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Pediatric hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439217/pediatric-metabolic-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-laboratory-assessment
#1
Victoria Higgins, Khosrow Adeli
Pediatric overweight and obesity is an emerging public health priority as rates have rapidly increased worldwide. Obesity is often clustered with other metabolic abnormalities including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This cluster of risk factors, termed the metabolic syndrome, has traditionally been reported in adults. However, with the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity, the metabolic syndrome is now evident in children and adolescents...
March 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439216/pediatric-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-disorders-risk-factors-and-biomarkers
#2
E Levy, A K Saenger, M W Steffes, E Delvin
Obesity remains the most prevailing disorder in childhood males and females worldwide. Its high prevalence markedly predisposes children to insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and liver disorders while enhancing the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, the relationship of obesity with genetic and environmental factors will be described and the underlined causes will briefly be reported. As obesity in children constitutes an increasingly health concern, important potential biomarkers have been discussed for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the wide range of overweight-related complications...
March 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437324/noncirrhotic-portal-fibrosis-in-pediatric-population
#3
Vikrant Sood, Bikrant B Lal, Rajeev Khanna, Dinesh Rawat, Chhagan Bihari, Seema Alam
OBJECTIVES: Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) has been classically described as a disease of young to middle age with limited literature regarding its occurrence, onset, or clinical presentation in children. We hereby present a series of 19 patients diagnosed and managed as NCPF in pediatric age group. METHODS: A retrospective review of all the patients presenting to the pediatric hepatology department (age <18 years) and diagnosed as NCPF was done and data were evaluated...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437175/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-travoprost-0-004-ophthalmic-solution-preserved-with-polyquad-in-pediatric-patients-with-glaucoma
#4
Erin Stahl, Dominique Bremond-Gignac, Theresa Landry, Mike Curtis, Kinfemichael Gedif, Sami Al Shahwan, El Roy Dixon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the systemic pharmacokinetics (PKs) of travoprost 0.004% preserved with Polyquad(®) (TRAVATAN(®)) in pediatric patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. METHODS: This was a phase 1, open-label, multicenter clinical study of patients aged ≥2 months to <18 years. Patients received daily administration of travoprost 0.004% preserved with Polyquad in both eyes for 7 days. Plasma samples were collected 30 min before the final dose and at 10, 20, 40, and 80 min postdose...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430697/abusive-head-trauma-and-mortality-an-analysis-from-an-international-comparative-effectiveness-study-of-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Nikki Miller Ferguson, Ajit Sarnaik, Darryl Miles, Nadeem Shafi, Mark J Peters, Edward Truemper, Monica S Vavilala, Michael J Bell, Stephen R Wisniewski, James F Luther, Adam L Hartman, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Small series have suggested that outcomes after abusive head trauma are less favorable than after other injury mechanisms. We sought to determine the impact of abusive head trauma on mortality and identify factors that differentiate children with abusive head trauma from those with traumatic brain injury from other mechanisms. DESIGN: First 200 subjects from the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Trial-a comparative effectiveness study using an observational, cohort study design...
April 20, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429043/transsplenic-endovascular-recanalization-and-stenting-of-a-completely-occluded-portal-vein-with-jejunal-variceal-embolization-in-a-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipient
#6
Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick, Alexandria Jo, Narasimham Dasika, Wael E Saad, Ravi Nara Srinivasa
Portal vein thrombosis occurs in 1.4% of pediatric liver transplant candidates and 3.7% of liver transplant recipients. While portal vein recanalization without and with portal vein stenting has been described in adult transplant candidates and recipients, it has never been described in the pediatric transplant population. This report presents a pediatric liver transplant recipient with portal hypertension secondary to portal vein thrombosis successfully managed with transsplenic access and subsequent portal vein recanalization and stenting...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425226/a-review-of-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension-with-new-guidelines
#7
Serdar Kula, Ayhan Pektaş
This study aims to review pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) by comparing the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS), the American Heart Association (AHA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network (EPPVDN). All three sets of guidelines define PH as having a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg and accept the validity of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Every child with a high index of suspicion for PH should undergo an initial work-up of chest X-rays, electrocardiography, and echocardiography...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422946/pediatric-cushing-disease-disparities-in-disease-severity-and-outcomes-in-the-hispanic-and-african-american-populations
