Douglas S Lee, Michael J Schull, Peter C Austin
OBJECTIVE: Patients with cardiovascular diseases are common in the emergency department (ED), and continuity of care following that visit is needed to ensure that they receive evidence-based diagnostic tests and therapy. We examined the frequency of follow-up care after discharge from an ED with a new diagnosis of one of three cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with a new diagnosis of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or hypertension, who were discharged from 157 non-pediatric EDs in Ontario, Canada, between April 2007 and March 2014...
August 14, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794651/hypertension-in-pediatric-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-management-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Claire M Gallibois, Natasha A Jawa, Damien G Noone
In contrast to adults where hypertension is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease, in pediatrics, hypertension is predominantly a sequela, however, an important one that, like in adults, is likely associated with a more rapid decline in kidney function or progression of chronic kidney disease to end stage. There is a significant issue with unrecognized, or masked, hypertension in childhood chronic kidney disease. Recent evidence and, therefore, guidelines now suggest targeting a blood pressure of <50th percentile for age, sex, and height in children with proteinuria and chronic kidney disease...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791664/pharmacokinetics-of-sildenafil-in-children-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#11
Hugo Juárez Olguín, Hector Osnaya Martínez, Carmen Flores Pérez, Blanca Ramírez Mendiola, Liliana Rivera Espinosa, Juan Luis Chávez Pacheco, Janett Flores Pérez, Ignacio Mora Magaña
BACKGROUND: Recently, sildenafil was introduced to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, there are currently few studies on the pharmacokinetics of sildenalfil in children. Therefore, we aimed to carry out a pharmacokinetic study of sildenafil in children with PAH using a single dose. METHODS: Twelve children diagnosed with PAH, consisting of with ten males and two females, were recruited for the study after obtaining written consent from their parents or guardians...
August 8, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780627/primary-pediatric-hypertension-current-understanding-and-emerging-concepts
#12
REVIEW
Andrew C Tiu, Michael D Bishop, Laureano D Asico, Pedro A Jose, Van Anthony M Villar
The rising prevalence of primary pediatric hypertension and its tracking into adult hypertension point to the importance of determining its pathogenesis to gain insights into its current and emerging management. Considering that the intricate control of BP is governed by a myriad of anatomical, molecular biological, biochemical, and physiological systems, multiple genes are likely to influence an individual's BP and susceptibility to develop hypertension. The long-term regulation of BP rests on renal and non-renal mechanisms...
September 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775006/uncovering-small-secrets-in-big-data-sets-how-math-can-identify-biology-in-rare-conditions-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
EDITORIAL
Mardi Gomberg-Maitland, Rogerio Souza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762101/clinical-outcomes-and-survival-in-pediatric-patients-initiating-chronic-dialysis-a-report-of-the-naprtcs-registry
#14
Donald J Weaver, Michael J G Somers, Karen Martz, Mark M Mitsnefes
BACKGROUND: The 2011 annual report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS) registry comprises data on 6482 dialysis patients over the past 20 years of the registry. METHODS: The study compared clinical parameters and patient survival in the first 10 years of the registry (1992-2001) with the last decade of the registry (2002-2011). RESULTS: There was a significant increase in hemodialysis as the initiating dialysis modality in the most recent cohort (42% vs...
July 31, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755804/a-new-index-to-simplify-the-screening-of-hypertension-in-overweight-or-obese-youth
#15
P Di Bonito, G Valerio, L Pacifico, C Chiesa, C Invitti, A Morandi, C Maffeis, M R Licenziati, M Manco, E Miraglia Del Giudice, M G Baroni, S Loche, G Tornese, M Tomat, G de Simone
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypertension (HTH) is a frequent complication in pediatric obesity. To simplify the screening of HTH in overweight/obese (Ow/Ob) youth, we compared the performance of a new index (High Blood Pressure index, HBPi) with respect to the standard criteria of the IV Report [systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥95th percentile for age, gender and height]. We also compared the performance of HBPi with other simplified indices such as the BP/height ratio and the absolute height-specific BP thresholds...
June 30, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752085/review-of-pediatric-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#16
REVIEW
Reshma Bholah, Timothy Edward Bunchman
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare chromaffin cell tumors which secrete catecholamines and form part of the family of neuroendocrine tumors. Although a rare cause of secondary hypertension in pediatrics, the presentation of hypertension in these patients is characteristic, and treatment is definitive. The gold standard for diagnosis is via measurement of plasma free metanephrines, with imaging studies performed for localization, identification of metastatic lesions and for surgical resection...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751444/pediatric-phase-1-trial-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-trebananib-in-relapsed-solid-tumors-advl1115-a-children-s-oncology-group-phase-1-consortium-report
#17
Sarah E S Leary, Julie R Park, Joel M Reid, Andrew T Ralya, Sylvain Baruchel, Bing Wu, Timothy P L Roberts, Xiaowei Liu, Charles G Minard, Elizabeth Fox, Brenda J Weigel, Susan Blaney
Trebananib is a first-in-class anti-angiogenic peptibody (peptide-Fc fusion protein) that inhibits Angiopoietin 1 and 2. A pediatric phase 1 trial was performed to define trebananib dose limiting toxicities (DLT), recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and pharmacokinetics (PK).<br /><br />Experimental Design: Trebananib was administered by weekly infusion. Three dose levels (10, 15 or 30 mg/kg/dose) were evaluated using a rolling-six design. Part 2 evaluated a cohort of subjects with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748894/collagenofibrotic-collagen-type-iii-glomerulopathy-in-association-with-diabetic-nephropathy
#18
Khaled O Alsaad, Burhan Edrees, Khawla A Rahim, Abdulkareem Alanazi, Muawia Ahmad, Noura Aloudah
Collagenofìbrotic (collagen type III) glomerulopathy (CG) is a rare nonimmune-mediated glomerular disease. It is characterized by massive deposition of organized collagen type III fibers, which is localized in the mesangial and subendothelial glomerular areas and associated with increased serum levels of procollagen type III peptide. Association with systemic diseases and malignancies is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case of a nine-year-old girl, known case of type I diabetes mellitus, who presented with fever, nephrotic range proteinuria, generalized edema, and hypertension...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748888/childhood-idiopathic-steroid-resistant-nephrotic-syndrome-at-a-single-center-in-khartoum
#19
El-Tigani M A Ali, Hanna F K Makki, Mohamed B Abdelraheem, Salwa O Makke, Rashid A Allidir
Prevalence, clinicopathological features, and outcome of childhood idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (ISRNS) vary in different countries. We report on these parameters in a single center in Khartoum. We retrospectively reviewed all the records of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) followed up in the pediatric renal unit, Soba Hospital, Khartoum between 2001 and 2012. ISRNS was defined as no remission within four weeks of daily prednisolone at a dose of 60 mg/m2. In 430 children with INS 130 (28%) had SRNS with a mean age of 7...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745856/severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-children-an-evidence-based-review-of-emergency-department-management-digest
#20
Kirsten Morrissey, Hilary Fairbrother, Michelle N Vazquez
More than 1.7 million traumatic brain injuries occur in adults and children each year in the United States, with approximately 30% occurring in children aged < 14 years. Traumatic brain injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric trauma patients. Early identification and management of severe traumatic brain injury is crucial in decreasing the risk of secondary brain injury and optimizing outcome. The main focus for early management of severe traumatic brain injury is to mitigate and prevent secondary injury, specifically by avoiding hypotension and hypoxia, which have been associated with poorer outcomes...
October 22, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
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