#8
Alexandra Gkourogianni, Ninet Sinaii, Sharon H Jackson, Alexander S Karageorgiadis, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Elena Belyavskaya, Margaret F Keil, Mihail Zilbermint, Prashant Chittiboina, Constantine A Stratakis, Maya B Lodish
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the contribution of racial and socioeconomic disparities to severity and outcomes for children with Cushing disease (CD). METHODS: 129 children with CD, 45 Hispanic/Latino or African American (HI/AA) and 84 non-Hispanic White (non-HW), are included. A 10-point index for rating severity (CD-severity) incorporated degree of hypercortisolemia, glucose tolerance, hypertension, anthropomorphic measurements, disease duration, and tumor characteristics...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419086/low-birth-weight-is-associated-with-impaired-murine-kidney-development-and-function
#9
Christina Barnett, Oluwadara Nnoli, Wasan Abdulmahdi, Lauren Nesi, Michael Shen, Joseph A Zullo, David L Payne, Tala Azar, Parth Dwivedi, Kunzah Syed, Jonathan Gromis, Mark Lipphardt, Edson Jules, Eric L Maranda, Amy Patel, May M Rabadi, Brian B Ratliff
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) neonates have impaired kidney development that leaves them susceptible to kidney disease and hypertension during adulthood. The study here identifies events that blunt nephrogenesis and kidney development in the murine LBW neonate. METHODS: We examined survival, kidney development, GFR, gene expression, and cyto-/chemokines in the LBW offspring of malnourished (caloric and protein restricted) pregnant mice. RESULTS: Malnourished pregnant mothers gave birth to LBW neonates that had 40% reduced body weight and 54% decreased survival...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417852/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-nephro-urology-an-overview
#10
REVIEW
Iosif Mendichovszky, Bernardita Troncoso Solar, Naima Smeulders, Marina Easty, Lorenzo Biassoni
In the context of ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis, the vast majority of children with a dilated renal pelvis do not need any surgical treatment, as the dilatation resolves spontaneously with time. Slow drainage demonstrated at Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renography does not necessarily mean obstruction. Obstruction is defined as resistance to urinary outflow with urinary stasis at the level of the pelvic-ureteric junction (PUJ) which, if left untreated, will damage the kidney. Unfortunately this definition is retrospective and not clinically helpful...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417430/the-emergence-of-kidney-stone-disease-during-childhood-impact-on-adults
#11
REVIEW
Jeremy R Bonzo, Gregory E Tasian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this chapter is to review the recent epidemiologic trends of kidney stone disease and discuss the impact of the increasing incidence of nephrolithiasis among children on adults with respect to extra-renal manifestations, surgical management, and secondary prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Among pediatric patients, kidney stone disease has been increasing at a rate of approximately 5-10% annually. Kidney stone disease has been associated with increased risks of coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and decreased bone mineral density, which is concerning for patients diagnosed at a young age...
June 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416430/-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-critically-ill-neonates-and-children
#12
J Rambaud, J Guilbert, I Guellec, S Jean, A Durandy, M Demoulin, A Amblard, R Carbajal, P-L Leger
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is used as a last resort during neonatal and pediatric resuscitation in case of refractory circulatory or respiratory failure under maximum conventional therapies. Different types of ECMO can be used depending on the initial failure. The main indications for ECMO are refractory respiratory failure (acute respiratory distress syndrome, status asthmaticus, severe pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, pulmonary hypertension) and refractory circulatory failure (cardiogenic shock, septic shock, refractory cardiac arrest)...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416004/clinical-study-of-children-with-takayasu-arteritis-a-retrospective-study-from-a-single-center-in-china
#13
Ye Feng, Xuemei Tang, Mingyue Liu, Juan Zhou, Xiaodong Zhao, Qiu Li
BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis of childhood Takayasu arteritis (TA) is common due to its atypical symptoms. The objective of the present study was to summarize the clinical features of childhood TA to raise awareness and improve management. METHODS: Eleven children diagnosed with TA at our hospital were enrolled. Clinical information, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome were then examined retrospectively. The Pediatric Vasculitis Activity Score (PVAS) and the Indian Takayasu Clinical Activity Score (ITAS2010) were used to assess disease activity...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411317/race-obesity-and-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-treatment-response-in-children-with-primary-hypertension
#14
Andrew M South, Lester Arguelles, Gal Finer, Craig B Langman
BACKGROUND: Pediatric primary hypertension (HTN) is increasingly recognized, but the effect of patient characteristics such as obesity and race on treatment outcomes is not well described. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may also contribute to HTN. We hypothesized patient parameters of these factors, including baseline RAAS, influence blood pressure (BP) response to pharmacological treatment in HTN. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort of 102 consecutive patients with HTN...
April 14, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406835/pediatric-portal-hypertension-a-review-for-primary-care
#15
Clarissa Barbon Vogel
Pediatric portal hypertension management is a team approach between the patient, the patient's family, the primary caregiver, and specialty providers. Evidence-based practice guidelines have not been established in pediatrics. This article serves as a review for the primary care NP in the management of pediatric portal hypertension, discussing the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of pediatric portal hypertension, diagnostic tests, and treatment and management options.
May 12, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406083/ambulatory-arterial-stiffness-index-blood-pressure-variability-and-nocturnal-blood-pressure-dip-in-children-with-iga-and-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-nephropathy%C3%A2
#16
Piotr Skrzypczyk, Małgorzata Mizerska-Wasiak, Barbara Jerszow, Paweł Ruszczykowski, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
AIM: Evaluation of mean blood pressure values, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), pulse pressure (PP), blood pressure variability (BPV), and circadian blood pressure rhythm using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in children with IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein nephropathy (IgAN/HSN). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 48 children (29 with IgAN, 19 with HSN) aged 14.04 ± 3.76 years, we evaluated retrospectively 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP (24hSBP, 24hDBP), AASI, PP, systolic and diastolic BPV, and nocturnal BP dip by ABPM, body mass index (BMI) Z-score, medications, and biochemical parameters...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390159/the-natural-history-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-in-781-children-a-multicenter-international-collaboration
#17
Mark R Deneau, Wael El-Matary, Pamela L Valentino, Reham Abdou, Khaled Alqoaer, Mansi Amin, Achiya Z Amir, Marcus Auth, Fateh Bazerbachi, Annemarie Broderick, Albert Chan, Jillian Cotter, Sylvia Doan, Mounif El-Youssef, Federica Ferrari, Katryn N Furuya, Madeleine Gottrand, Frederic Gottrand, Nitika Gupta, Matjaz Homan, M K Jensen, Binita M Kamath, Kyung Mo Kim, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Anastasia Konidari, Bart Koot, Raffaele Iorio, Oren Ledder, Cara Mack, Mercedes Martinez, Tamir Miloh, Parvathi Mohan, Niamh O'Cathain, Alexandra Papadopoulou, Amanda Ricciuto, Lawrence Saubermann, Pushpa Sathya, Eyal Shteyer, Vratislav Smolka, Atushi Tanaka, Raghu Varier, Veena Venkat, Bernadette Vitola, Miriam B Vos, Marek Woynarowski, Jason Yap
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in children. We aimed to describe the disease characteristics and long-term outcomes of pediatric PSC. METHODS: We retrospectively collected all pediatric PSC cases from 36 participating institutions and conducted a survival analysis from the date of PSC diagnosis to dates of diagnosis of portal hypertensive or biliary complications, cholangiocarcinoma, liver transplantation, or death...
April 8, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383546/mosaic-trisomy-16-what-are-the-obstetric-and-long-term-childhood-outcomes
#18
Teresa N Sparks, Kao Thao, Mary E Norton
PURPOSE: To evaluate obstetric and neonatal outcomes as well as long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes and quality of life among prenatally detected cases of mosaic trisomy (MT16) and confined placental mosaicism (CPM) for trisomy 16. METHODS: We recruited participants for this cross-sectional study through an international registry of families with children diagnosed with MT16 or CPM. Parents were interviewed about expectations based on prenatal counseling as well as about actual perinatal outcomes, congenital anomalies, medical conditions, and school progress...
April 6, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382567/evaluating-risk-factors-for-chronic-kidney-disease-in-pediatric-patients-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#19
Jeffrey D Lebensburger, Gary R Cutter, Thomas H Howard, Paul Muntner, Daniel I Feig
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have an increased prevalence of nephropathy and mortality from chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We evaluated the association of hyperuricemia and nocturnal hypertension with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using cystatin-C in patients aged 10-21 years with the HbSS or HbSB0 form of the disease during a non-acute clinic visit. eGFR and uric acid measurements were obtained in 83 and 81 participants, respectively, and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed in 44 participants...
April 5, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382434/evaluation-of-the-central-sleep-apnea-in-asymptomatic-children-with-chiari-1-malformation-an-open-question
#20
Marco Zaffanello, Francesco Sala, Luca Sacchetto, Emma Gasperi, Giorgio Piacentini
INTRODUCTION: Type I is the most common Chiari malformation in children. In this condition, the lower part of the cerebellum, but not the brain stem, extends into the foramen magnum at the base of the skull leading to intermittent brain hypertension. In symptomatic children, central sleep apneas are shown in polysomnography evaluation. A central apnea index of 1/h or more is considered abnormal, but >5/h is clearly considered pathological. Therefore, central sleep apnea evaluation in pediatric age may show great age-related variability...
April 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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